The Convergence Movement is a movement among evangelical and charismatic churches in the United States and elsewhere to blend charismatic worship with liturgies from the Book of Common Prayer and other liturgical sources.
The movement was inspired by the spiritual pilgrimages of modern Evangelical writers like Thomas Howard, Robert E. Webber, Peter E. Gillquist and the ancient Christian writers and their communities. These men, along with theologians, scripture scholars, and pastors in a number of traditions, were calling Christians back to their roots in the primitive church.
Evangelicals look eastward
In 1973 Campus Crusade for Christ missionary Peter E. Gillquist (1938-2012) of Chicago established a network of house churches throughout the United States, aiming to restore a primitive form of Christianity, which was called the New Covenant Apostolic Order (NCAO). Researching the historical basis of the Christian faith, Gillquist and his colleagues found sources for this restoration in the writings of the early Church Fathers. This led the group to practice a more liturgical form of worship than in their previous evangelical background. In 1979, the Evangelical Orthodox Church (EOC) was organized. The belief of needing apostolic succession led most members of the EOC to join the Antiochian Orthodox Christian Archdiocese of North America in 1987.
The Chicago Call
In 1977 “The Chicago Call” was issued by the National Conference of Evangelicals for Historic Christianity, meeting in Warrenville, Illinois. Led by Dr. Robert Webber (Assoc. Professor of Theology at Wheaton College), along with Peter Gillquist, Thomas Howard, Richard Holt, Donald Bloesch, Jan Dennis, Lane Dennis, and Victor Oliver, the Conference discussed the need for evangelical Christians to rediscover and re-attach to the Church’s historic roots. The Conference issued several documents which together are known as The Chicago Call. Components of the Call include: A Call to Historic Roots and Continuity; A Call to Biblical Fidelity; A Call to Creedal Identity; A Call to Holistic Salvation; A Call to Sacramental Integrity; A Call to Spirituality; A Call to Church Authority; and A Call to Church Unity.
"The Three Streams, One River?"
In 1984 Charisma magazine, one of the most influential magazines of th charismatic movement, published an article by Dr Richard Lovelace entitled "The Three Streams, One River?" (Sept 1984). Lovelace approvingly noted the trend of Catholics, evangelicals, and charismatic/Pentecostals moving closer together.
Evangelicals on the Canterbury Trail
Robert Webber's 1985 book Evangelicals on the Canterbury Trail: Why Evangelicals are Attracted to the Liturgical Church documents the stories of six evangelical Christians who, for various reasons, had converted to the Episcopal Church. Publication of this book stirred up a great deal of interest in the evangelical press, generating numerous reviews in Christianity Today and other widely read evangelical publications. In the following years Webber wrote several additional books that had great influence on evangelical churches seeking to incorporate liturgy and traditional practices into their worship, and numbers of evangelical Christians continued to migrate to the historic liturgical denominations.
- Charismatic Episcopal Church–In 1992 A. Randolph Adler and a group of like-minded charismatic church pastors from the western U.S. formed the Charismatic Episcopal Church. They obtained ordination in apostolic succession and began worshiping liturgically using the 1979 Book of Common Prayer, but developing the liturgy over time to mirror characteristics of the liturgy from the Roman Missal. The Charismatic Episcopal Church grew to become an international body known for its blending of sacramental, charismatic, and evangelical worship traditions.
- Communion of Evangelical Episcopal Churches–The Communion of Evangelical Episcopal Churches (CEEC) is a worldwide communion of convergence churches. CEEC is led by its primate, Archbishop Charles Travis.
- Christian Communion International–The Christian Communion International (CCI) is led by its Presiding Bishop, Quintin Moore.
- The Order of St Leonard–A UK-based Convergence body, led by archbishop David Carr. The Order uses the ancient church of St Leonard on the Wroxall Abbey Estate (near Solihull) in the Midlands of England as its cathedral. The Order is associated with the Communion of Evangelical Episcopal Churches (see above) in that Archbishop Carr is a CEEC archbishop. CCI and CEEC are interrelated, the Christian Communion International being a constituent member of the Communion of Evangelical Episcopal Churches. They are Evangelical, Sacramental and Pentecostal in piety and practice. However, they use different authorized liturgies in worship. While women are ordained to both the diaconate and the priesthood, they do not admit women to the episcopate.
