Contrasting and categorization of emotions
The contrasting and categorisation of emotions describes how emotions are thought to relate to each other. Various recent proposals of such groupings are described in the following sections.
Contrasting basic emotions
The following table, based on a wide review of current theories, identifies and contrasts the fundamental emotions according to a set of definite criteria. The three key criteria used include mental experiences that:
- have a strongly motivating subjective quality like pleasure or pain;
- are in response to some event or object that is either real or imagined;
- motivate particular kinds of behavior.
The combination of these attributes distinguish the emotions from sensations, feelings and moods.
|Kind of Emotion||Positive Emotions||Negative Emotions|
|Related to Object Properties||Interest, curiosity||Alarm, panic|
|Attraction, desire, admiration||Aversion, disgust, revulsion|
|Surprise, amusement||Indifference, familiarity, habituation|
|Event-Related||Gratitude, thankfulness||Anger, rage|
|Joy, elation, triumph, jubilation||Sorrow, grief|
|Self-Appraisal||Humility Remembering who you are||Pride, Thinking or acting in a way above others|
|Social||Charity||Avarice, greed, miserliness, envy, jealousy|
HUMAINE's proposal for EARL
Parrott's emotions by groups
A tree-structured list of emotions was described in Shaver et al. (1987), and also featured in Parrott (2001).
Plutchik's wheel of emotions
In 1980 Robert Plutchik constructed a wheel-like diagram of emotions visualising eight basic emotions, plus eight derivative emotions each composed of two basic ones. He also theorized sixteen "Primary level" and "Secondary level" emotions, whose components were farther apart.
- Dyads (Combinations)
|Human feelings (results of emotions)||Emotions||Opposite||Emotions|
|Love||Joy + Trust||Remorse||Sadness + Disgust|
|Guilt||Joy + Fear||Envy||Sadness + Anger|
|Delight||Joy + Surprise||Pessimism||Sadness + Anticipation|
|Submission||Trust + Fear||Contempt||Disgust + Anger|
|Curiosity||Trust + Surprise||Cynicism||Disgust + Anticipation|
|Sentimentality||Trust + Sadness||Morbidness||Disgust + Joy|
|Awe||Fear + Surprise||Aggression||Anger + Anticipation|
|Despair||Fear + Sadness||Pride||Anger + Joy|
|Shame||Fear + Disgust||Dominance||Anger + Trust|
|Disappointment||Surprise + Sadness||Optimism||Anticipation + Joy|
|Unbelief||Surprise + Disgust||Hope||Anticipation + Trust|
|Outrage||Surprise + Anger||Anxiety||Anticipation + Fear|
- Affect (psychology)
- Basic emotions
- Emotion and memory
- Emotion classification
- Emotional mood
- List of virtues
- Robinson, D. L. (2009). "Brain function, mental experience and personality". The Netherlands Journal of Psychology. pp. 152–167.
- "HUMAINE Emotion Annotation and Representation Language". Emotion-research.net. Retrieved June 30, 2006.
- Shaver, P.; Schwartz, J.; Kirson, D. & O'connor, C. (1987). "Emotion knowledge: further exploration of a prototype approach". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 52 (6): 1061. doi:10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2061. PMID 3598857.
- Parrott, W. (2001). Emotions in Social Psychology. Key Readings in Social Psychology. Philadelphia: Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0863776830.
- Plutchik, R. "The Nature of Emotions". American Scientist. Archived from the original on July 16, 2001. Retrieved 14 April 2011.
- Atifa Athar; M. Saleem Khan; Khalil Ahmed; Aiesha Ahmed; Nida Anwar (June 2011). "A Fuzzy Inference System for Synergy Estimation of Simultaneous Emotion Dynamics in Agents". International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research. 2 (6).
- That page presents lists from Ekman, Lazarus, Ortony et al., and Goleman
- A table of basic emotions according to a variety of authors
- An organized list of over 800 English emotion words, maintained by Steven DeRose
- Jessica Hagy, Plutchik’s Wheel of Emotions emotions in Venn format]