Sequoia sempervirens

Sequoia sempervirens
S. sempervirens along US 199
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Pinophyta
Class: Pinopsida
Order: Pinales
Family: Cupressaceae
Genus: Sequoia
Species: S. sempervirens
Binomial name
Sequoia sempervirens
(D. Don) Endl.

Taxodium sempervirens D. Don
Abies religiosa Hook. & Arn., non Lindl., nom illeg.
Gigantabies taxifolia J. Nelson
Schubertia sempervirens (D.Don) Spach
Sequoia gigantea Endl., non (Lindl.) Decne
Sequoia pyramidata hort. ex Carrière
Sequoia religiosa C.Presl
Sequoia taxifolia hort. ex K.Koch
Steinhauera sempervirens (D.Don) Voss

Trunk in sectional view
Sequoia sempervirens - MHNT

Sequoia sempervirens /sˈkɔɪ.ə sɛmpərˈvaɪərənz/[2] is the sole living species of the genus Sequoia in the cypress family Cupressaceae (formerly treated in Taxodiaceae). Common names include coast redwood, coastal redwood[3] and California redwood.[4] It is an evergreen, long-lived, monoecious tree living 1,200–1,800 years or more.[5] This species includes the tallest living trees on Earth, reaching up to 379 feet (115.5 m) in height (without the roots) and up to 29.2 feet (8.9 m) in diameter at breast height (dbh).[6] These trees are also among the oldest living things on Earth. Before commercial logging and clearing began by the 1850s, this massive tree occurred naturally in an estimated 2,100,000 acres (8,500 km2) along much of coastal California (excluding southern California where rainfall is not sufficient) and the southwestern corner of coastal Oregon within the United States. An estimated 70% or more of ancient old-growth redwood trees have been displaced by environmental changes or cut down.[7]

The name sequoia sometimes refers to the subfamily Sequoioideae, which includes S. sempervirens along with Sequoiadendron (giant sequoia) and Metasequoia (dawn redwood). Here, the term redwood on its own refers to the species covered in this article, and not to the other two species.


Scottish botanist David Don described the redwood as the evergreen taxodium (Taxodium sempervirens) in his colleague Aylmer Bourke Lambert's 1824 work A description of the genus Pinus.[8] Austrian botanist Stephan Endlicher erected the genus Sequoia in his 1847 work Synopsis coniferarum, giving the redwood its current binomial name of Sequoia sempervirens.[9] The redwood is one of three living species, each in its own genus, in the subfamily Sequoioideae. Molecular studies have shown the three to be each other's closest relatives, generally with the redwood and giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron giganteum) as each other's closest relatives. However, Yang and colleagues in 2010 queried the polyploid state of the redwood and speculate that it may have arisen as an ancient hybrid between ancestors of the giant sequoia and dawn redwood (Metasequoia). Using two different single copy nuclear genes, LFY and NLY, to generate phylogenetic trees, they found that Sequoia was clustered with Metasequoia in the tree generated using the LFY gene, but with Sequoiadendron in the tree generated with the NLY gene. Further analysis strongly supported the hypothesis that Sequoia was the result of a hybridization event involving Metasequoia and Sequoiadendron. Thus, Yang and colleagues hypothesize that the inconsistent relationships among Metasequoia, Sequoia, and Sequoiadendron could be a sign of reticulate evolution (in which two species hybridize and give rise to a third) among the three genera. However, the long evolutionary history of the three genera (the earliest fossil remains being from the Jurassic) make resolving the specifics of when and how Sequoia originated once and for all a difficult matter—especially since it in part depends on an incomplete fossil record.[10]


Bark detail

The coast redwood can reach 115 m (377 ft) tall with a trunk diameter of 9 m (30 ft).[11] It has a conical crown, with horizontal to slightly drooping branches. The bark can be very thick, up to 1-foot (30 cm), and quite soft and fibrous, with a bright red-brown color when freshly exposed (hence the name redwood), weathering darker. The root system is composed of shallow, wide-spreading lateral roots.

The leaves are variable, being 15–25 mm (0.59–0.98 in) long and flat on young trees and shaded shoots in the lower crown of old trees. On the other hand, they are scale-like, 5–10 mm (0.20–0.39 in) long on shoots in full sun in the upper crown of older trees, with a full range of transition between the two extremes. They are dark green above and have two blue-white stomatal bands below. Leaf arrangement is spiral, but the larger shade leaves are twisted at the base to lie in a flat plane for maximum light capture.

