|Region||Peloponnese, Crete, Rhodes|
|Era||c. 800–100 BC; evolved into the Tsakonian language|
Doric or Dorian was an Ancient Greek dialect. Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern Peloponnese, as well as in Sicily, Epirus, Macedonia, Southern Italy, Crete, Rhodes, some islands in the southern Aegean Sea and some cities on the south east coast of Anatolia. Together with Northwest Greek, it forms the "Western group" of classical Greek dialects. By Hellenistic times, under the Achaean League, an Achaean-Doric koiné language appeared, exhibiting many peculiarities common to all Doric dialects, which delayed the spread of the Attic-based Koine Greek to the Peloponnese until the second century BC.
It is widely accepted that Doric originated in the mountains of Epirus and Macedonia, northwestern Greece, the original seat of the Dorians. It was expanded to all other regions during the Dorian invasion (c. 1150 BC) and the colonisations that followed. The presence of a Doric state (Doris) in central Greece, north of the Gulf of Corinth, led to the theory that Doric had originated in northwest Greece or maybe beyond in the Balkans. The dialect's distribution towards the north extends to the Megarian colony of Byzantium and the Corinthian colonies of Potidaea, Epidamnos, Apollonia and Ambracia; there, it further added words to what would become the Albanian language, probably via traders from a now-extinct Illyrian intermediary. Local epigraphical evidence is restricted to the decrees of the Epirote League and the Pella curse tablet (both in the early fourth century BC), as well to the Doric eponym Machatas first attested in Macedonia (early 5th century BC).
Where the Doric dialect group fits in the overall classification of ancient Greek dialects depends to some extent on the classification. Several views are stated under Greek dialects. The prevalent theme of most views listed there is that Doric is a subgroup of West Greek. Some use the terms Northern Greek or Northwest Greek instead. The geographic distinction is only verbal and ostensibly is misnamed: all of Doric was spoken south of "Southern Greek" or "Southeastern Greek."
Be that as it may, "Northern Greek" is based on a presumption that Dorians came from the north and on the fact that Doric is closely related to Northwest Greek. When the distinction began is not known. All the "northerners" might have spoken one dialect at the time of the Dorian invasion; certainly, Doric could only have further differentiated into its classical dialects when the Dorians were in place in the south. Thus West Greek is the most accurate name for the classical dialects.
Tsakonian, a descendant of Laconian Doric (Spartan), is still spoken on the southern Argolid coast of the Peloponnese, in the modern prefectures of Arcadia and Laconia. Today it is a source of considerable interest to linguists, and an endangered dialect.
The dialects of the Doric Group are as follows:
Laconian is attested in inscriptions on pottery and stone from the seventh century BC. A dedication to Helen dates from the second quarter of the seventh century. Tarentum was founded in 706 and its founders must already have spoken Laconic.
Many documents from the state of Sparta survive, whose citizens called themselves Lacedaemonians after the name of the valley in which they lived. Homer calls it "hollow Lacedaemon", though he refers to a pre-Dorian period. The seventh century Spartan poet, Alcman, used a dialect that some consider to be predominantly Laconian. Philoxenus of Alexandria wrote a treatise On the Laconian dialect.
Argolic was spoken in the thickly settled northeast Peloponnese at, for example, Argos, Mycenae, Hermione, Troezen, Epidaurus, and as close to Athens as the island of Aegina. As Mycenaean Greek had been spoken in this dialect region in the Bronze Age, it is clear that the Dorians overran it but were unable to take Attica. The Dorians went on from Argos to Crete and Rhodes.
Ample inscriptional material of a legal, political and religious content exists from at least the sixth century BC.
Corinthian was spoken first in the isthmus region between the Peloponnesus and mainland Greece; that is, the Isthmus of Corinth. The cities and states of the Corinthian dialect region were Corinth, Sicyon, Archaies Kleones, Phlius, the colonies of Corinth in western Greece: Corcyra, Leucas, Anactorium, Ambracia and others, the colonies in and around Italy: Syracuse, Sicily and Ancona, and the colonies of Corcyra: Dyrrachium, and Apollonia. The earliest inscriptions at Corinth date from the early sixth century BC. They use a Corinthian epichoric alphabet. (See under Attic Greek.)
