Cosplay Blue and Yellow
A cosplay of Yuna from Final Fantasy X-2 at FanimeCon 2014

Cosplay (コスプレ kosupure), a contraction of the words costume play, is a performance art in which participants called cosplayers wear costumes and fashion accessories to represent a specific character.[1] Cosplayers often interact to create a subculture and a broader use of the term "cosplay" applies to any costumed role-playing in venues apart from the stage. Any entity that lends itself to dramatic interpretation may be taken up as a subject and it is not unusual to see genders switched. Favorite sources include manga and anime, comic books and cartoons, video games, and live-action films and television series.

The rapid growth in the number of people cosplaying as a hobby since 1990s has made the phenomenon a significant aspect of popular culture in Japan and some other parts of Asia and in the Western world. Cosplay events are common features of fan conventions and there are also dedicated conventions and local and international competitions, as well as social networks, websites and other forms of media centered on cosplay activities.


Silent Hill cosplayers at the 2014 Nipponbashi Street Festa in Osaka

The term "cosplay" is a Japanese portmanteau of the English terms costume and play.[2] The term was coined by Nobuyuki Takahashi of Studio Hard[3] while attending the 1984 World Science Fiction Convention (Worldcon) in Los Angeles.[4] He was impressed by the hall and the costumed fans and reported on both in Japanese magazine My Anime.[3] The coinage reflects a common Japanese method of abbreviation in which the first two moras of a pair of words are used to form an independent compound: 'costume' becomes kosu (コス) and 'play' becomes pure (プレ).

Practice of cosplay

Cosplay costumes vary greatly and can range from simple themed clothing to highly detailed costumes. It is generally considered different from Halloween and Mardi Gras costume wear, as the intention is to replicate a specific character, rather than to reflect the culture and symbolism of a holiday event. As such, when in costume, some cosplayers often seek to adopt the affect, mannerisms, and body language of the characters they portray (with "out of character" breaks). The characters chosen to be cosplayed may be sourced from any movie, TV series, book, comic book, video game, or music band anime and manga characters. Some cosplayers even choose to cosplay an original character of their own design or a fusion of different genres (e.g. a steampunk version of a character).


Padmé Amidala cosplay at Japan Expo 2012 in France

Cosplayers obtain their apparel through many different methods. Manufacturers produce and sell packaged outfits for use in cosplay, with varying levels of quality. These costumes are often sold online, but also can be purchased from dealers at conventions. Japanese manufacturers of cosplay costumes reported a profit of 35 billion yen in 2008.[5] A number of individuals also work on commission, creating custom costumes, props, or wigs designed and fitted to the individual. Other cosplayers, who prefer to create their own costumes, still provide a market for individual elements, and various raw materials, such as unstyled wigs, hair dye, cloth and sewing notions, liquid latex, body paint, costume jewelry, and prop weapons.

Cosplay represents an act of embodiment. Cosplay has been closely linked to the presentation of self,[6] yet cosplayers' ability to perform is limited by their physical features. The accuracy of a cosplay is judged based on the ability to accurately represent a character through the body, and individual cosplayers frequently are faced by their own "bodily limits"[7] such as level of attractiveness, body size, and disability[8] that often restrict and confine how accurate the cosplay is perceived. Authenticity is measured by a cosplayer's individual ability to translate on-screen manifestation to the cosplay itself. Some have argued that cosplay can never be a true representation of the character; instead, it can only be read through the body, and that true embodiment of a character is judged based on nearness to the original character form.[9] Cosplaying can also help some of those with self-esteem problems.[10][11]

A cosplay of Raiden at Anime Expo 2013

Many cosplayers create their own outfits, referencing images of the characters in the process. In the creation of the outfits, much time is given to detail and qualities, thus the skill of a cosplayer may be measured by how difficult the details of the outfit are and how well they have been replicated. Because of the difficulty of replicating some details and materials, cosplayers often educate themselves in crafting specialties such as textiles, sculpture, face paint, fiberglass, fashion design, woodworking, and other uses of materials in the effort to render the look and texture of a costume accurately.[12] Cosplayers often wear wigs in conjunction with their outfit to further improve the resemblance to the character. This is especially necessary for anime and manga or video-game characters who often have unnaturally coloured and uniquely styled hair. Simpler outfits may be compensated for their lack of complexity by paying attention to material choice and overall high quality.