The species is monoecious, with pollen and seed cones on the same plant. The seed cones are ovoid, 15–32 millimetres (0.59–1.26 in) long, with 15–25 spirally arranged scales; pollination is in late winter with maturation about 8–9 months after. Each cone scale bears three to seven seeds, each seed 3–4 millimetres (0.12–0.16 in) long and 0.5 millimetres (0.020 in) broad, with two wings 1 millimetre (0.039 in) wide. The seeds are released when the cone scales dry out and open at maturity. The pollen cones are ovular and 4–6 millimetres (0.16–0.24 in) long.

Its genetic makeup is unusual among conifers, being a hexaploid (6n) and possibly allopolyploid (AAAABB).[12] Both the mitochondrial and chloroplast genomes of the redwood are paternally inherited.[13]

Distribution and habitat

Sunlight shining through redwoods in Muir Woods
Fog is of major importance in coast redwood ecology. Redwood National Park

Coast redwoods occupy a narrow strip of land approximately 750 km (470 mi) in length and 5–47 mi (8.0–75.6 km) in width along the Pacific coast of North America; the most southerly grove is in Monterey County, California, and the most northerly groves are in extreme southwestern Oregon. The prevailing elevation range is 98–2,460 ft (30–750 m) above sea level, occasionally down to 0 and up to 3,000 ft (about 920 m).[14] They usually grow in the mountains where precipitation from the incoming moisture off the ocean is greater. The tallest and oldest trees are found in deep valleys and gullies, where year-round streams can flow, and fog drip is regular. The trees above the fog layer, above about 2,296 ft (700 m), are shorter and smaller due to the drier, windier, and colder conditions. In addition, Douglas fir, pine, and tanoak often crowd out redwoods at these elevations. Few redwoods grow close to the ocean, due to intense salt spray, sand, and wind. Coalescence of coastal fog accounts for a considerable part of the trees' water needs.[15]

The northern boundary of its range is marked by groves on the Chetco River on the western fringe of the Klamath Mountains, near the California-Oregon border. The largest (and tallest) populations are in Redwood National and State Parks (Del Norte and Humboldt Counties) and Humboldt Redwoods State Park (Humboldt County, California), with the majority located in the much larger Humboldt County. The southern boundary of its range is the Los Padres National Forest's Silver Peak Wilderness in the Santa Lucia Mountains of the Big Sur area of Monterey County, California. The southernmost grove is in the Southern Redwood Botanical Area, just north of the national forest's Salmon Creek trailhead.[16] The southernmost grove can be seen from California Highway 1 at the approximate coordinates 35°49'42 N 121°23'14 W.

The prehistoric fossil range of the genus is considerably greater, with a subcosmopolitan distribution including Europe and Asia until about 5 million years ago. During the last ice age, perhaps as recently as 10,000 years ago, redwood trees grew as far south as the Los Angeles area (coast redwood bark found in subway excavations and at La Brea tar pits).


This native area provides a unique environment with heavy seasonal rains up to 100 inches (2,500 mm) annually. Cool coastal air and fog drip keep this forest consistently damp year round. Several factors, including the heavy rainfall, create a soil with fewer nutrients than the trees need, causing them to depend heavily on the entire biotic community of the forest, especially complete recycling of the trees when dead. This forest community includes coast Douglas fir, Pacific madrone, tanoak, western hemlock, and other trees, along with a wide variety of ferns, mosses, mushrooms, and redwood sorrel. Redwood forests provide habitat for a variety of amphibians, bird, mammals, and reptiles. Old-growth redwood stands provide habitat for the federally threatened spotted owl and the California-endangered marbled murrelet.

The thick, tannin-rich bark, combined with foliage starting high above the ground, provides good protection from both fire and insect damage, contributing to the coast redwood's longevity. The oldest known specimen is about 2,200 years old;[17] many others in the wild exceed 600 years. The numerous claims of older trees are incorrect.[17] Because of their seemingly timeless lifespans, coast redwoods were deemed the "everlasting redwood" at the turn of the century; in Latin, sempervirens means "ever green" or "everlasting". Redwood must endure fire to attain such great ages, so this species has many fire-resistant characteristics. In addition, fires appear to actually benefit redwoods by causing substantial mortality in competing species while having only minor effects on redwood. A study published in 2010, the first to compare postwildfire survival and regeneration of redwood and associated species, concluded fires of all severity increase the relative abundance of redwood and higher-severity fires provide the greatest benefit.[18]