- Anglican Mission in the Americas–The Anglican Mission in the Americas (AMiA) is a church that is connected to various provinces of the Anglican Communion but is also explicitly committed to Convergence theology. AMiA has women as priests but no bishops who are women.
- Anglican Church in North America–The Anglican Church in North America (ACNA) is also a church connected to various provinces of the Anglican Communion but is also explicitly committed to Convergence theology. ACNA has women as priests but no bishops who are women.
- The Priestly Society of the Inner Christ the Light (formerly the Lutheran Catholic Communion)–Convergence Society in the Independent Catholic tradition that primarily preaches the gospel of Universal Reconciliation
- Communion of the Convergence Anglican Church–The Communion of the Convergence Anglican Church (CCAC) was formed in 2013 and is a convergence church (sacramental, evangelical, and Spirit-filled). They do not ordain women to any of the Offices of Deacon, Priest or Bishop. CCAC is using the 1979 Book of Common Prayer as their Provisional Prayerbook. Other liturgies may be used with the permission of the Bishop.
- Holy Christian Orthodox Church–The Holy Christian Orthodox Church (HCOC) originally the Western Rite Orthodox Catholic Church is a predominately African-American Communion of Charismatic Orthodox Churches. Led by Archbishop Timothy Paul. The HCOC admits women as Deaconess and Presbyteras. In some provinces females will be consecrated as the Bishop of Women.
- Christian Orthodox Church of America–The Christian Orthodox Church of America (COCOA) led by its Metropolitan Archbishop, Mar Gregory Schell (Archbishop Paul Gregory Schell) headquartered in Denver, CO. The COCOA ordains women to Deacons, Priests and Bishops.
- Apostolic Pastoral Congress–The Apostolic Pastoral Congress (APC) (originally called Apostolic Pastoral Association) is led by Archbishop Doye Agama. The Congress holds to Convergence theology. It is based in the United Kingdom but has worldwide membership.
- The International Anglican Orthodox Episcopal Communion
- J. Gordon Melton Encyclopedia of American religions - 2003 "In the years after World War I, negotiations began to create a broad union that would include the Anglican and ... the "convergence movement," the term referring to the "convergence" of various streams of renewal that shared an understanding of the church as one Body with a variety of diverse but contributing parts. Following the lead of British bishop Lesslie Newbigin, the convergence movement affirmed the threefold essence of the church as Catholic, Protestant, and Orthodox/Pentecostal. The church is Catholic as it relates to the emphases of "incarnation and creation," Protestant with an emphasis on "biblical proclamation and conversion, " and Orthodox/Pentecostal in relation to "the mystical and the Holy Spirit."
- Vinson Synan The Holiness-Pentecostal tradition: Charismatic movements in the ... - 1997 p294 "By 1990, like minded pastors were banding together in what they called a "convergence movement" designed to bring the three streams together in a new and powerful spiritual configuration. Even more striking were the cases of charismatic ..."
- The Encyclopedia of Christian Literature 1 p93 e.d George Thomas Kurian, James D. Smith, III - 2010 "It foreshadows the convergence movement of the late twentieth- and early-twenty-first-century churches that are liturgical/sacramental and evangelical/ reformed."
- Gillquist, Rev. Peter E. Becoming Orthodox: A Journey to the Ancient Christian Faith. Ben Lomond, CA: Conciliar Press, 1989. (ISBN 0-9622713-3-0)
- "Sound of Rushing Waters", by Daniel W. Williams, ACW Press/DQuest Publications, 2005. ISBN 1-932124-66-7
- "Forgotten Power", William L. DeArteaga, 2002 Zondervan Publishing, Grand Rapids Michigan, 49530, ISBN 0-310-24567-2
- Documents from The Chicago Call
- The Convergence Movement Written in 1992 by Wayne Boosahda and Randy Sly for the Complete Library of Christian Worship, Robert Webber, ed.
- Website of the International Communion of the Charismatic Episcopal Church.
- Website for the Priestly Society of the Inner Christ the Light-Convergence Society in the Independent Catholic tradition that primarily preaches the gospel of Universal Reconciliation
- Christian Communion International.
- Website of the Anglican Mission in the Americas.
- Website of the Anglican Church in North America.
- Website of the Communion of the Convergence Anglican Church.
- Website of the Holy Christian Orthodox Church
- Website of the Christian Orthodox Church of America
- Website of the Apostolic Pastoral Congress