To look more like the characters they are portraying, cosplayers might also engage in various forms of body modification. Cosplayers may opt to change their skin color utilizing bleach or make-up to more simulate the race of the character they are adopting.[13] Contact lenses that match the color of their characters' eyes are a common form of this, especially in the case of characters with particularly unique eyes as part of their trademark look. Contact lenses that make the pupil look enlarged to visually echo the large eyes of anime and manga characters are also used.[14] Another form of body modification in which cosplayers engage is to copy any tattoos or special markings their character might have. Temporary tattoos, permanent marker, body paint, and in rare cases, permanent tattoos, are all methods used by cosplayers to achieve the desired look. Permanent and temporary hair dye, spray-in hair coloring, and specialized extreme styling products are all used by some cosplayers whose natural hair can achieve the desired hairstyle. It is also commonplace for them to shave off their eyebrows to gain a more accurate look.

Some anime and video game characters have weapons or other accessories that are hard to replicate, and conventions have strict rules regarding those weapons, but most cosplayers engage in some combination of methods to obtain all the items necessary for their costumes; for example, they may commission a prop weapon, sew their own clothing, buy character jewelry from a cosplay accessory manufacturer, or buy a pair of off-the-rack shoes, and modify them to match the desired look.


Cosplay may be presented in a number of ways and places. A subset of cosplay culture is centered on sex appeal, with cosplayers specifically choosing characters known for their attractiveness or revealing costumes. However, wearing a revealing costume can be a sensitive issue while appearing in public.[15][16][17] People appearing naked at American science fiction fandom conventions during the 1970s were so common, a "no costume is no costume" rule was introduced.[18] Some conventions throughout the United States, such as Phoenix Comicon[19] and Penny Arcade Expo,[20] have also issued rules upon which they reserve the right to ask attendees to leave or change their costumes if deemed to be inappropriate to a family-friendly environment or something of a similar nature.


A crowd including many cosplayers at Comiket 84 in 2013

The most popular form of presenting a cosplay publicly is by wearing it to a fan convention. Multiple conventions dedicated to anime and manga, comics, TV shows, video games, science fiction, and fantasy may be found all around the world. Cosplay-centered conventions include Cosplay Mania in the Philippines and EOY Cosplay Festival in Singapore.

The single largest event featuring cosplay is the semiannual doujinshi market, Comic Market (Comiket), held in Japan during summer and winter. Comiket attracts hundreds of thousands of manga and anime fans, where thousands of cosplayers congregate on the roof of the exhibition center. In North America, the highest-attended fan conventions featuring cosplayers are the San Diego Comic-Con and New York Comic Con held in the United States, and the anime-specific Anime North in Toronto, Otakon held in Baltimore MD and Anime Expo held in Los Angeles. Europe's largest event is Japan Expo held in Paris, while the London MCM Expo and the London Super Comic Convention are the most notable in the UK. Supanova Pop Culture Expo is Australia's biggest event.


Professional photographers working with Mileena cosplayer for a chroma key studio photoshoot at Space City Con 2014 in the United States

The appearance of cosplayers at public events makes them a popular draw for photographers.[21] As this became apparent in the late 1980s, a new variant of cosplay developed in which cosplayers attended events mainly for the purpose of modeling their characters for still photography rather than engaging in continuous role play. Rules of etiquette were developed to minimize awkward situations involving boundaries. Cosplayers pose for photographers and photographers do not press them for personal contact information or private sessions, follow them out of the area, or take photos without permission. The rules allow the collaborative relationship between photographers and cosplayers to continue with the least inconvenience to each other.[22]