Corinth contradicts the prejudice that Dorians were rustic militarists, as some consider the speakers of Laconian to be. Positioned on an international trade route, Corinth played a leading part in the re-civilizing of Greece after the centuries of disorder and isolation following the collapse of Mycenaean Greece.
The Northwest Greek group is closely related to the Doric proper, while sometimes there is no distinction between the Doric and the Northwest Greek. Whether it is to be considered a part of the Doric Group or the latter a part of it or the two subgroups of West Greek: the dialects and their grouping remain the same. West Thessalian and Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence. The Northwest Greek dialects differ from the Doric Group dialects in the below features:
- Dative plural of the third declension in -οις (-ois) (instead of -σι (-si)): Ἀκαρνάνοις ἱππέοις Akarnanois hippeois for Ἀκαρνᾶσιν ἱππεῦσιν Akarnasin hippeusin (to the Acarnanian knights).
- ἐν (en) + accusative (instead of εἰς (eis)): en Naupakton (into Naupactus).
- -στ (-st) for -σθ (-sth): γενέσται genestai for genesthai (to become), μίστωμα mistôma for misthôma (payment for hiring).
- ar for er: amara /Dor. amera/Att. hêmera (day), Elean wargon for Doric wergon and Attic ergon (work)
- Dative singular in -oi instead of -ôi: τοῖ Ἀσκλαπιοῖ, Doric τῶι Ἀσκλαπιῶι, Attic Ἀσκληπιῶι (to Asclepius)
- Middle participle in -eimenos instead of -oumenos
The dialects are as follows:
- Ozolian Locris, along the northwest coast of the Gulf of Corinth around Amfissa (earliest c. 500 BC)
- Opuntian Locris, on the coast of mainland Greece opposite northwest Euboea, around Opus
Northwest Greek Koiné
- hybrid dialect of Attic and certain Northwest Greek and Doric features
- chiefly associated with the Aetolian Confederacy and dates to the second and third centuries BC.
Calydon sanctuary (earliest c. 600-575 BC) - Aetolian League 300-262 BC
- Dodona oracle, firstly under control of Thesprotians (earliest c. 550-500 BC) - Epirote League (earliest c. 370BC)
A school of thought maintains that the Ancient Macedonian language may have been a Greek dialect, possibly of the Northwestern group in particular, although would classify Macedonian as a separate marginal or "deviant" item on its own.
- Doric gā mātēr ~ Attic gē mētēr "earth mother"
Compensatory lengthening of e and o
- Severe Doric -ō ~ Attic -ou (second-declension genitive singular)
- -ōs ~ -ous (second-declension accusative plural)
- -ēn ~ -ein (present, second aorist infinitive active)
Contraction of a and e
Contraction: Proto-Greek ae → Doric ē (eta) ~ Attic ā.
Proto-Greek eo, ea → some Doric dialects' io, ia.
Proto-Greek short a → Doric short a ~ Attic e in certain words.
- Doric hiaros, Artamis ~ Attic hieros "holy", Artemis
Proto-Greek -ti is retained (assibilated to -si in Attic).
- Doric phāti ~ Attic phēsi "he says" (3rd sing. pres. of athematic verb)
- legonti ~ legousi "they say" (3rd pl. pres. of thematic verb)
- wīkati ~ eikosi "twenty"
- triākatioi ~ triākosioi "three hundred"
Proto-Greek -ss- between vowels is retained (shortened to -s- in Attic).
- Doric messos ~ Attic mesos "middle"
Initial w (ϝ) is preserved in earlier Doric (lost in Attic).
- Doric woikos ~ Attic oikos "house" (compare Latin vīcus "village")
Literary texts in Doric and inscriptions from the Hellenistic age have no digamma.
The aorist and future of verbs in -izō, -azō has x (versus Attic/Koine s).
- Doric agōnixato ~ Attic agōnisato "he contended"
Similarly k before suffixes beginning with t.
Numeral tetores ~ Attic tettares, Ionic tesseres "four".
Ordinal prātos ~ Attic–Ionic prōtos "first".
Demonstrative pronoun tēnos "this" ~ Attic–Ionic (e)keinos
t for h (from Proto-Indo-European s) in article and demonstrative pronoun.
