Davazdah Rokh

Davāzdah Rokh[1] (Persian: دَوازدَه رُخ) (Twelve combats) is a story in Shahnameh. This relatively long story (almost 2,500 verses) is one of the finest[1] and most famous stories of Shahnameh.

The opposing armies of Iran led by Kai Khosrow, and Turan, under the command of Afrasiab. The Bayasanghori Shâhnâmeh, made in 1430 for Prince Bayasanghor (1399–1433), a registered Heritage of UNESCO.[2]

It takes place in the border of Iran and Turan, where a number of Iranian heroes fight with a number of Turanian heroes. In all cases, Iranian heroes defeat their Turanian competitors. Goudarz is the chief of Iranian heroes and Piran Viseh is the chief of Turanian heroes. The battle begins when Piran's brother, Houman, challenges the Iranians and is killed by Bizhan in a single combat. The two army then fight together but the war has no winner. Finally they agree on pitched battles between the heroes of the two army. At the end, Goudarz kills Piran and the war ends. However, Gostaham, who has not been chosen by Kay Khosrow to fight with Turanians, chase Lahhāk and Faršēd, brothers of Piran, and kills them. However he himself was severely injured and Bizhan takes him to Kay Khosrow and the latter saves his life by tying a panacean bead around his arm. The war ends with the death of Afrasiab, Turan's king. In some manuscripts of Shahnameh the story is entitled az Yazdah Rokh (Eleven combats), not counting the last fight between Gostaham and Piran's brothers.

Place of 12 Rokh war

12Rokh .Zibad
Kay Khusraw Reviews His Army
Departure of Kai Khosrow's mother and grandmother toward Iran. (Kay Khosrow is seen with the old man in the middle)
Davazdah Rokh victory

[3] According to shahnameh the place of war was in the area near Zibad castle or black mountain of Gonabad in Iran state of Greater Khorasan .


the war was ended with the victory of Iran and a festival was held on the honor of king Kai Khosrow and Goudarz chief army.

The Battles

In all battles, the winner is Iranian hero.

  1. Fariburz vs Golbad Viseh
  2. Giv vs Goruye Zereh
  3. Gorazeh vs Siamak the Turanian
  4. Foruhal vs Zangolah
  5. Rohham vs Barman
  6. Bizhan vs Rooyin
  7. Hojir vs Sepahram
  8. Zange-ye Shavaran vs Akhvast
  9. Gorgin vs Andariman
  10. Bartah vs Kohram
  11. Goudarz vs Piran
  12. Gostaham vs Lahhak and Farshad


  1. 1 2 Khaleghi-Motlagh, Djalal. "DAVĀZDAH ROḴ". ENCYCLOPÆDIA IRANICA. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
  2. https://web.archive.org/web/20090805015115/http://portal.unesco.org/ci/en/ev.php-URL_ID=22385&URL_DO=DO_TOPIC&URL_SECTION=201.html. Archived from the original on August 5, 2009. Retrieved April 23, 2009. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  3. Shahnameh (The Epic of Kings): Bijan and Manijeh
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