Some cosplayers choose to have a professional photographer take high quality images of them in their costumes posing as the character.[21] This is most likely to take place in a setting relevant to the character's origin, such as churches, parks, forests, water features, and abandoned/run-down sites. Cosplayers and photographers are likely to exhibit their work online, which they can do on general blog, social networking service, and artist gallery websites (such as flickr, deviantART, Instagram, Facebook, tumblr and Twitter) or on dedicated cosplay community websites. They may also choose to sell such images, or use them as part of their portfolio.[21]


A cosplayer at the 2011 Animation-Comic-Game Hong Kong contest dressed as a character from Gantz

As the popularity of cosplay has grown, many conventions have come to feature a contest surrounding cosplay that may be the main feature of the convention. Contestants present their cosplay, and often to be judged for an award, the cosplay must be self-made. The contestants may choose to perform a skit, which may consist of a short performed script or dance with optional accompanying audio, video, or images shown on a screen overhead. Other contestants may simply choose to pose as their characters. Often, contestants are briefly interviewed on stage by a master of ceremonies. The audience is given a chance to take photos of the cosplayers. Cosplayers may compete solo or in a group. Awards are presented, and these awards may vary greatly. Generally, a best cosplayer award, a best group award, and runner-up prizes are given. Awards may also go to the best skit and a number of cosplay skill subcategories, such as master tailor, master weapon-maker, master armourer, and so forth.

The most well-known cosplay contest event is the World Cosplay Summit, selecting cosplayers from 20 countries to compete in the final round in Nagoya, Japan. Some other international events include European Cosplay Gathering (finals taking place at Japan Expo in Paris, France),[23] EuroCosplay (finals taking place at London MCM Expo),[24] and the Nordic Cosplay Championship (finals taking place at NärCon in Linköping, Sweden).[25]

Common Cosplay Judging Criteria

This table contains a list of the most common cosplay competition judging criteria, as seen from World Cosplay Summit,[26] Cyprus Comic Con,[27] and ReplayFX.[28]

Criteria Description Example
Accuracy Resemblance to the original character in terms of appearance.
  • Hair color/styling
  • Make-up
  • Costume
  • Props
  • Stage props
Craftsmanship Quality and details of the costume and props.
  • How well the costume is made
  • Maneuverability/functionality of the costume
  • Quality of materials
  • Level of detail
  • Amount of effort
  • Percentage of costume that is handmade
  • Technique
Presentation Likeliness in terms of character portrayal and performance.
  • Acting
  • Posture
  • Movement
  • Talking with iconic phrases and tones of the character
  • Facial expressions
  • Interaction with other characters
  • Faithfulness to the story
Audience Impact Stage presence and connection with the audience.
  • Eye contact
  • Making full usage of the stage space
  • Engaging with the audience

Gender issues

A female group crossplaying as Loki at Dragon Con 2012

Portraying a character of the opposite sex is called crossplay. The practicality of crossplay and cross-dress stems in part from the abundance in manga of male characters with delicate and somewhat androgynous features. Such characters, known as bishōnen (lit. "pretty boy"),[29] are Asian equivalent of the elfin boy archetype represented in Western tradition by figures such as Peter Pan and Ariel.[30]

Male to female cosplayers may experience issues when trying to portray a female character because it is hard to maintain the sexualized femininity of a character. Often interpretations can be misconstrued as parody, or men can be asked to change their outfits because of their scantily-clad nature.[31] Male cosplayers may also be subjected to discrimination,[32] including homophobic comments and being touched without permission, possibly even more often than female ones when it is already a problem for women cosplayers,[33] as is "slut-shaming".[34]

Animegao players, a niche group in the realm of cosplay, are often male cosplayers who use zentai and stylized masks to represent female anime characters. These cosplayers completely hide their real features so the original appearance of their characters may be reproduced as literally as possible, and to display all the abstractions and stylizations such as oversized eyes and tiny mouths often seen in Japanese cartoon art.[35] This does not mean that only males perform animegao or that masks are only female.

