|Regions with significant populations|
~ 322,120 (inhabitants of Corsica, regardless of ethnicity) |
181,354 (people born in Corsica)
|Corsican • French • Ligurian|
|Predominantly Roman Catholic|
|Related ethnic groups|
|French and Italians|
The island was populated since the Mesolithic (Dame de Bonifacio) and the Neolithic by people who came from the Italian peninsula, especially the modern regions of Tuscany and Liguria. An important megalithic tradition developed locally since the 4th millennium BC. Reached, like Sardinia, by Polada culture influences in the Early Bronze Age, in the 2nd millennium BC Corsica, the southern part in particular, saw the rise of the Torrean civilization, strongly linked with the Nuragic civilization.
The Corsican people are named after a people known by the Romans as Corsi. The Corsi, who gave their name to the island and dwelt also in Northeastern Sardinia (Gallura). The Corsi were formed by several tribes that dwelt in Corsica island (Ptolemy, Geography), namely the Belatones (Belatoni), Cervini, Cilebenses (Cilibensi), Cumanenses (Cumanesi), Licinini, Macrini, Opini, Subasani, Sumbri, Tarabeni, Titiani, and the Venacini. In the far north-east of the island of Sardinia there were tribes that also belonged to the Corsi, they dwelt at the extreme north-east of Sardinia and were composed of the Lestricones / Lestrigones (Lestriconi / Lestrigoni); Longonenses (Longonensi). These Corsi shared the island with the Tibulati, who dwelt at the extreme north of Sardinia near the ancient town of Tibula.
Further research is needed to answer the question of the origin of the ancient Corsi and that of the modern Corsican people. According to several scholars they may have been a group of tribes of the Ligures, like the Ilvates in the neighboring Ilva island (today's Elba), and spoken the old Ligurian language. However, it is known that the Sardinians are genetically similar to the Corsican population.
Corsica was later colonized by Etruscans from what is modern Tuscany, with some brief, localized colonies of Greeks and Carthaginians, until being taken over by the Romans. In subsequent centuries, Corsica was ruled and settled by Pisans and the Genoese, and the Corsican language today is itself a variant of the Tuscan language or dialect. Corsica was part of the Republic of Pisa for over two centuries, from 1050 to 1295, and was then under the control of the Republic of Genoa for nearly five centuries, from 1285 to the creation of the Corsican Republic in 1755, and it is likely that these peoples have contributed to some degree to modern Corsican ancestry.
Population in Corsica
Corsica has a population of 322,120 inhabitants (Jan. 2013 estimate). At the 2011 census, 56.3% of the inhabitants of Corsica were natives of Corsica, 28.6% were natives of Continental France, 0.3% were natives of Overseas France, and 14.8% were natives of foreign countries.
The majority of the foreign immigrants in Corsica come from the Maghreb (particularly Moroccans, who made up 33.5% of all immigrants in Corsica at the 2011 census), and from Southern Europe (particularly Portuguese, 22.7% of all immigrants, and Italians, 13.7%).
The Corsican diaspora
During 19th century and the first part of 20th century, Corsican emigration was very important. Large numbers of Corsicans left the island for the French mainland or foreign countries. During 19th century, the favorite destinations of migrants were the French colonies and South America (for more details, see Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico and Corsican immigration to Venezuela). Then, between the 1920s and the 1950s, the major destination became the French mainland (primarily Marseille, today considered as the "first Corsican city of the world" with a number around 200,000). Causes of this emigration are various; poverty is the main reason (the French laws for restriction of exportations, the Second Industrial Revolution and the agricultural crisis have occasioned a lot of damages to the Corsican economy). Later, those massive departures have been accentuated by damages of the First World War on the Island.
|Census||Born in Corsica|| Born in|
| Born in|
| Born in foreign|
countries with French
citizenship at birth¹
|from the Maghreb3||from Southern Europe4||from the rest of the world|
|from the Maghreb3||from Southern Europe4||from the rest of the world|
| ¹Essentially Pieds-Noirs who resettled in Corsica after the independence of Tunisia, Morocco and Algeria, many of whom had Corsican ancestry.|
2An immigrant is by French definition a person born in a foreign country and who didn't have French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still listed as an immigrant in French statistics. On the other hand, persons born in France with foreign citizenship (the children of immigrants) are not listed as immigrants.
