Declaration of independence

A declaration of independence or declaration of statehood is an assertion by a defined territory that it is independent and constitutes a state. Such places are usually declared from part or all of the territory of another nation or failed nation, or are breakaway territories from within the larger state. In 2010, the UN's International Court of Justice ruled in an advisory opinion in Kosovo that "International law contains no prohibition on declarations of independence",[1] though the state from which the territory wishes to secede may regard the declaration as rebellion, which may lead to a war of independence or a constitutional settlement to resolve the crisis.

List of declarations of independence

RegionDeclarationDateYearAssociationSignatoriesFirst recognising state
Albania Albanian Declaration of IndependenceNovember 281912Ottoman EmpireAssembly of Vlorë
United Provinces of the Rio de la Plata
(present day
and  Bolivia)
Argentine Declaration of IndependenceJuly 91816SpainCongress of Tucumán Kingdom of Hawaii
 ArmeniaFirst Republic of ArmeniaMay 281918Russian EmpireArmenian National Congress (1917) Armenian Revolutionary Federation (ARF Dashnak) Russia
 AzerbaijanAzerbaijan Democratic RepublicMay 281918Russian EmpireAzerbaijani National Council (Hasan bey Aghayev, Fatali Khan Khoyski, Nasib Yusifbeyli, Jamo bey Hajinski, Şefi bey Rustambeyli, Nariman bey Narimanbeyov, Javad Malik-Yeganov, Mustafa Mahmudov)Ottoman Empire
 AzawadAzawadi declaration of independenceApril 62012MaliNational Movement for the Liberation of Azawad
 BangladeshProclamation of Bangladeshi IndependenceMarch 261971PakistanConstituent Assembly of Bangladesh Bhutan
 BelarusDeclaration of IndependenceMarch 251918RussiaRada of the Belarusian Democratic Republic
 BelarusBelavezha AccordsDecember 81991Soviet UnionPresidents of Russia, Ukraine and BelarusTurkey
 BelgiumBelgian Declaration of IndependenceOctober 41830NetherlandsProvisional Government of Belgium
 Bosnia and HerzegovinaBosnian Declaration of IndependenceMarch 11992YugoslaviaBulgaria
 Empire of BrazilIndependence of BrazilSeptember 71822PortugalPedro I of BrazilUnited States
BougainvilleBougainville Declaration of IndependenceMay1990Papua New GuineaBougainville Interim Governmentunknown
 BulgariaBulgarian Declaration of IndependenceSeptember 221908Ottoman EmpireFerdinand of Bulgaria and the Government of BulgariaRussian Empire (5 February 1909)
 CataloniaDeclaration of the Catalan Republic as a state of the Iberian FederationApril 141931SpainFrancesc Macià, Generalitat Government of Catalonia
 CataloniaDeclaration of the Catalan state within the Federal Republic of SpainOctober 61934SpainLluís Companys, Generalitat Government of Catalonia
Central AmericaAct of Independence of Central AmericaSeptember 151821Spain
 ChileChilean Declaration of IndependenceFebruary 121818SpainNational CongressPortugal
 ColombiaColombian Declaration of IndependenceJuly 201810Spain
 CroatiaIndependence of CroatiaJune 251991YugoslaviaIceland
 Republic of CrimeaDeclaration of Independence of the Republic of CrimeaMarch 112014UkraineSupreme Council of CrimeaRussia
 Dominican RepublicDominican Declaration of IndependenceFebruary 271844HaitiUnited Kingdom
 East TimorEast Timorese declaration of independenceNovember 281975PortugalMorocco
 EgyptUnilateral Declaration of Egyptian IndependenceFebruary 281922United KingdomUnilateral grant of independence by the British governmentUnited Kingdom
 EstoniaEstonian Declaration of IndependenceFebruary 241918RussiaSalvation CommitteeRussian SFSR
 EstoniaEstonian Reconfirmation of IndependenceAugust 201991Soviet UnionCongress of EstoniaIceland (reconfirmed earlier recognition)
 FinlandFinnish Declaration of IndependenceDecember 61917RussiaParliament of FinlandRussian SFSR
FloridaFlorida's Constitution of 1861January 101861United StatesFlorida State Legislature
GaliciaDeclaration of the Republic of GaliciaJune 271931Spain
 GeorgiaDemocratic Republic of GeorgiaMay 261918Russian EmpireGermany
Georgia (U.S. state)Georgia's secession declarationJanuary 291861United States
GreeceGreek Declaration of IndependenceJanuary 1 OS1822Ottoman EmpireFirst National AssemblyHaiti (1822)
 Guinea-BissauGuinea-Bissau Declaration of IndependenceSeptember 241973Portugal
 HaitiHaitian Declaration of IndependenceJanuary 11804FranceJean-Jacques DessalinesFrance
(April 17, 1825)[2]
HungaryHungarian Declaration of IndependenceApril 141849Austrian Empire
 IcelandIcelandic Declaration of IndependenceJune 171944DenmarkUnited States
IraqIraq Declaration of IndependenceOctober 31932 United KingdomUnited Kingdom
 IndiaDeclaration of the Independence of IndiaJanuary 261930United Kingdom
 IndonesiaProclamation of Indonesian IndependenceAugust 171945NetherlandsSukarno & Mohammad HattaEgypt or Vatican[3]
IrelandProclamation of the Irish RepublicApril 24 (Easter Monday)1916United KingdomIrish Volunteers
Irish Citizen Army
Irish RepublicIrish Declaration of IndependenceJanuary 211919United KingdomDáil ÉireannRussian SFSR
 IsraelIsraeli Declaration of IndependenceMay 141948United KingdomJewish People's CouncilUnited States
Autonomous Republic of Northern EpirusNorthern Epirote Declaration of IndependenceFebruary 281914Principality of AlbaniaProvisional Government of Northern Epirus
KatangaKatangan Declaration of Independence1960Congo (Léopoldville)
KoreaKorean Declaration of IndependenceMarch 11919Japan