- Doric toi, tai; toutoi, tautai
- ~ Attic-Ionic hoi, hai; houtoi, hautai.
Third person plural, athematic or root aorist -n ~ Attic -san.
- Doric edon ~ Attic–Ionic edosan
First person plural active -mes ~ Attic–Ionic -men.
Future -se-ō ~ Attic -s-ō.
- prāxētai (prāk-se-etai) ~ Attic–Ionic prāxetai
Modal particle ka ~ Attic–Ionic an.
- Doric ai ka, ai de ka, ai tis ka ~ ean, ean de, ean tis
Temporal adverbs in -ka ~ Attic–Ionic -te.
- hoka, toka
Locative adverbs in -ei ~ Attic/Koine -ou.
- teide, pei.
- αἰγάδες aigades (Attic αἶγες aiges) "goats"
- αἶγες aiges (Attic κύματα kymata) "waves"
- ἁλία halia (Attic ἐκκλησία ekklēsia) "assembly" (Cf. Heliaia)
- βρύκαιναι brykainai (Attic ἱέρειαι hiereiai) "priestesses"
- βρυκετός bryketos (Attic βρυγμός brygmos, βρυκηθμός brykēthmos) "chewing, grinding, gnashing with the teeth"
- δαμιοργοί damiorgoi (Attic ἄρχοντες archontes) "high officials". Cf. Attic δημιουργός dēmiourgos "public worker for the people (dēmos), craftsman, creator"; Hesychius δαμιουργοί· αἱ πόρναι "prostitutes". Zamiourgoi Elean.
- Ἐλωός Elôos Hephaestus Ἥφαιστος παρὰ Δωριεῦσιν
- κάρρων karrōn (Attic κρείττων kreittōn) "stronger" (Ionic kreissōn, Cretan kartōn )
- κορύγης korygēs (Attic κῆρυξ kēryx) "herald, messenger" (Aeolic karoux)
- λαιός laios (Homeric, Attic and Modern Greek ἀριστερός aristeros) "left".Cretan: λαία laia, Attic aspis shield, Hesych. λαῖφα laipha λαίβα laiba, because the shield was held with the left hand. Cf.Latin:laevus
- λαία laia (Attic, Modern Greek λεία leia) "prey"
- λέω (λείω) le(i)ō (Attic ἐθέλω ethelō) "will"
- οἴνωτρος oinōtros "vine pole" (: Greek οἶνος oinos "wine"). Cf. Oenotrus
- μογίοντι mogionti (Ionic πυρέσσουσι pyressousi) "they are on fire, have fever" (= Attic μογοῦσι mogousi "they suffer, take pains to")
- μυρμηδόνες myrmēdônes (Attic μύρμηκες myrmēkes) "ants". Cf. Myrmidons
- ὄπτιλλος optillos or optilos 'eye' (Attic ophthalmos) (Latin oculus) (Attic optikos of sight, Optics)
- πάομαι paomai (Attic κτάομαι ktaomai) "acquire"
- ῥαπιδοποιός rhapidopoios poet, broiderer, pattern-weaver, boot-maker (rhapis needle for Attic rhaphis)
- σκανά skana (Attic skênê) tent,stage, scene) (Homeric klisiê) (Doric skanama encampment)
- τανθαλύζειν tanthalyzein (Attic τρέμειν tremein) "to tremble"
- τύνη tunē or tounē 'you nominative' (Attic sy) dative τέειν teein (Attic σοί soi)
- χανάκτιον chanaktion (Attic μωρόν mōron)(chan goose)
- Βαλλακράδες Ballacrades title of Argive athletes on a feast-day (Cf.achras wild pear-tree)
- Δαυλὶς Daulis mimic festival at Argos (acc. Pausanias 10.4.9 daulis means thicket) (Hes.daulon fire log)
- δροόν droon strong (Attic ischyron,dynaton)
- κέστερ kester youngman (Attic neanias)
- κυλλάραβις kyllarabis discus and gymnasium at Argos
- σεμαλία semalia ragged, tattered garments Attic rhakē, cf. himatia clothes)