Cosplay models

Cosplay in Gamescom 2015, Cologne

Cosplay has influenced the advertising industry, in which cosplayers are often used for event work previously assigned to agency models.[21] Some cosplayers have thus transformed their hobby into profitable, professional careers.[36][37] Japan's entertainment industry has been home to the professional cosplayers since the rise of Comiket and Tokyo Game Show.[21] The phenomenon is most apparent in Japan but exists to some degree in other countries as well. Professional cosplayers who profit from their art may experience problems related to copyright infringement.[38]

A cosplay model, also known as a cosplay idol, cosplays costumes for anime and manga or video game companies. Good cosplayers are viewed as fictional characters in the flesh, in much the same way that film actors come to be identified in the public mind with specific roles. Cosplayers have modeled for print magazines like Cosmode and a successful cosplay model can become the brand ambassador for companies like Cospa. Some cosplay models can achieve significant recognition. Yaya Han, for example, was described as having emerged "as a well-recognized figure both within and outside cosplay circuits".[36]

Cosplay by country or region

Cosplay in Japan

The Jingūbashi (Jingū bridge) which passes over the Yamanote Line south of Harajuku Station, Tokyo, at the Meiji Shrine gate is a famous gathering place for cosplayers. Pictured, a group of people dressed as visual kei style musicians in 2006

Cosplayers in Japan used to refer to themselves as reiyā (レイヤー), pronounced "layer". Currently in Japan, cosplayers are more commonly called kosupure (コスプレ), pronounced "ko-su-pray," as reiyā is more often used to describe layers (i.e. hair, clothes, etc.).[39] Those who photograph players are called cameko, short for camera kozō or camera boy. Originally, the cameko gave prints of their photos to players as gifts. Increased interest in cosplay events, both on the part of photographers and cosplayers willing to model for them, has led to formalization of procedures at events such as Comiket. Photography takes place within a designated area removed from the exhibit hall.

Since 1998, Tokyo's Akihabara district contains a number of cosplay restaurants, catering to devoted anime and cosplay fans, where the waitresses at such cafés dress as video game or anime characters; maid cafés are particularly popular. In Japan, Tokyo's Harajuku district is the favourite informal gathering place to engage in cosplay in public. Events in Akihabara also draw many cosplayers.

Cosplay in other Asian countries

Cosplay is common in many East Asian countries. For example, it is a major part of the Comic World conventions taking place regularly in South Korea and China.[40] Historically, the practice of dressing up as characters from works of fiction can be traced as far as the 17th century late Ming Dynasty China.[41]

Cosplay in Western culture

Bombshell Harley Quinn Cosplay

The popularity of cosplay in Japan encourages the misconception that cosplay is specifically a Japanese or Asian hobby. The term cosplay is Japanese in origin, but costume play was originally a hobby from the United States where it has historically been known as costuming as opposed to cosplaying. A.D. Condo's science fiction comic character Mr. Skygack, from Mars was the subject of costuming in 1908 in the United States.[42] Science fiction fans Forrest J Ackerman and Myrtle R. Douglas attended the 1939 1st World Science Fiction Convention in the Caravan Hall, New York, USA dressed in "futuristicostumes", including green cape and breeches, based on the pulp magazine artwork of Frank R. Paul, designed and created by Douglas.[43][44] Ackerman later stated that he thought everyone was supposed to wear a costume at a science fiction convention, although only he and Douglas did.[45] As early as a year after the 1975 release of The Rocky Horror Picture Show, audience members began dressing as characters from the movie and role-playing (although the initial incentive for dressing-up was free admission) in often highly accurate costumes.[46][47]

The hobby was then later picked up by the Japanese and reinvented by Americans. For many years, costuming has had a widespread following and continues to experience growing popularity in North America and Europe, and has more recently spread throughout South America and Australia. Western cosplay's origins are based primarily in science fiction and fantasy fandoms. It is also more common for Western cosplayers to recreate characters from live-action series than it is for Japanese cosplayers. Western costumers also include subcultures of hobbyists who participate in Renaissance faires, live action role-playing games, and historical reenactments. Competition at science fiction conventions typically include the masquerade (where costumes are presented on stage and judged formally) and hall costumes[48] (where roving judges may give out awards for outstanding workmanship or presentation).[49]