Republic of the North SolomonsDeclaration of Independence of the Republic of the North SolomonsSeptember 11975Territory of Papua and New Guinea (Australia)UnknownCatholic Church
 KosovoKosovo declaration of independenceFebruary 172008SerbiaAssembly of KosovoAfghanistan
Republic of KosovaProclamation of the Republic of KosovaSeptember 221992SerbiaProvincial Assembly of KosovoAlbania
 LatviaLatvian Declaration of IndependenceNovember 181918Germany, RussiaPeople's Council of LatviaRussian SFSR
 LatviaOn the Restoration of Independence of the Republic of LatviaMay 41990Soviet UnionSupreme Soviet of the Latvian SSRIceland
 LiberiaLiberian Declaration of IndependenceJuly 161847American Colonization SocietyLiberian Constitutional ConventionUnited Kingdom
 LithuaniaAct of Independence of LithuaniaFebruary 161918Germany, RussiaCouncil of LithuaniaGermany
 LithuaniaAct of the Re-Establishment of the State of LithuaniaMarch 111990Soviet UnionSupreme Council of LithuaniaIceland
 MacedoniaIndependence of the Republic of MacedoniaSeptember 81991YugoslaviaBulgaria
Federation of Malaya
(present day Malaysia)
Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957August 311957United KingdomTunku Abdul Rahman, Prime Minister of MalaysiaUnited Kingdom[4]
MississippiA Declaration of the Immediate Causes which Induce and Justify the Secession of the State of Mississippi from the Federal UnionJanuary 91861United States
First Mexican Empire
(present day Mexico)
Declaration of Independence of the Mexican Empire
(real independence)
September 281821SpainSupreme Provisional Governmental BoardUnited Kingdom (January 4, 1825)[5]
 MoldovaDeclaration of Independence of the Republic of MoldovaAugust 271991Soviet UnionParliament of the Republic of MoldovaRomania
MoroccoMoroccan Declaration of IndependenceJanuary 111944FranceIstiqlal Party
 MontenegroMontenegro declaration of independenceJune 32006Serbia and MontenegroAssembly of the Republic of MontenegroIceland
 NetherlandsAct of AbjurationJuly 261581Spanish EmpireUnion of Utrecht
 New ZealandDeclaration of the Independence of New ZealandOctober 281835Māori chiefsUnited Kingdom[6]
Northern America
(present day Mexico)
Solemn Act of the Declaration of Independence of Northern AmericaNovember 61813SpainCongress of Anáhuac
Turkish Republic of Northern CyprusDeclaration of Independence of the Turkish Republic of Northern CyprusNovember 151983CyprusTurkey
 NorwayConstitution of NorwayMay 171814Union according to Treaty of KielConstitutional assembly
 PadaniaPadanian Declaration of IndependenceSeptember 151996Italy
 PakistanPakistan ResolutionMarch 241940Indian Empire, United KingdomMuslim League (Pakistan)
 PalestinePalestinian Declaration of IndependenceNovember 151988Palestinian territoriesPalestinian National CouncilArab League
PeruAct of the Declaration of Independence of PeruJuly 281821SpainJosé de San Martín
 PhilippinesPhilippine Declaration of IndependenceJune 121898Spain98 persons[7] (ratified on September 29, 1898 by the Malolos Congress[8])
 RhodesiaRhodesian Unilateral Declaration of IndependenceNovember 111965United KingdomIan Smith and the rest of the Cabinetnone
 RomaniaRomanian Declaration of IndependenceMay 221877Ottoman EmpireKing Carol I
 RussiaBelavezha Accords (de facto)
Officially never declared "independence", to become successor to the Soviet Union.
December 81991Soviet UnionPresidents of Russia, Ukraine and Belarus
 Sahrawi Arab Democratic RepublicBir Lehlou declarationFebruary 271976Spanish SaharaPolisario FrontMadagascar
 Kingdom of ScotlandDeclaration of ArbroathApril 61320Kingdom of EnglandScottish leaders
SerbiaThe Proclamation (Proglašenije/Проглашеније)February1809Ottoman EmpireKarađorđe Petrović and Serbian MPs
SingaporeProclamation of Singapore[9]August 91965Malaysia[10][11]Lee Kuan Yew, Prime Minister of SingaporeUnited Kingdom (confirmed earlier recognition)[12]
 SlovakiaSlovak National Council's Declaration of Independence of the Slovak NationJuly 171992CzechoslovakiaSlovak National Council
 SloveniaSlovenian Declaration of IndependenceJune 251991YugoslaviaCroatia
 SomalilandSomaliland Declaration of IndependenceMay 181991Somalianone
South CarolinaDeclaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal UnionDecember 241860United StatesSouth Carolinians in Charleston
 Sri LankaDeclaration of Independence of Sri Lanka (Then known as "Ceylon")February 41948United Kingdomnone
Texas, Republic ofTexas Declaration of IndependenceMarch 21836MexicoFrance
TexasA Declaration of the Causes which Impel the State of Texas to Secede from the Federal UnionFebruary 11861United StatesTexas Legislature
 TibetTibet's Declaration of IndependenceFebruary 131913China13th Dalai Lamanone
 TurkmenistanDeclaration of independence 1991Soviet UnionnoneTurkey
 UkraineIV UniversalJanuary 221918RussiaCentral Council of Ukraine
 UkraineDeclaration of Independence of UkraineAugust 241991Soviet UnionVerkhovna RadaPoland/Canada[13]
 United StatesUnited States Declaration of IndependenceJuly 41776Kingdom of Great BritainSecond Continental CongressFrance
 UzbekistanDeclaration of IndependenceAugust 311991Soviet UnionSupreme Council of UzbekistanTurkey
 VenezuelaVenezuelan Declaration of IndependenceJuly 51811SpainNational Congress
Vermont RepublicVermont Declaration of IndependenceJanuary 151777New York and New Hampshire United States
 VietnamProclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of VietnamSeptember 21945FranceHồ Chí MinhSoviet Union
Lower CanadaDeclaration of Independence of Lower CanadaFebruary 221838United KingdomRobert Nelsonnone

