Cruciate ligament

Illustration of the ligaments of the knee, including the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments

Cruciate ligaments (also cruciform ligaments) are pairs of ligaments arranged like a letter X.[1] They occur in several joints of the body, such as the knee. In a fashion similar to the cords in a toy Jacob's ladder, the crossed ligaments stabilize the joint while allowing a very large range of motion.


Cruciate ligaments

Cruciate ligaments occur in the knee of humans and other bipedal animals and the corresponding stifle of quadrupedal animals, and in the neck, fingers, and foot.

Clinical significance


Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament is one of the "most frequent acquired diseases of the stifle joint"[5] in humans, dogs, and cats; direct trauma to the joint is relatively uncommon and age appears to be a major factor.[5]

Cruciate ligament injuries are common in animals, and in 2005 a study estimated that $1.32 billion was spent in the United States in treating the cranial cruciate ligament of dogs.[6]

Rupture in canines and surgical repair techniques



Look up cruciate or ligament in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

In the first edition[13] of the official Latin nomenclature (Nomina Anatomica, renamed in 1998 as Terminologia Anatomica), the Latin expression ligamenta cruciata was used, similar to the expression cruciate ligaments currently in use in English.[14] In classical Latin the verb cruciare is derived from crux, meaning cross.[15]It became considered that cruciate was equivalent to cross-shaped.


  1. Daniel John Cunningham (1918). Cunningham's text-book of anatomy (5th ed.). Oxford Press. p. 1593.
  2. Anatomy of Spinal Vertebrae Tutorial.
  3. Austin, Noelle M. (2005). "Chapter 9: The Wrist and Hand Complex". In Levangie, Pamela K.; Norkin, Cynthia C. Joint Structure and Function: A Comprehensive Analysis (4th ed.). Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company. pp. 327–28. ISBN 0-8036-1191-9.
  4. Vanderperren K, Ghaye B, Snaps FR, Saunders JH (May 2008). "Evaluation of computed tomographic anatomy of the equine metacarpophalangeal joint". Am. J. Vet. Res. 69 (5): 631–8. doi:10.2460/ajvr.69.5.631. PMID 18447794.
  5. 1 2 Neãas A., J . Zatloukal, H. Kecová, M. Dvofiák: Predisposition of Dog Breeds to Rupture of Cranial Cruciate Ligament. Acta Vet. Brno 2000, 69: 305-310..
  6. Wilke VL. (2005). Estimate of the annual economic impact of treatment of cranial cruciate ligament injury in dogs in the United States. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association.
  7. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Brooks, Wendy C. Ruptured Anterior (Cranial) Cruciate Ligament. “Veterinary Information Network, Inc.” 2005
  8. Harasen, Greg Canine cranial cruciate ligament rupture in profile. “The Canadian Veterinary Journal” 2003, 44(10): 845-846
  9. 1 2 Harasen, Greg Diagnosing rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament. “The Canadian Veterinary Journal” 2002, 43(6): 475-476
  10. Tong, Kim Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CCL)- Extracapsular Repair. “Dallas Veterinary Surgical Center” 2015
  11. Tong, Kim Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CCL)- Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy (TPLO) “Dallas Veterinary Surgical Center” 2015
  12. Tong, Kim Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CCL)- Tibial Tuberosity Advancement (TTA) “Dallas Veterinary Surgical Center” 2015
  13. His, W. (1895). Die anatomische Nomenclatur. Nomina Anatomica. Der von der Anatomischen Gesellschaft auf ihrer IX. Versammlung in Basel angenommenen Namen. Leipzig: Verlag Veit & Comp.
  14. Anderson, D.M. (2000). Dorland’s illustrated medical dictionary (29th edition). Philadelphia/London/Toronto/Montreal/Sydney/Tokyo: W.B. Saunders Company.
  15. Lewis, C.T. & Short, C. (1879). A Latin dictionary founded on Andrews' edition of Freund's Latin dictionary. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
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