David R. Goddard
David Rockwell Goddard (January 3, 1908 – July 9, 1985) was an American plant physiologist. Goddard was most known for his contributions to the large-scale production of penicillin, bacitracin and vitamin B2 in World War II. His later research showed a relation between the respiratory chains in plants and animals. Goddard was a member of the National Academy of Sciences, the chairman of the Division of Biology and the university provost at the University of Pennsylvania. Goddard was also president of the American Society of Plant Physiologists, the Society of General Physiologists and the Society for the Study and Development of Growth. He was also home secretary for the National Academy of Sciences. The University of Pennsylvania established the David Goddard Laboratories as part of Richards Medical Research Laboratories. The New York Times called Goddard a "leading plant expert".
Work that Goddard participated in at, what was then, the Rockefeller Institute, inspired by Leonor Michaelis, in the early 1930s, led indirectly to the discovery of simple methods of permanently modifying the shape of hair by reducing the disulfide bonds in keratin (hair protein). The basic chemistry of this discovery was adapted into the technology known in the hairdressing industry as a cold wave, using chemical derivatives of the reagent, thioglycolic acid, that he identified as suitable for this purpose. Goddard was only interested in the, considerable, scientific implications of this discovery, and refused any suggestion of attempting to patent the process.