- ὤβεα ôbea eggs (Attic ὠά ôa )
- ἀγέλα agela "group of boys in the Cretan agōgē". Cf. Homeric Greek ἀγέλη agelē "herd" (Cretan apagelos not yet received in agelê,boy under 17)
- ἀδνός adnos holy, pure (Attic ἁγνός hagnos) (Ariadne)
- ἀϝτὸς aWtos (Attic autos) Hsch. aus αὐς - αὐτός. Κρῆτες καὶ Λάκωνες
- ἄκαρα akaralegs (Attic skelê)
- ἁμάκις hamakis once (Attic hapax)
- ἄργετος argetos juniper,cedar (Attic arkeuthos)
- αὐκά auka power (Attic alkê)
- ἀφραττίας aphrattias strong
- βαλικιώται balikiôtai Koine synepheboi (Attic hêlikiotai 'age-peers' of the same age hêlikia)
- βριτύ britu sweet (Attic glyku)
- δαμιόω damioô, Cretan and Boeotian. for Attic zêmioô to damage,punish,harm
- δαμπόν dampon first milk curdled by heating over embers (Attic puriephthon,puriatê)
- δῶλα dôla ears (Attic ôta) (Tarentine ata)
- Ϝέλχανος Welchanos for Cretan Zeus and Welchanios, Belchanios, Gelchanos (Elchanios Cnossian month)
- ϝεργάδδομαι wergaddomai I work (Attic ergazomai)
- ϝῆμα Wêma garment (Attic heima) (Aeolic emma) (Koine (h)immation)(Cf.Attic amphi-ennumi I dress, amph-iesis clothing)
- ἰβῆν ibên wine (Dialectal Ϝοἶνος Woînos Attic oinos) (accusative ἰβῆνα ibêna)
- ἴττον itton one (Attic hen ἕν)
- καρανώ karanô goat
- ϟόσμος kosmos and kormos archontes in Crete, body of kosmoi (Attic κόσμος order,ornament, honour,world - kormos trunk of a tree)
- κύφερον, κυφή kypheron , kuphê head (Attic kephalê)
- λάκος lakos rag,tattered garment (Attic rhakos) (Aeolic brakos long robe, lacks the sense 'ragged')
- μαλκενίς malkenis (Attic parthenos) Hsch: malakinnês.
- ὄθρυν othrun mountain (Attic oros) (Cf.Othrys)
- ῥυστόν rhyston spear
- σεῖφα seipha darkness (Attic zophos,skotia) (Aeolic dnophos)
- σπεῦσδος speusdos title of Cretan officer (Cf.speudô speus- rush)
- τάγανα tagana (Attic tauta) these things
- τίρος tiros summer (Homeric,Attic theros)
- τρέ tre you, accusative ( Attic se )
- ἀβήρ abêr storeroom οἴκημα στοὰς ἔχον, ταμεῖον Λάκωνες
- ἀβώρ abôr dawn (Attic ἠώς êôs) (Latin aurora)
- ἄδδα adda need,deficiency (Attic endeia) Aristophanes of Byzantium(fr. 33)
- ἀδδαυόν addauon dry (i.e. azauon) or addanon (Attic xêron)
- αἴκουδα aikouda (Attic aischunē) αἰσχύνη. Λάκωνες
- αἵματία haimatia blood-broth, Spartan Melas Zomos Black soup) (haima haimatos blood)
- ἀΐτας aïtas (Attic ἐρώμενος erōmenos) "beloved boy (in a pederastic relationship)"
- ἀκκόρ akkor tube,bag (Attic askos)
- ἀκχαλίβαρ akchalibar bed (Attic skimpous)(Koine krabbatos)
- ἀμβροτίξας ambrotixas having begun, past participle(amphi or ana..+ ?) (Attic aparxamenos, aparchomai) (Doric -ixas for Attic -isas)
- ἀμπέσσαι ampesai (Attic amphiesai) to dress
- ἀπαβοίδωρ apaboidôr out of tune (Attic ekmelôs) (Cf.Homeric singer Aoidos) / emmelôs,aboidôr in tune
- Ἀπέλλα apella (Attic ἐκκλησία ekklēsia) "assembly in Sparta" (verb apellazein)