The height of S. sempervirens is closely tied to fog availability; taller trees become less frequent as fog becomes less frequent.[19] As S. sempervirens’ height increases, transporting water via water potential to the leaves becomes increasingly more difficult due to gravity.[20][21][22] Despite the high rainfall that the region receives (up to 100 cm), the leaves in the upper canopy are stressed for water.[23][24] The water stress is believed to cause the morphological changes in the leaves, stimulating reduced leaf length and increased leaf succulence.[21][25] Water stress is reduced in the upper canopy by the leaves taking in fog from the surrounding air through the epidermal tissue, bypassing the xylem.[26][27] The uptake of water through the leaves causes the xylem flow to reverse, which repairs and reduces the severity of cavitations.[28]


A ring of redwoods as seen from below

Coast redwood reproduces both sexually by seed and asexually by sprouting of buds, layering, or lignotubers. Seed production begins at 10–15 years of age, and large seed crops occur frequently, but viability of the seed is low, typically well below 15%.[29] The low viability may discourage seed predators, which do not want to waste time sorting chaff (empty seeds) from edible seeds. The winged seeds are small and light, weighing 3.3–5.0 mg (200–300 seeds/g; 5,600–8,500/ounce). The wings are not effective for wide dispersal, and seeds are dispersed by wind an average of only 60–120 m (200–390 ft) from the parent tree. Growth of seedlings is very fast, with young trees known to reach 20 m (66 ft) tall in 20 years.

Coast redwoods can also reproduce asexually by layering or sprouting from the root crown, stump, or even fallen branches; if a tree falls over, it will regenerate a row of new trees along the trunk, so many trees naturally grow in a straight line. Sprouts originate from dormant or adventitious buds at or under the surface of the bark. The dormant sprouts are stimulated when the main adult stem gets damaged or starts to die. Many sprouts spontaneously erupt and develop around the circumference of the tree trunk. Within a short period after sprouting, each sprout will develop its own root system, with the dominant sprouts forming a ring of trees around the parent root crown or stump. This ring of trees is called a "fairy ring". Sprouts can achieve heights of 2.3 m (7.5 ft) in a single growing season.

Redwoods may also reproduce using burls. A burl is a woody lignotuber that commonly appears on a redwood tree below the soil line, though usually within 3 metres (10 ft) in depth from the soil surface. Burls are capable of sprouting into new trees when detached from the parent tree, though exactly how this happens is yet to be studied. Shoot clones commonly sprout from burls and are often turned into decorative hedges when found in suburbia.

The species is very tolerant of flooding and flood deposits, the roots rapidly growing into thick silt deposits after floods.

Cultivation and uses

An example of a bonsai redwood, from the Brooklyn Botanic Garden
The Skyline-to-the-Sea Trail passing through a fallen California redwood tree

Coast redwood is one of the most valuable timber species in the lumbering industry. In California, 899,000 acres (3,640 km2) of redwood forest are logged, virtually all of it second growth.[30] Though many entities have existed in the cutting and management of redwoods, perhaps none has had a more storied role than the Pacific Lumber Company (1863–2008) of Humboldt County, California, where it owned and managed over 200,000 acres (810 km2) of forests, primarily redwood. Coast redwood lumber is highly valued for its beauty, light weight, and resistance to decay. Its lack of resin makes it resistant to fire.

P.H. Shaughnessy, Chief Engineer of the San Francisco Fire Department wrote,

"In the recent great fire of San Francisco, that began April 18th, 1906, we succeeded in finally stopping it in nearly all directions where the unburned buildings were almost entirely of frame construction, and if the exterior finish of these buildings had not been of redwood lumber, I am satisfied that the area of the burned district would have been greatly extended."

Because of its impressive resistance to decay, redwood was extensively used for railroad ties and trestles throughout California. Many of the old ties have been recycled for use in gardens as borders, steps, house beams, etc. Redwood burls are used in the production of table tops, veneers, and turned goods.