The increasing popularity of Japanese animation outside of Asia during the late 2000s led to an increase in American and other Western cosplayers who portray manga and anime characters. Anime conventions have become more numerous in the West in the previous decade, now competing with science fiction, comic book and historical conferences in attendance. At these gatherings, cosplayers, like their Japanese counterparts, meet to show off their work, be photographed, and compete in costume contests. Convention attendees also just as often dress up as Western comic book or animated characters, or as characters from movies and video games.

Differences in taste still exist across cultures: some costumes that are worn without hesitation by Japanese cosplayers tend to be avoided by Western cosplayers, such as outfits that evoke Nazi uniforms. Some Western cosplayers have also encountered questions of legitimacy when playing characters of canonically different racial backgrounds,[50][51] and people can be insensitive to cosplayers playing as characters who are canonically of other skin color.[52][53] Western cosplayers of anime characters may also be subjected to particular mockery.[54]


Magazines and books

Japan is home to two especially popular cosplay magazines, Cosmode (コスモード) and ASCII Media Works' Dengeki Layers (電撃Layers).[55] Cosmode has the largest share in the market and an English-language digital edition.[56] Another magazine, aimed at a broader, world-wide audience is CosplayGen.[57] In the United States, Cosplay Culture began publication in February 2015.[58] Other magazines include CosplayZine featuring cosplayers from all over the world since October 2015.[59] There are many books on the subject of cosplay as well.[60][61]

Documentaries and reality shows

Other media

The practice of cosplaying is featured in many Japanese video game, manga and anime titles, including Ai Kora, Amagami, Aoi House, The Cosmopolitan Prayers, Dōbutsu no Mori, Fate/hollow ataraxia, Galaxy Angel, Genshiken, Girl Friends, Gunbuster, Hanaukyo Maid Team, Hyperdimension Neptunia, I, Otaku: Struggle in Akihabara, Jewelpet, K-On!, Kujibiki Unbalance, Lucky Star, Maid Sama!, Nogizaka Haruka no Himitsu, Oreimo, Phantom Breaker, Popotan, Re: Cutie Honey, School Rumble, and Unofficial Sentai Akibaranger.