3Morocco, Tunisia, Algeria
4Portugal, Italy, Spain, Andorra, Gibraltar, Monaco
Alongside French (Français), the official language throughout France, Corsican (Corsu) is the other most widely spoken language on the island: it is a Romance language pertaining to the Italo-Dalmatian branch and akin to medieval Tuscan. Corsican was long the vernacular language besides Italian (Italiano), which retained official status in Corsica until 1859. Since then, it has been replaced by French due to the annexation of the island by France in 1768. Over the next two centuries, the use of French grew to the extent that, by the Liberation in 1945, all islanders had a working knowledge of French. The twentieth century saw a wholesale language shift, with islanders changing their language practices to the extent that there were no monolingual Corsican speakers left by the 1960s. By 1990, an estimated 50% of islanders had some degree of proficiency in Corsican, and a small minority, perhaps 10%, used Corsican as a first language. Fewer and fewer people speak also a Ligurian dialect in what has long been a language island, Bonifacio: it is locally known by the name of bunifazzin.
Gallurese dialect is a variety of Corsican spoken in the extreme north of Sardinia, including the region of Gallura and the archipelago of La Maddalena. In the Maddalena archipelago, the local dialect (called Isulanu, Maddaleninu, Maddalenino) was brought by shepherds from Alta Rocca and Sartène in southern Corsica during immigration in the 17th to 18th centuries. Though influenced by Gallurese, it has maintained the original characteristics of Corsican. There are also numerous words of Genoese and Ponzese origin.
Number of Corsican speakers
The January 2007 estimated population of the island was 281,000, while the figure for the March 1999 census, when most of the studies – though not the linguistic survey work referenced in this article – were performed, was about 261,000 (see under Corsica). Only a fraction of the population at either time spoke Corsican with any fluency. The 2001 population of 341,000 speakers on the island given by Ethnologue exceeds either census and thus may be considered questionable, like its estimate of 402,000 speakers worldwide.
The use of Corsican over French has been declining. In 1980 about 70% of the population "had some command of the Corsican language." In 1990 out of a total population of about 254,000 the percentage had declined to 50%, with only 10% using it as a first language. The language appeared to be in serious decline when the French government reversed its non-supportive stand and began some strong measures to save it. Whether these measures will succeed remains to be seen. No recent statistics on Corsican are available.
UNESCO classifies the Corsican language as a potentially endangered language, as it has "a large number of children speakers" but is "without an official or prestigious status." The classification does not state that the language is currently endangered, only that it is potentially so. In fact it is being vigorously affirmed. Often acting according to the current long-standing sentiment unknown Corsicans cross out French roadway signs and paint in the Corsican names. The Corsican language is a key vehicle for Corsican culture, which is notably rich in proverbs and in polyphonic song.
From the mountains to the plains and sea, many ingredients play a role. Game such as wild boar (Cignale, Singhjari) is popular, and in old times mouflon (muvra) were consumed. There also is seafood and river fish such as trout. Delicatessen such as figatellu, coppa, ham (prizuttu), lonzu are made from Corsican pork (porcu nustrale). Cheeses like Brocciu, casgiu merzu (the Corsican version of the Sardinian casu marzu), casgiu veghju are made from goat or sheep milk. Chestnuts are the main ingredient in the making of pulenta. A variety of alcoholic drinks also exist, ranging from aquavita (brandy), red and white Corsican wines (Vinu Corsu), muscat (plain or sparkling), and the famous "cap corse" produced by Mattei.