See also


  1. "Accordance with International Law of the Unilateral Declaration of Independence in Respect of Kosovo" (PDF). Retrieved 2014-02-14.
  2. Ashmore, Harry S., ed. (1961). "Encyclopaedia Britannica: a new survey of universal knowledge, Volume 11". p. 85. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  4. Federation of Malaya Independence Act 1957
  5. "Inglaterra: primer país que reconoce la Independencia de México" (in Spanish). Memoria Politica de México. Retrieved September 18, 2011.
  6. The Lord Glenelg (25 May 1836), "EXTRACT of a DESPATCH from Lord GLENELG to Major-General Sir RICHARD BOURKE, New South Wales", written at London, Documents > Declaration of Independence, Christchurch: Waitangi Associates, retrieved 22 May 2010
  7. Philippine History. Rex Bookstore, Inc. 2004. p. 162. ISBN 978-971-23-3934-9.
  8. Tucker, Spencer (2009). The Encyclopedia of the Spanish-American and Philippine-American Wars: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 364. ISBN 978-1-85109-951-1.
  9. Singapore was forced out of Malaysia by the Malaysian parliament, and the proclamations were then agreed by the two governments. See the Independence of Singapore Agreement 1965 (1985 Rev. Ed.) and the Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
  10. Agreement relating to the separation of Singapore from Malaysia as an independent and sovereign state
  11. Agreement relating to the separation of Singapore from Malaysia as an independent and sovereign state/proclamation of singapore
  12. Singapore Act 1966
  13. Ukraine and Russia: The Post-Soviet Transition by Roman Solchanyk, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 2000, ISBN 0742510182 (page 100)
    Canadian Yearbook of International Law, Vol 30, 1992, University of British Columbia Press, 1993, ISBN 9780774804387 (page 371)
    Szporluk, Roman. Russia, Ukraine and the Breakup of the Soviet Union. Hoover Press. ISBN 978-0-8179-9543-0., p. 355
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