- ἀρβυλίς arbylis (Attic ἀρύβαλλος aryballos) (Hesychius: ἀρβυλίδα λήκυθον. Λάκωνες)
- ἄττασι attasi wake up,get up (Attic anastêthi)
- βάβαλον babalon imperative of cry aloud, shout (Attic kraugason)
- βάγαρον bagaron (Attic χλιαρόν chliaron 'warm') (Cf. Attic φώγω phōgō 'roast') (Laconian word)
- βαφά bapha broth (Attic zômos) (Attic βαφή baphê dipping of red-hot iron in water (Koine and Modern Greek βαφή vafi dyeing)
- βείκατι beikati twenty (Attic εἴκοσι eikosi)
- βέλα bela sun and dawn Laconian (Attic helios Cretan abelios)
- βερνώμεθα bernômetha Attic klêrôsômetha we will cast or obtain by lot (inf. berreai) (Cf.Attic meiresthai receive portion, Doric bebramena for heimarmenê, allotted by Moirai)
- βέσκερος beskeros bread (Attic artos)
- βήλημα bêlêma hindrance, river dam (Laconian)
- βηρίχαλκον bêrichalkon fennel (Attic marathos) (chalkos bronze)
- βίβασις bibasis Spartan dance for boys and girls
- βίδυοι bidyoi bideoi, bidiaioi also "officers in charge of the ephebes at Sparta"
- βίὡρ biôr almost,maybe (Attic ἴσως isôs, σχεδόν schedon) wihôr
- βλαγίς blagis spot (Attic kêlis)
- βοῦα boua "group of boys in the Spartan agōgē"
- βο(υ)αγός bo(u)agos "leader of a boua at Sparta"
- βυλλίχης bullichês Laconian dancer (Attic orchêstês)
- βώνημα bônêma speech (Homeric,Ionic eirêma eireo) (Cf.Attic phônêma sound, speech)
- γαβεργόρ gabergor labourer (ga earth wergon work) (Cf.geôrgos farmer)
- γαιάδας gaiadas citizens,people (Attic dêmos)
- γονάρ gonar mother Laconian (gonades children Eur. Med. 717)
- δαβελός dabelos torch (Attic dalos)(Syracusan daelos, dawelos)(Modern Greek davlos) (Laconian δαβῇ dabêi (Attic kauthêi) it should be burnt)
- δίζα diza goat (Attic aix) and Hera aigophagos Goat-eater in Sparta
- εἴρην eirēn (Attic ἔφηβος ephēbos) "Spartan youth who has completed his 12th year"
- εἰσπνήλας eispnēlas (Attic ἐραστής erastēs) one who inspires love, a lover (Attic eispneô inhale,breathe)
- ἐξωβάδια exôbadia (Attic enôtia ; ôta ears)
- ἔφοροι ephoroi (Attic ἔφοροι ἄρχοντες archontes) "high officials at Sparta". Cf. Attic ἔφορος ephoros "overseer, guardian"
- Θοράτης Thoratês Apollon thoraios containing the semen, god of growth and increase
- θρῶναξ thrônax drone (Attic kêphên)
- κάφα kapha washing,bathing-tub (Attic loutêr) (Cf.skaphê basin,bowl)
- κελοῖα keloia (kelya, kelea also) "contest for boys and youths at Sparta"
- κίρα kirafox (Attic alôpêx) (Hsch kiraphos).
- μεσόδμα mesodma , messodoma woman and ἀνθρωπώ anthrôpô (Attic gunê)
- μυρταλίς myrtalis Butcher's broom (Attic oxumursinê) (Myrtale real name of Olympias)
- πάσορ pasor passion (Attic pathos)
- πόρ por leg,foot (Attic pous)
- πούρδαιν pourdain restaurant (Koine mageirion) (Cf.purdalon, purodansion (from pyr fire hence pyre)
- σαλαβάρ salabar cook (Common Doric/Attic mageiros)
- σίκα sika 'pig' (Attic hus) and grôna female pig.
