Cyril Raker Endfield|
November 10, 1914
April 16, 1995 (aged 80)|
Shipston-on-Stour, Warwickshire, United Kingdom
Cyril Raker Endfield (November 10, 1914 – April 16, 1995) was an American screenwriter, film director, theatre director, author, magician and inventor, based in Britain from 1953.
Endfield was born in Scranton, Pennsylvania. He attended Yale University and began his career as a theatre director and drama coach, becoming a significant figure in New York's progressive theatre scene. It was largely the shared interest of magic that led Orson Welles to become aware of Endfield and his recruitment as an apprentice for Mercury Productions (then based at RKO Pictures). One of his independent films was "Inflation" (1940), a 15-minute commission for the Office of War Information that was rejected as being anti-capitalist.
The debacle surrounding the production of The Magnificent Ambersons (1942) ended with the expulsion of the Mercury team from the RKO lot and Endfield signed on as a contract director at MGM where he directed a wide variety of shorts (including the last films in the long-running Our Gang series), before freelancing on low-budget productions for Monogram and other independents. He served in the Army in World War II.
It was with the film noir The Underworld Story (1950), a United Artists independent production released, that Endfield first came to critical and studio attention. The film was a major leap from anything he had previously produced in regards to budget and social commentary; a coruscating attack on press corruption which could equally be taken as a wider attack on the McCarthyite ideology of the times. He followed this with the film often cited as his masterpiece, The Sound of Fury (aka Try And Get Me!), a lynching thriller based on a true story. Except for the lynch scene, the film was not well received by critics. It was with these two films that Endfield's signature approach to character developed, pessimistic without being uncompassionate.
In 1951 Endfield was named as a Communist at a HUAC hearing. Subsequently, being blacklisted without work prompted his move to Britain where, under various pseudonyms (to avoid complication with film releases in the U.S.), he wrote and directed films often starring fellow blacklistees, such as Lloyd Bridges and Sam Wanamaker. Hell Drivers was his first project released under his real name and as well as his debut BAFTA nomination for the BAFTA Award for Best British Screenplay category. Special effects by Ray Harryhausen were a feature in his Mysterious Island (1961).
His best remembered film is Zulu (1964). This project was followed by Sands of the Kalahari (1965) with Susannah York. After a few more independent productions he withdrew from film direction in 1971, his final film being Universal Soldier where he made a cameo appearance with Germaine Greer. In 1979 he wrote the non-fiction book Zulu Dawn, which tells the story of the British military campaign against the Zulu Nation in 1879. A film adaptation of the book was released in the same year, co-written by Endfield and directed by Douglas Hickox.
Endfield is co-credited with Chris Rainey for a pocket-sized/miniature computer with a chorded keypad that allows rapid typing without a bulky single-stroke keyboard. It functions like a musical instrument by pressing combinations of keys that he called a "Microwriter" to generate a full alphanumeric character set. It is currently under further development, as "CyKey", for PC and Palm PDA, by Endfield's former partner, Chris Rainey and Bellaire Electronics. CyKey is named after Cy Endfield.
British magician Michael Vincent credits Endfield as one of his biggest influences. The classic "Cy Endfield's Entertaining Card Magic", by Lewis Ganson, includes a variety of Endfield's creations in card magic.
- Inflation (1942) (short) - director
- Radio Bugs (1944) (short) - director
- Tale of a Dog (1944) (short) - director
- Nostradamus IV (1944) (short) - director
- The Great American Mug (1945) (short) - director
- Magic on a Stick (1946) (short) - director
- Our Old Car (1946) (short) - director
- Joe Palooka, Champ (1946) - writer
- Mr Hex (1946) - writer
- Gentleman Joe Palooka (1946) - director, writer
- Stork Bites Man (1947) - director, writer
- Hard Boiled Mahoney (1947) - writer
- Sleep, My Love (1948) - writer (uncredited)
- The Argyle Secrets (1948) - director, writer, author of original radio play
- Joe Palooka in the Big Fight (1949) - director, writer
- Joe Palooka in the Counterpunch (1949) - writer
- The Underworld Story (1950) - director, writer
- The Sound of Fury (1950) - director, writer (incredited)
- Tarzan's Savage Fury (1952) - director
- The Limping Man (1953) - director
- Impulse (1954) - director, writer
- Crashout (1955) - writer (uncredited)
- The Master Plan (1955) - director, writer
- The Secret (1955) - director, writer
- Child in the House (1956) - director, writer
- Colonel March of Scotland Yard (1956) - director
- Hell Drivers (1957) - director, writer
- Curse of the Demon (1957) - writer (uncredited)
- Sea Fury (1958) - director, writer
- Jet Storm (1959) - director, writer
- Mysterious Island (1961) - director
- Zulu (1964) - director, writer, producer
- Hide and Seek (1964) - director
- Sands of the Kalahari (1965) - director, writer, producer
- De Sade (1969) - director
- Universal Soldier (1971) - director, writer
- Zulu Dawn (1979) - writer
- Trevor Willsmer (1995-04-21). "OBITUARY : Cy Endfield - People - News". The Independent. Retrieved 2014-05-25.
- "Cy Endfield - MagicPedia". Geniimagazine.com. Retrieved 2014-05-25.
- viewed 9-3-2014.
- "BFI Screenonline: Endfield, Cy (1914-95) Biography". Screenonline.org.uk. Retrieved 2014-05-25.
- "DVD Savant Review: The Underworld Story". Dvdtalk.com. Retrieved 2014-05-25.
- "Potent Pessimism [on Cy Endfield". Jonathan Rosenbaum. 1992-07-10. Retrieved 2014-05-25.
- "The Sound of Fury". MoMA. 2013-11-06. Retrieved 2014-05-25.
- "Try and Get Me (a.k.a. The Sound of Fury) (1950); Repeat Performance (1947) | UCLA Film & Television Archive". Cinema.ucla.edu. 2013-03-04. Retrieved 2014-05-25.
- "Cy Endfield | American Cinematheque". Americancinemathequecalendar.com. Retrieved 2014-05-25.
- New York Times
- viewed 9-3 -2014.
- "Abbreviated View of Movie Page". Afi.com. 1953-12-11. Retrieved 2014-05-25.
- "The Secret | BFI | BFI". Explore.bfi.org.uk. Retrieved 2014-05-25.
- http://www.nytimes.com/1995/05 /02/obituaries/cy-endfield-80-blacklisted-director.html; viewed 9-3-2014.
- "Mysterious Island (1961)". Tcm.com. Retrieved 2014-05-25.
- "Cy Endfield | shadowplay". Dcairns.wordpress.com. Retrieved 2014-05-25.
- "Zulu Dawn: Cy Endfield: 9780523411484: Amazon.com: Books". Amazon.com. 1980-08-01. Retrieved 2014-05-25.
- "Empire's Zulu Dawn Movie Review". Empireonline.com. Retrieved 2014-05-25.
- Cy Endfield at the Internet Movie Database
- Cy Endfield biography and credits at the British Film Institute's Screenonline