25 March 1844|
10 October 1930 (aged 86)|
|Fields||Botany, plant taxonomy|
Botanical Institute of Munich|
University of Kiel
University of Berlin
|Alma mater||University of Breslau|
|Known for||Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien|
|Notable awards||Linnean Medal (1913)|
Heinrich Gustav Adolf Engler (25 March 1844 – 10 October 1930) was a German botanist. He is notable for his work on plant taxonomy and phytogeography, such as Die natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien (The Natural Plant Families), edited with Karl A. E. von Prantl.
Even now, his system of plant classification, the Engler system, is still used by many herbaria and is followed by writers of many manuals and floras. It is still the only system that treats all 'plants' (in the wider sense, algae to flowering plants) in such depth.
Engler published a prodigious number of taxonomic works. He used various artists to illustrate his books, notably Joseph Pohl (1864–1939), an illustrator who had served an apprenticeship as a wood-engraver. Pohl's skill drew Engler's attention, starting a collaboration of some 40 years. Pohl produced more than 33 000 drawings in 6 000 plates for Die naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien. He also illustrated Das Pflanzenreich (1900–1953), Die Pflanzenwelt Afrikas (1908–1910), Monographien afrikanischer Pflanzenfamilien (1898–1904) and the journals Engler's botanische Jahrbücher.
He studied and obtained a PhD from the University of Breslau (now Wrocław, Poland) in 1866. After some years of teaching, he became, in 1871, custodian of botanical collections of the Botanische Institute der Ludwig Maximilian University München (Botanical Institute of Munich), remaining there until 1878, when he accepted a professorship at the University of Kiel, where he stayed until 1884, teaching systematic botany. Also in 1878, Engler was elected into Leopoldina, German Academy of Natural History. He went back to Breslau in 1884, as director of the Botanical Garden, succeeding Goeppert, and appointed professor of botany at the University of Breslau. From 1889 to 1921, Engler was a professor at University of Berlin, and director of the Berlin-Dahlem Botanical Garden, transforming it into one of the greatest botanical gardens of the world.
He visited several regions of the world, enlarging the knowledge of floristic distribution, especially of Africa.
Adolf Engler collaborated with several other great botanists, including Alphonse de Candolle on the Monographiae Phanerogamarum (Monographs of Flowering Plants), and C.F.P. von Martius on the monumental work Flora Brasiliensis (Flora of Brazil).
He founded the journal Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie (Botanical Yearbook for Systematics, Plant Phylogeny and Phytogeography, ISSN 0006-8152), published in Leipzig, Germany, which has continued in publication from 1881 to the present. In 2010, this publication changed its name to Plant Diversity and Evolution: Phylogeny, Biogeography, Structure and Function, ISSN 1869-6155.
- Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien (The Natural Plant Families), edited with Karl A. E. Prantl, with the collaboration of many notable experts, 1887–1915, 23 volumes: This enormous series is one of the very few detailed works (since Linnaeus) to attempt the classification of plants from algae to flowering plants, and constitutes an invaluable work. A second, incomplete edition was produced (1924–1980) in 28 parts by Duncker und Humblot Verlag, Berlin). Some volumes have been re-issued in English. The second edition was hard to use for many years because no part of it was indexed until 1984, when an index was published in the Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden.
- Das Pflanzenreich (The Plant Kingdom), with the collaboration of many notable experts, 1900–1968: This monographic series on the plant kingdom is presently incomplete.
- Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien, 12th ed., edited by H. Melchior & E. Werdermann, with the collaboration of many notable experts, 1954–1964: This is the most recent summary of the Engler system and gives descriptions of the higher taxonomic levels, in two volumes.
He was one of the pioneers in this field of science, highlighting the importance of factors such as geology on biodiversity, and defined biogeographical regions in 1879.