Notable cosplayers

Main article: List of cosplayers

Cosplay Groups and Organizations

See also


  1. "Taylor's Cosplay - Dress to Impress - Hanover County, Virginia". 2015-12-23. Retrieved 2016-06-26.
  2. Stuever, Hank (2000-02-14). "What Would Godzilla Say?". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-01-03.
  3. 1 2 "Nobuyuki (Nov) Takahashi " YeinJee's Asian Blog: The Origin of the word cosplay". 2008-07-03. Retrieved 2011-10-03.
  4. Raymond, Adam K. (July 24, 2014). "75 Years Of Capes and Face Paint: A History of Cosplay". Yahoo! Movies. Retrieved August 2, 2014.
  5. Craig Hayden (2012). The Rhetoric of Soft Power: Public Diplomacy in Global Contexts. Lexington Books. p. 115. ISBN 978-0-7391-4258-5.
  6. "Stranger than fiction: Fan identity in cosplay". Retrieved 2015-11-23.
  7. "Intersections: Cosplay, Lolita and Gender in Japan and Australia: An Introduction". Retrieved 2015-10-23.
  8. "Cosplaying With A Disability Is Awesome | Cosplay Dossier | The Escapist". 2015-09-29. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  9. "Toward new horizons: Cosplay (re)imagined through the superhero genre, authenticity, and transformation". Retrieved 2015-11-23.
  10. "Power Girl and Ivy Cosplay Boost Self Esteem | Cosplay Dossier | The Escapist". 2015-10-06. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  11. "Cosplay and The Benefits of Bravery | Cosplay Dossier | The Escapist". 2015-11-17. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  12. White, Sarah. "Cosplay Costumes at LoveToKnow Costumes". Retrieved 2011-10-03.
  13. "Blacked Out: Discussing cosplay and 'blackface'". Nerd Reactor. Retrieved 2015-10-22.
  14. Sharnea Morris (2009-03-26). "Japanese Circle Lens - A Secret Trick for Anime Cosplayers". Retrieved 2012-01-03.
  15. "Skimpy Outfit Gets Lollipop Chainsaw Cosplayer Asked to Change Or Leave PAX Show Floor". Retrieved 2013-11-17.
  16. Azliah, Nurul. "Woman calls police over cosplayer's 'underboob' at anime festival". Retrieved 2013-11-17.
  17. "Cammy cosplayer forced to cover up at CEO, but not by tournament staff". Retrieved 2016-06-26.
  18. "A Treasure Trove of Cosplay from the Swinging 1970s [NSFW]". Retrieved 2014-05-16.
  19. "Convention Policies". Phoenix Comicon. Retrieved 8 October 2014.
  20. "PAX Prime - Seattle, WA Aug 28-31, 2015". Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  21. 1 2 3 4 5 "Cosplay Models Real Life Japanime Characters by Cynthia Leigh". Entertainment Scene 360. 2007-03-11. Archived from the original on 2014-05-17. Retrieved 2014-05-16.
  22. Thorn, Matthew (2004) Girls And Women Getting Out Of Hand: The Pleasure And Politics Of Japan's Amateur Comics Community in Fanning the Flames: Fans and Consumer Culture in Contemporary Japan William W. Kelly, ed., State University of New York Press
  23. "The Best european cosplayers meet at Japan Expo for the Finals". European Cosplay Gathering. Retrieved 2014-03-22.
  24. "EuroCosplay Championships | London Comic Con". 2013-10-26. Retrieved 2014-03-22.
  25. "NCC - The Nordic Cosplay Championship". Retrieved 2014-03-22.
  26. "World Cosplay Summit Championship Craftsmanship judging regulations". World Cosplay Summit. Retrieved 2016-10-12.
  27. "COSPLAY CONTEST JUDGING CRITERIA". Cyprus Comic Con. Retrieved 2016-10-12.
  28. "ReplayFX Cosplay Contest". Replay FX. Retrieved 2016-10-12.
  29. "What Is Crossplay And What Does It Say About Gender | Cosplay Dossier | The Escapist". 2015-12-01. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  30. Benesh-Liu, P. (2007, October). ANIME COSPLAY IN AMERICA. Ornament, 31(1), 44-49. Retrieved October 12, 2008, from Academic Search Complete database.
  31. "Meet the gender bending men who cosplay". Mail Online. Retrieved 2015-11-24.
  32. "Gender Discrimination Against Male Cosplayers | Cosplay Dossier | The Escapist". 2016-01-14. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  33. "Metal Gear's Quiet and Cosplay's Free Speech | Cosplay Dossier | The Escapist". 2015-10-27. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  34. "Cosplay and the Normie Stare | Cosplay Dossier | The Escapist". 2015-11-03. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  35. Florian Jomain. "Surrender : Image Contamination of Networked Bodies" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  36. 1 2 Ben Bolling; Matthew J. Smith (12 February 2014). It Happens at Comic-Con: Ethnographic Essays on a Pop Culture Phenomenon. McFarland. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-7864-7694-7.
