Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, 14th Duke of Hamilton
|Air Commodore His Grace|
The Duke of Hamilton
KT GCVO AFC PC DL FRCSE FRGS
|Member of Parliament|
for East Renfrewshire
28 November 1930 – 16 March 1940
|Preceded by||Alexander Munro MacRobert|
|Succeeded by||Sir Guy Lloyd|
3 February 1903|
30 March 1973 (aged 70)|
Air Force Cross|
Mentioned in Despatches
|Service/branch||Royal Air Force|
|Years of service||
|Commands||No. 602 Squadron RAF, Air Training Corps|
Air Commodore Douglas Douglas-Hamilton, 14th Duke of Hamilton and 11th Duke of Brandon KT GCVO AFC PC DL FRCSE FRGS (3 February 1903 – 30 March 1973) was a Scottish nobleman and pioneering aviator who, together with D.F. McIntyre, was the first man to fly over Mount Everest.
Hamilton was born in Pimlico, London. He was the son of Alfred, 13th Duke of Hamilton and his wife Nina (née Poore). He was educated at Eton and Balliol College, Oxford, where he gained a Blue in boxing, this in turn, led to his winning of the Scottish Amateur Middleweight title. He also represented the university in rowing.
Styled Marquess of Douglas and Clydesdale before he succeeded his father as the Duke of Hamilton and Keeper of Holyroodhouse in 1940, he had been a prominent Unionist Member of Parliament (MP) for East Renfrewshire from 1930 until he succeeded to his titles. He was appointed the honorary colonel of the 7th battalion of the Highland Light Infantry in July 1931. In 1935 in order to experience the life of the employees in his family's mines, he joined a Trades Union and worked for a time at the coal face, as plain 'Mr. Hamilton'.
Air force career and flight over Everest
He became interested in flying at an early age and served in the Royal Auxiliary Air Force (RAuxAF). He was commissioned in the 602 (City of Glasgow) Squadron as a pilot officer on 4 July 1927, with subsequent and rapid promotions to flying officer (4 January 1929) and to flight lieutenant (15 January 1930). On 6 May 1931, aged only 28, the Marquess became the youngest squadron leader of his day, commanding the squadron from 1931 to 1936.
He was involved in one of the more ambitious aeronautical flights of the early twentieth century, sponsored by Lucy, Lady Houston, the Houston-Mount Everest Flight Expedition. Flying in formation higher than any before; Lord Clydesdale, as he was known, was chief pilot on the first flight over Mount Everest in 1933, flying a Westland PV-3 biplane. The extremity endured by the crews of these aeroplanes helped demonstrate the need for pressurised cabins in modern aircraft. It was also the first detailed and scientific survey of the Himalaya region. Indirectly, the expedition resulted in the formation of Scottish Aviation Ltd (now part of BAE Systems). A film, Wings over Everest, by Ivor Montagu and Geoffrey Barkas, was made of the record-setting flight.
In recognition of his role in the expedition, he was decorated with the Air Force Cross in the 1935 New Year Honours. As a pioneering early aviator, he was regarded in much the same heroic way as the astronauts a generation later.
On 2 September 1936, he relinquished command of his squadron, receiving a promotion to wing commander.
World War II, the Hess Affair, and after
Hamilton had attended the 1936 Summer Olympics in Berlin. A keen sportsman, he had flown his own plane to Germany where he was a member of a multi-party parliamentary group which had been invited to Berlin to observe the games by the German government.
In Berlin, he attended numerous functions, including a grand dinner for the British contingent hosted by Joachim von Ribbentrop, the German ambassador to Britain and later Foreign Minister, where he was introduced to Hitler and other leading members of the National Socialist government. Hamilton had previously met Ribbentrop in London as the Ambassador to the Court of St. James's. Hamilton was invited by Hermann Göring to inspect the newly reinstated Luftwaffe, for his professional interest in aviation. It has been suggested that Hamilton either through his own initiative or under instruction indulged in some minor espionage during these occasions. He claimed not to have met the deputy Führer Rudolf Hess while in Germany, although did attend a dinner party in Berlin also attended by the deputy Führer. As both were highly competent pilots with an avid interest in aviation there is speculation as to the reliability of this assertion.
Whilst in Germany Hamilton had met the Geopolitician Albrecht Haushofer, son of the distinguished Geopolitical academic Professor Karl Haushofer. The younger Haushofer had studied alongside Hess at Munich University. On Hess's rise to prominence within the Nazi Party, Haushofer became his advisor on foreign affairs. There is speculation that deputy Führer Rudolf Hess communicated with the Duke via Haushofer after the outbreak of war.
In 1940, upon his father's death, Hamilton succeeded to the Dukedom. As an RAF officer, he was also responsible for the aerial defence of his sector of Southern Scotland and Northern England and was Mentioned in Dispatches for his war service. At the outbreak of World War II, he resumed his commission with the honorary rank of Air Commodore. He was responsible for air defence in Scotland and took command of the Air Training Corps. He was promoted to temporary group captain on 1 June 1941.
On 10 May 1941, Hess parachuted into Scotland; the reason for his doing so was ostensibly to meet with the Duke and plot a secret peace treaty that would lead to the supremacy of Germany within Europe and the reinforcement of the British Empire without.