- Vegetation der Erde (Vegetation of the Earth), 1896, with O. Drude
- Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete (The Plant World of Eastern Africa and the Adjacent Regions), 1895 (available at Botanicus.org)
He received the Linnean Medal in 1913. The International Association for Plant Taxonomy established the Engler Medal in his honour in 1986, to be awarded for outstanding contributions to plant taxonomy (see the list of Engler Medal awards).
The journal Englera (ISSN 0170-4818) published by the Berlin-Dahlem Botanical Garden, Germany, is also named after him. Many genera (in various 'plant' groups) are named in his honour, such as Englerastrum, Englerella, Engleria, Englerina, Englerocharis, Englerodaphne, Englerodendron and Englerophytum.
- Engler system
- List of plants of Caatinga vegetation of Brazil
- List of plants of Cerrado vegetation of Brazil
- Phylogenetic system
- Woodland, Dennis W. (1997). Contemporary Plant Systematics (2nd ed.). Andrews University Press. ISBN 1-883925-14-2.
- 10. about the illustrators and illustrations Archived July 4, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien Duncker und Humblot Verlag
- Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 17a
- Morley 1984.
- Davis, M.T. (1957). A guide and an analysis of Engler's "Das Pflanzenreich". Taxon 6: 161-182, .
- IPNI. Engl.
Works by Engler
- Engler, Adolf (1886). Führer durch den Königlich botanischen Garten der Universität zu Breslau. J.U. Kerns Verlag (Max Müller). Retrieved 2 May 2015.
- Engler, Adolf; Prantl, Karl, eds. (1887–1915). Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien nebst ihren Gattungen und wichtigeren Arten, insbesondere den Nutzpflanzen, unter Mitwirkung zahlreicher hervorragender Fachgelehrten. Leipzig: W. Engelmann. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
- Engler, Adolf, ed. (1900–1968). Das Pflanzenreich: regni vegetablilis conspectus. Leipzig: W. Engelmann. Retrieved 31 January 2014. (Published as a series of volumes or fascicles "hefte" each containing one or more monographs. Each monograph has separate paging and index. The volumes are numbered in sequence of publication. The systematic sequence of the families is indicated on the cover page e.g. 129: Geraniaceae)
- Engler, Adolf, ed. (1903). Syllabus der Pflanzenfamilien: eine Übersicht über das gesamte Pflanzensystem mit Berücksichtigung der Medicinal- und Nutzpflanzen nebst einer Übersicht über die Florenreiche und Florengebiete der Erde zum Gebrauch bei Vorlesungen und Studien über specielle und medicinisch-pharmaceutische Botanik (3 ed.). Berlin: Borntraeger. Retrieved 31 January 2014.
Works about Engler
- Lack, Hans Walter (2000). Botanisches Museum Berlin: Adolf Engler—Die Welt in einem Garten (The world in a garden) (in German). München, Germany: Prestel. ISBN 3-7913-2315-6.
- Morley, Thomas (1984). "An Index to the Families in Engler and Prantl's "Die Naturlichen Pflanzenfamilien'". Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden. 71 (1): 210–228. JSTOR 2399064.
- Frans A. Stafleu. "Engler, Heinrich Gustav Adolf." Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 2008.
- Frans A. Stafleu. An Engler episode. Occasional Papers of the Farlow Herbarium of Cryptogamic Botany No. 16, A Volume in Honor of Geneva Sayre on the Occasion of her 70th Birthday (June, 1981), pp. 147-151
- Stace, Clive A. (1989) . Plant taxonomy and biosystematics (2nd. ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521427852. Retrieved 29 April 2015.
- Adolf Heinrich Gustav Engler, Botaniker. Berlin 2002
- Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie
- Review of 'Vegetation der Erde'
- Adolf Engler Encyclopaedia Brittanica
- Notes and News: A new professor of botany in Berlin. The Medical Age vol. vii 1889 p. 379
- Author Query Results and Plant Name Query Results for Adolf Engler at the International Plant Names Index. Retrieved on March 25, 2008.
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