- σιρία siria safeness (Attic asphaleia)
- ψιθωμίας psithômias ill,sick (Attic asthenês) Λάκωνες τὸν ἀσθενῆ
- ψιλάκερ psilaker first dancer
- ὠβά ôba (Attic κώμη kōmē) "village; one of five quarters of the city of Sparta"
- ἀστύξενοι astyxenoi Metics, Tarentine
- βάννας bannas king basileus, wanax, anax
- βειλαρμοσταὶ beilarmostai cavalry officers Tarentine (Attic ilarchai) (ilē, squadron + Laconian harmost-)
- δόστορε dostore 'you make' Tarentine (Attic ποιεῖτε)
- Θαύλια Thaulia "festival of Tarentum", θαυλακίζειν thaulakizein 'to demand sth with uproar' Tarentine, θαυλίζειν thaulizein "to celebrate like Dorians", Θαῦλος Thaulos "Macedonian Ares", Thessalian Ζεὺς Θαύλιος Zeus Thaulios, Athenian Ζεὺς Θαύλων Zeus Thaulon, Athenian family Θαυλωνίδαι Thaulonidai
- ῥάγανον rhaganon easy Thuriian (Attic rhaidion) (Aeolic braidion)
- σκύτας skytas 'back-side of neck' (Attic trachēlos)
- τήνης tênês till Tarentine (Attic ἕως heôs)
- τρυφώματα tryphômata whatever are fed or nursed, children, cattle (Attic thremmata)
- ὑετίς huetis jug, amphora Tarentine (Attic hydris, hydria)(huetos rain)
- ἀγρίδιον agridion 'village' Aetolian (Attic chôrion)(Hesychius text: *ἀγρίδιον κωμάριον, χωρίον vA [παρὰ Αἰτωλοῖς] dim. of agros countryside,field)
- ἀερία aeria fog Aetolian (Attic omichlê, aêr air)(Hsch.ἀερία ὀμίχλη, παρὰ Αἰτωλοῖς.)
- κίββα kibba wallet,bag Aetolian (Attic πήρα pêra) (Cypr. kibisis) (Cf.Attic κιβωτός kibôtos ark kibôtion box Suid. cites kibos)
- πλήτομον plêtomon Acarnanian old,ancient (Attic palaion,palaiotaton very old)
- δείλομαι deilomai will,want Locrian, Delphian(Attic boulomai) (Coan dêlomai) (Doric bôlomai) (Thessalian belloumai)
- ϝαργάνα Wargana female worker epithet for Athena (Delphic) (Attic Erganê) (Attic ergon work, Doric Wergon, Elean ϝάργον Wargon
- ϝέρρω Werrô go away Locrian (Attic errô) (Hsch. berrês fugitive, berreuô escape)
- Ϝεσπάριοι Λοϟροὶ Wesparioi Lokroi Epizephyrian (Western) Locrians (Attic hesperios of evening,western, Doric wesperios) (cf. Latin Vesper)
- ὀπλίαι opliai places where the Locrians counted their cattle
- ἀϝλανέο̄ς aWlaneôs without fraud,honestly IvO7 (Attic adolôs)(Hsch.alanes true)(Tarentinian alaneôs absolutely)
- ἀμίλλυξ amillux scythe (Attic drepanon) in accus. ἀμίλλυκα (Boeotian amillakas wine)
- ἀττάμιος attamios unpunished (Attic azêmios) from an earliest addamios (cf.Cretan,Boeotian damioô punish)
- βάβακοι babakoi cicadas Elean (Attic tettiges) (in Pontus babakoi frogs)
- βαίδειος baideios ready (Attic hetoimos) (heteos fitness)
- βενέοι beneoi Elean
- βορσός borsos cross (Attic stauros)
- βρα bra brothers,brotherhood (Cf.Attic phratra)
- βρατάνα bratana ladle (Attic torune) (Doric rhatana) (cf. Aeolic bradanizô brandish,shake off)
- δειρῆται deirêtai small birds (Macedonian δρῆες drêes or δρῆγες drêges) (Attic strouthoi) (Hsc. trikkos small bird and king by Eleans)
- ϝράτρα Wratra law,contract (Attic rhetra)
- σερός seros yesterday (Attic chthes)
- στερχανά sterchana funeral feast (Attic perideipnon)
- φίλαξ philax young oak (Macedonian ilax, Latin ilex (Laconian dilax ariocarpus, sorbus)(Modern Cretan azilakas Holm Oak, Quercus ilex)
- φόρβυτα phorbuta gums (Attic oula) (Homeric pherbô feed,eat)
- ἀγχωρίξαντας anchôrixantas having transferred,postponed Chaonian (Attic metapherô,anaballô) (anchôrizo anchi near +horizô define and Doric x instead of Attic s) (Cf. Ionic anchouros neighbouring) not to be confused with Doric anchôreô Attic ana-chôreô go back,withdraw.