- Alizée (pop singer)
- Angelo Mariani (chemist)
- Antoine Christophe Saliceti (Member of the National Convention during the French Revolution)
- Baptiste Giabiconi (model)
- Carlo Andrea, count Pozzo di Borgo (Imperial Russian diplomat)
- Carlo Bonaparte (father of Napoléon Bonaparte)
- Caroline Bonaparte (sister of Napoléon Bonaparte)
- César Campinchi (lawyer and French politician)
- César Vezzani (opera singer)
- Charles Pasqua (French politician, former Minister of Internal Affairs)
- Danielle Casanova (World War II Resistance hero)
- Edmond Jouhaud
- Elisa Bonaparte (sister of Napoléon Bonaparte)
- François-Xavier Ortoli (French politician, former President of the European Commission)
- Fred Scamaroni (World War II Resistance hero)
- Garance Doré, born Mariline Fiori (fashion blogger and illustrator)
- Henry Padovani (singer, Founder of the popular group The Police)
- Ignace Cardini (Naturalist, doctor and humanist)
- Jean-Francois Bernardini (Founder and leader of the popular group I Muvrini)
- Jérôme Bonaparte (brother of Napoléon Bonaparte)
- John Bernard (American politician, representing Minnesota in the House of Representatives)
- Joseph Bonaparte (brother of Napoléon Bonaparte)
- Joseph Fesch (cardinal)
- Laetitia Casta (model/actress)
- Letizia Ramolino (mother of Napoléon Bonaparte)
- Louis Bonaparte (brother of Napoléon Bonaparte)
- Lucien Bonaparte (brother of Napoléon Bonaparte)
- Marie-Claude Pietragalla (dancer/choreographer)
- Marion Bartoli (professional tennis player)
- Mathieu Flamini (professional football player who plays for Arsenal FC and has formerly played for AC Milan)
- Michel Ferracci-Porri (writer)
- Michel Giacometti (Ethnomusicologist who worked primarily in Portugal)
- Napoléon Bonaparte
- Pasquale Paoli (Corsican patriot and military leader)
- Pasquino Corso (16th century condottiero)
- Patrick Fiori (singer)
- Pauline Bonaparte (sister of Napoléon Bonaparte)
- Petru Giovacchini
- Petru Guelfucci (singer)
- Raul Leoni (president of Venezuela, 1964-1969)
- Sampieru Corsu
- Tino Rossi (singer, actor)
- Vincent de Moro-Giafferi (lawyer, nicknamed the "Grand Moro")
- Italians in France
- History of Corsica
- Etruscan civilization
- List of Nuragic tribes
- Republic of Pisa
- Republic of Genoa
- Corsican language
- Sardinian people
- Italian people
- French people
- Corsican immigration to Puerto Rico
- Corsican immigration to Venezuela
- Italian irredentism in Corsica
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- Atti Convegno Lingua Gallurese, Palau 2014
- G. Vona, P. Moral, M. Memmì, M.E. Ghiani and L. Varesi, Genetic structure and affinities of the Corsican population (France): Classical genetic markers analysis, American Journal of Human Biology; Volume 15, Issue 2, pages 151–163, March/April 2003
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- Corsicans - World Directory of Minorities
- Laurent-Jacques Costa, Corse préhistorique, Éditions Errance, Paris, 2004 p.215 – 216
- Gabriel Camps, Préhistoire d'une île. Les origines de la Corse, 1988
- Peregrine, Peter N.; Ember, Melvin (2001). Encyclopedia of Prehistory. 4 : Europe. Springer. pp. 157, 169. ISBN 0-306-46255-9.
- Paolo Melis, I rapporti fra la Sardegna settentrionale e la Corsica nell’antica età del Bronzo
- Xavier Poli in La Corse dans l'Antiquité et dans le Haut Moyen Âge Librairie Albert Fontemoing Paris 1907
- Attilio Mastino-Corsica e Sardegna in età antica
- G. Vona, P. Moral, M. Memmì, M.E. Ghiani and L. Varesi, Genetic structure and affinities of the corsican population (France): Classical genetic markers analysis, American Journal of Human Biology; Volume 15, Issue 2, pages 151–163, March/April 2003
- Corsican Genetics: Abstracts and Summaries
- Harris, Martin; Vincent, Nigel (1997). Romance Languages. London: Routlegde. ISBN 0-415-16417-6.
- INSEE. "IMG1B – Les immigrés par sexe, âge et pays de naissance" (in French). Retrieved 2014-10-25.
- INSEE. "D_FD_IMG2 – Base France par départements – Lieux de naissance à l'étranger selon la nationalité" (in French). Retrieved 2013-06-25.
- "Corsican in France". Euromosaic. Retrieved 2008-06-13. To access the data, click on List by languages, Corsican, Corsican in France, then scroll to Geographical and language background.
- Enciclopedia Treccani - Dialetti liguri
- Blasco Ferrer 1984: 180–186, 200
- Contini 1987: 1°, 500–503
- Dettori 2002
- Corsican at Ethnologue
- "Corsican". Retrieved 2008-06-13.
- "Corsican language use survey". Euromosaic. Retrieved 2008-06-13. To find this statement and the supporting data click on List by languages, Corsican, Corsican language use survey and look under INTRODUCTION.
- Salminen, Tapani (1993–1999). "UNESCO Red Book on Endangered Languages: Europe:". Retrieved 2008-06-13.
- Smith, William (1872). Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: J. Murray. pp. pages 689–692. Downloadable Google Books.
- Strabo's text of Geographica - Geography (Strabo)
- Ptolemy's text of Geographica - Geography (Ptolemy)