Hess crash landed at Floors Farm near Eaglesham at 10:34pm and gave his name as "Alfred Horn", a friend of the Duke of Hamilton; Hess however, was taken to hospital for injuries sustained during his descent. Hamilton was informed of the prisoner and visited him whereupon he revealed his true identity. Hamilton immediately contacted Winston Churchill and informed him of the Deputy Führer's arrival. Hess was imprisoned by the British authorities until the end of the war and the subsequent Nuremberg trials.
Hamilton came under pressure from the press to explain his role in the affair, with suspicions being raised that he might have been in prior contact with Hess. Questions were asked in the House of Commons. On 22 May, Sir Archibald Sinclair, the Secretary of State for Air, gave this statement to the House:
When deputy Führer Hess came down with his aeroplane in Scotland on 10 May, he gave a false name and asked to see the Duke of Hamilton. The Duke, being apprised by the authorities, visited the German prisoner in hospital. Hess then revealed for the first time his true identity, saying that he had seen the Duke when he was at the Olympic games at Berlin in 1936. The Duke did not recognise the Deputy Führer. He had however, visited Germany for the Olympic games in 1936, and during that time had attended more than one large public function at which German ministers were present. It is, therefore, quite possible that the deputy Führer may have seen him on one such occasion. As soon as the interview was over, Wing Commander the Duke of Hamilton flew to England and gave a full report of what had passed to the Prime Minister, who sent for him. Contrary to reports which have appeared in some newspapers, the Duke has never been in correspondence with the Deputy Führer. None of the Duke's three brothers, who are, like him, serving in the Royal Air Force has either met Hess or has had correspondence with him. It will be seen that the conduct of the Duke of Hamilton has been in every respect honourable and proper.
Sir Harry Lauder
At the end of February 1950, the Duke led the funeral procession, on foot, through Hamilton for his friend Sir Harry Lauder, said to be the largest funeral ever held in the town, and read the Lesson during the service, describing Lauder as "a Great Scot".
Offices and positions held
He served as Chancellor of the University of St Andrews from 1948 to 1973. He was admitted to the Order of the Thistle in 1951. He was also a member of the Royal Company of Archers, the Sovereign's bodyguard for Scotland.
He served as Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland four times, in 1953, 1954, 1955 and 1958.
The Duke served as President of the Hamilton Academy FP (former pupils) Rugby Club, 1946–1955.
Business positions held
- Director of Scottish Aviation Ltd
- Deputy governor of the British Linen Bank
- President of Securicor (Scotland) Ltd
- President of the Building Societies Association
- Chairman of Nationwide Building Society (Scotland)
- Chairman of Norwich Union Life and Fire Insurance Society (Scotland)
The Pilots' book of Everest - with Flight Lieutenant D.F. McIntyre. Hodge, London, 1936.
Marriage and issue
- Angus Douglas-Hamilton, 15th Duke of Hamilton (born 13 September 1938, died 5 June 2010); married with issue
- Lord James Alexander Douglas-Hamilton, Baron Selkirk of Douglas (born 31 July 1942); married with issue
- Lord Hugh Malcolm Douglas-Hamilton (born 22 August 1946, died 21 June 1995)
- Lord Patrick George Douglas-Hamilton (born 2 August 1950)
- Lord David Stephen Douglas-Hamilton (born 26 December 1952)
- George Nigel Douglas-Hamilton, 10th Earl of Selkirk (1906 – 1994)
- Lord Malcolm Douglas-Hamilton (1909 – 1964)
- Lord David Douglas-Hamilton (1912 – 1944)
- The London Gazette: . 14 July 1931. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- The London Gazette: . 19 July 1927. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- The London Gazette: . 21 May 1929. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- The London Gazette: . 11 February 1930. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- The London Gazette: . 9 June 1931. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- The London Gazette: . 28 December 1934. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- The London Gazette: . 24 November 1936. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- The London Gazette: . 10 June 1941. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- British National Archives: AIR 28/40 RAF Station Ayr: Report of Hess's Me 110 at 2234 hrs as hostile raid 42J. Crashed near Eaglesham and the pilot was captured. He gave his name as 'Alfred Horn', a friend of the Duke of Hamilton. He was removed to a Home Guard HQ at Giffnock and later to Maryhill Barracks, Glasgow. He was later identified as Hess
- Shires William L.; The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, II, New York, 1960
- Hansard, 22 May 1941
- The Peerage, entry for 14th Duke of Hamilton
- "Lord Hugh Douglas-Hamilton dies at 48 after a headline-making life. Heart attack kills caring aristocrat". The Herald. 22 June 1995.
- Who's Who 1973. A. & C. Black, London, 1973.
- Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by the Duke of Hamilton
- Douglas, 14th Duke of Hamilton and his three brothers
|Parliament of the United Kingdom|
|Member of Parliament for Renfrewshire East
| Succeeded by|
The Duke of Buccleuch and Queensberry
| Succeeded by|
The Duke of Westminster
The Earl Baldwin of Bewdley
|Chancellor of the University of St Andrews
| Succeeded by|
The Lord Ballantrae
|Peerage of Scotland|
|Duke of Hamilton
| Succeeded by|
|Peerage of Great Britain|
|Duke of Brandon
| Succeeded by|