- ἀκαθαρτία akathartia impurity (Attic/Doric akatharsia) (Lamelles Oraculaires 14)
- ἀποτράχω apotrachô run away (Attic/Doric apotrechô)
- ἄσπαλοι aspaloi fishes Athamanian (Attic ichthyes) (Ionic chlossoi) (Cf.LSJ aspalia angling, aspalieus fisherman, aspalieuomai I angle metaph. of a lover, aspalisai: halieusai, sagêneusai. (hals sea)
- Ἄσπετος Aspetos divine epithet of Achilles in Epirus (Homeric aspetos 'unspeakable,unspeakably great,endless' (Aristotle F 563 Rose; Plutarch, Pyrrhus 1; SH 960,4)
- γνώσκω gnôskô know (Attic gignôskô) (Ionic/Koine ginôskô) (Latin nōsco)(Attic gnôsis, Latin notio knowledge) (ref.Orion p. 42.17)
- διαιτός diaitos (Hshc. judge kritês) (Attic diaitêtês arbitrator) Lamelles Oraculaires 16
- ἐσκιχρέμεν eskichremen lend out πὲρ τοῖ ἀργύρροι (Lamelles Oraculaires 8 of Eubandros) (Attic eis + inf. kichranai from chraomai use)
- Ϝεῖδυς Weidus knowing (Doric Ϝειδώς) weidôs) (Elean ϝειζός weizos) (Attic εἰδώς) eidôs) (PIE *weid- "to know, to see", Sanskrit veda I know) Cabanes, L'Épire 577,50
- κάστον kaston wood Athamanian (Attic xylon from xyô scrape, hence xyston) (Dialectical kalon wood from kaiô burn kauston sth that can be burnt, kausimon fuel)
- λῃτῆρες lêïtêres Athamanian priests with garlands Hes.text ἱεροὶ στεφανοφόροι. Ἀθαμᾶνες(LSJ: lêitarchoi public priests ) (hence Leitourgia
- μανύ manu small Athamanian (Attic mikron,brachu) (Cf. manon rare) (PIE *men- small,thin) (Hsch. banon thin) ( manosporos thinly sown manophullos with small leaves Thphr.HP7.6.2-6.3)
- Νάϊος Naios or Naos epithet of Dodonaean Zeus (from the spring in the oracle) (cf. Naiades and Pan Naios in Pydna SEG 50:622 (Homeric naô flow, Attic nama spring) (PIE *sna-)
- παγάομαι pagaomai 'wash in the spring' (of Dodona) (Doric paga Attic pêgê running water,fountain)
- παμπασία pampasia (to ask peri pampasias cliché phrase in the oracle) (Attic pampêsia full property) (Doric paomai obtain)
- Πελιγᾶνες Peliganes or Peligones (Epirotan, Macedonian senators)
- πρᾶμι prami do optative(Attic πράττοιμι prattoimi) Syncope (Lamelles Oraculaires 22)
- τίνε tine (Attic/Doric tini) to whom (Lamelles Oraculaires 7)
- τριθυτικόν trithutikon triple sacrifice tri + thuo(Lamelles Oraculaires 138)
- Roger D. Woodard (2008), "Greek dialects", in: The Ancient Languages of Europe, ed. R. D. Woodard, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 51.
- Buck, Carl Darling (1900). "The Source of the So-Called Achaean-Doric κοινη". American Journal of Philology. 21 (2): 193–196. doi:10.2307/287905.
- Çabej, E. (1961). "Die alteren Wohnsitze der Albaner auf der Balkanhalbinsel im Lichte der Sprache und der Ortsnamen". VII Congresso internaz. di sciense onomastiche: 241–251.; Albanian version BUShT 1962:1.219-227
- Eric Hamp. Birnbaum, Henrik; Puhvel, Jaan, eds. The position of Albanian, Ancient IE dialects, Proceedings of the Conference on IE linguistics held at the University of California, Los Angeles, April 25–27, 1963.