  37. Lingle, Samuel (2012-02-01). "Costume designer turns play into work with cosplay". Retrieved 2014-05-16.
  38. "What Does A Professional Cosplayer Do | Cosplay Dossier | The Escapist". 2015-08-25. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  39. Breen, Jim. "Japanese Dictionary". Japanese Dictionary. (search for "cosplay" in English or "reiyā" in romangi). Retrieved January 1, 2012.
  40. "Art & Deal Magazine " Photo Essay". Retrieved 20 October 2014.
  41. "The Cosplayers of the Late Ming Dynasty". 2015-05-20. Retrieved 2015-06-04.
  42. Miller, Ron (19 September 2013). "Was Mr. Skygack the First Alien Character in Comics?". io9. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
  43. Kyle, David (December 2002). "Caravan to the Stars". Mimosa (29).
  44. Culp, Jennifer (9 May 2016). "Meet the Woman Who Invented Cosplay". Racked. Retrieved 11 May 2016.
  45. Painter, Deborah (2010). Forry: The Life of Forrest J Ackerman. McFarland. pp. 37–38. ISBN 9780786448845.
  46. Samuels, Stuart (1983). Midnight Movies. Collier Books. p. 11. ISBN 002081450X.
  47. Siegel, Robert. "Making The Rocky Horror Picture Show". Retrieved 27 March 2014.
  48. "Costumes from Asia". October 2016.
  49. "ConAdian Masquerade rules". September 1994. Archived from the original on 2013-09-21.
  50. "Questions of Race and Cosplay". Kotaku Cosplay. Retrieved 2015-10-22.
  51. "The Controversy of Skin Color in Cosplay: Racism or Not?". Uloop. Retrieved 2015-10-22.
  52. T (2015-10-13). "Ghostbusters Cosplay is Great Because its Normal | Cosplay Dossier | The Escapist". Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  53. "Five Ways of Taking The Hurt Out of Online Cosplay Haters | Cosplay Dossier | The Escapist". 2015-11-24. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  54. "Understanding Anime Cosplay | Cosplay Dossier | The Escapist". 2015-07-28. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  55. "AMW|アスキー・メディアワークス 公式ホームページ". Archived from the original on 2012-06-16. Retrieved 2015-06-10.
  56. "A Costume & Style Magazine for the Eccentric - About COSMODE". COSMODE Online. Archived from the original on 2011-10-03. Retrieved 2011-10-03.
  57. "Cosplay Gen". Cosplay Gen. Retrieved 2011-10-03.
  58. "Cosplay Culture". Archived from the original on 2015-07-21. Retrieved 2015-07-17.
  59. "CosplayZine". Retrieved 2014-10-20.
  60. "Popular Cosplay Books". 2015-05-13. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
  61. ANIMEfringe. "Reviews - CosPlay Encyclopedia". Retrieved 2015-06-10.
  62. "Cosplay Encyclopedia (2002)". Retrieved 2015-06-10.
  63. "Nippon no genba: Akihabara toshinose no monogatari (2005)". Retrieved 2015-06-10.
  64. Published 03/29/2008 (2008-03-29). "Canadian showing of "Animania" documentary about anime phenomenon". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2012-07-21.
  65. "Emergent Game Group on Vimeo". 2009-10-12. Retrieved 2015-06-10.
  66. "Cosplayers UK The Movie - (Full Length HD Movie)". 2014-10-29. Retrieved 2015-06-10.
  67. "Cosplayers: The Movie Full episodes streaming online for free". Retrieved 2015-06-10.
  68. "Anime Expo® and MTV Cast for True Life". Anime News Network. Retrieved 2011-10-03.
  69. "About America's Greatest Otaku - America's Greatest Otaku". 2011-02-24. Archived from the original on 2013-12-13. Retrieved 2013-12-07.
  70. "Cosplayers UK: The Movie (2011)". Retrieved 2015-06-10.
  71. "News: My Other Me: A Film About Cosplayers". Retrieved 2012-11-06.
  72. "Heroes of Cosplay". Syfy. Retrieved 2013-09-27.
  73. "24 Hours With A Comic Con Character". CNN. Retrieved 2014-10-22.
  74. "WTF is Cosplay?". Channel 4. Retrieved 2015-07-16.
  75. Brian Ashcraft. "Japanese Porn Is Overdosing on Video Games and Anime". Retrieved 2014-06-16.

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Cosplay.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 12/1/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.