- Huld, Martin E. (1986). "Accentual Stratification of Ancient Greek Loanwords in Albanian". Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforschung (99.2): 245–253.
- SEG 49:776
- Mendez Dosuna -Doric dialects,p.452
- Goodwin, William Watson (1874). Plutarch's Morals, tr. by several hands. Corrected and revised by W.W. Goodwin. Greek questions 9
- IG IX,1² 3:609
- Sophie Minon, Les Inscriptions Éléennes Dialectale - Reviewed by Stephen Colvin
- Die Inschriften von Olympia - IvO 1
- IG IX,1² 1:152,a
- IG IX,1² 1:15
- Potter, John (1751). Archaeologia Graeca Or the Antiquities of Greece.
- Lamelles Oraculaires 77
- Lewis, D. M.; Boardman, John (1994). The Cambridge Ancient History. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-23348-4.
- Auroux, Sylvain (2000). Geschichte der Sprachwissenschaften. Bd. 2/1.: Ein internationales Handbuch zur Entwicklung der Sprachforschung von den Anfängen bis zur Gegenwart. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-011103-3.
- Cabanes, L'Épire 534,1
- Masson, Olivier (2003) . "[Ancient] Macedonian language". In Hornblower, S. and Spawforth A. (eds.). The Oxford Classical Dictionary (revised 3rd ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. pp. 905–906. ISBN 0-19-860641-9.
- Hammond, N.G.L (1993) . The Macedonian State. Origins, Institutions and History (reprint ed.). USA: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-814927-1.
- Michael Meier-Brügger, Indo-European linguistics, Walter de Gruyter, 2003, p.28, on Google books
- Roisman, Worthington, 2010, "A Companion to Ancient Macedonia", Chapter 5: Johannes Engels, "Macedonians and Greeks", p. 95:"This (i.e. Pella curse tablet) has been judged to be the most important ancient testimony to substantiate that Macedonian was a north-western Greek and mainly a Doric dialect".
- "...but we may tentatively conclude that Macedonian is a dialect related to North-West Greek.", Olivier Masson, French linguist, “Oxford Classical Dictionary: Macedonian Language”, 1996.
- Masson & Dubois 2000, p. 292: "...<<Macedonian Language>> de l'Oxford Classical Dictionary, 1996, p. 906: <<Macedonian may be seen as a Greek dialect, characterized by its marginal position and by local pronunciation (like Βερενίκα for Φερενίκα etc.)>>."
- Brian Joseph sums up that "[t]he slender evidence is open to different interpretations, so that no definitive answer is really possible", but cautions that "most likely, Ancient Macedonian was not simply an Ancient Greek dialect on a par with Attic or Aeolic" (B. Joseph (2001): "Ancient Greek". In: J. Garry et al. (eds.) Facts about the world's major languages: an encyclopedia of the world's major languages, past and present. Online paper) In this sense, some authors also call it a "deviant Greek dialect."
- Plutarch Greek question 51
- Dionysism and Comedy by Xavier Riu
- Raphael Kühner, Friedrich Blass, Ausführliche Grammatik der Griechischen Sprache
- Elis — Olympia — bef. c. 500-450 BC IvO 7
- Epeiros — Dodona — 4th c. BC SEG 15:397
- The Oracles of Zeus: Dodona, Olympia, Ammon - Page 261 by Herbert William Parke
- Epeiros — Dodona — ~340 BC SEG 26.700 - Trans.
- Alexander the Great: A Reader by Ian Worthing
- Greek Mythography in the Roman World By Alan Cameron (Aspetides)
- (cf. Athenian secretary: Aspetos, son of Demostratos from Kytheros ~340 BC)
- Pokorny - aspetos
- The Doric dialects by Méndez Dosuna - A History of Ancient Greek: From the Beginnings to Late Antiquity - 2007 Cambridge University Press
- Doric Greek in Encyclopædia Britannica
- Grammar of the Greek Language (Doric by Benjamin Franklin Fisk (1844)
- The Elements of Greek Grammar Doric by Richard Valpy, Charles Anthon (1834)
- New Pauly Online