The coast redwood is naturalized in New Zealand, notably at Whakarewarewa Forest, Rotorua.[31] Redwood has been grown in New Zealand plantations for over 100 years, and those planted in New Zealand have higher growth rates than those in California, mainly due to even rainfall distribution through the year.[32] Other areas of successful cultivation outside of the native range include Great Britain, Italy, Portugal,[33] the Queen Charlotte Islands, middle elevations of Hawaii, Hogsback in South Africa, a small area in central Mexico (Jilotepec), and the southeastern United States from eastern Texas to Maryland. It also does well in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia), far north of its northernmost native range in southwestern Oregon. Coast redwood trees were used in a display at Rockefeller Center and then given to Longhouse Reserve in East Hampton, Long Island, New York, and these have now been living there for over twenty years and have survived at 2 °F (−17 °C).[34]

This fast-growing tree can be grown as an ornamental specimen in those large parks and gardens that can accommodate its massive size. It has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[35]


Dried resin of a redwood tree
The foliage of an "albino" Sequoia sempervirens exhibiting lack of chlorophyll

Trees over 200 feet (60 m) are common, and many are over 300 ft (90 m). The current tallest tree is the Hyperion tree, measuring 379.3 ft (115.61 m).[17] The tree was discovered in Redwood National Park during the summer of 2006 by Chris Atkins and Michael Taylor, and is thought to be the world's tallest living organism. The previous record holder was the Stratosphere Giant in Humboldt Redwoods State Park at 370.2 ft (112.84 m) (as measured in 2004). Until it fell in March 1991, the "Dyerville Giant" was the record holder. It, too, stood in Humboldt Redwoods State Park and was 372 ft (113.4 m) high and estimated to be 1,600 years old. This huge fallen giant has been preserved in the park to allow visitors to walk the trail along its trunk.

Forty-one measured living trees are more than 360 ft (109.7 m) tall,[36] and 178 are more than 350 ft (106.7 m) tall.[36] Preliminary LiDAR data indicate hundreds of additional trees are in excess of 350 ft (106.7 m), which were previously unknown.[37] A tree claimed to be 380 ft (115.8 m) was cut down in 1914,[38] and another claimed to be 424 ft (129.2 m) was felled in November 1886 by the Elk River Mill and Lumber Co. in Humboldt County, yielding 79,736 marketable board feet from 21 cuts.[39][40][41] However, these accounts and many others must be viewed with skepticism as limited evidence corroborates the measurements, and exaggerated claims were not uncommon in the lumber industry.

Although coast redwoods are the tallest known living trees, historical accounts of taller Australian mountain ash and Douglas fir trees exist – sometimes exceeding 400 ft (122 m). Like most of the redwoods, these giants fell victim to widespread commercial logging in the 19th and 20th centuries and the tallest existing specimens of each are much shorter than the tallest redwoods. A Douglas fir that fell in 1924 in Mineral, Washington was determined to have been about 1020 years old, 393 ft (119.8 m) high, and 15.4 ft (4.69 m) in diameter by two highly respected forest scientists.[42] Another Douglas fir cut down in 1902 at Lynn Valley on the north shore of the city of Vancouver, British Columbia was reported to have measured 415 ft (126.5 m) in height and 14.3 ft (4.36 m) in diameter, although these measurements are somewhat less certain.[43] Other accounts claim felled Douglas firs were as tall as 465 feet (141.7 m).[44][45][46][47]

These accounts aside, fairly solid evidence indicates that coast redwoods were the world's largest trees before logging, with numerous historical specimens reportedly over 400 ft (122 m).[48] The theoretical maximum potential height of coast redwoods is thought to be limited to between 400 and 425 ft (121.9 and 129.5 m), as evapotranspiration is insufficient to transport water to leaves beyond this range.[20] Further studies have indicated this cap is eased by fog, which is prevalent in these trees' natural environment.[49]

The largest known living coast redwood used to be "Iluvatar", with an estimated single trunk volume of 37,500 cu ft (1,060 m3), but more giant redwoods were discovered in 2014, including Grogan's Fault, with 38,299 cu ft (1,084.5 m3). Lost Monarch has been reported as the largest in the past, but its main trunk is 36,500 cu ft (1,030 m3).

About 230 albino redwoods (mutant individuals that cannot manufacture chlorophyll) are known to exist,[50][51] reaching heights of up to 20 m (66 ft).[52] These trees survive as parasites, obtaining food by grafting their root systems with those of normal trees. While similar mutations occur sporadically in other conifers, no cases are known of such individuals surviving to maturity in any other conifer species.. Recent research news reports that albino redwoods can store higher concentrations of toxic metals, going so far as comparing them to organs or "waste dumps"[53], [54]. Some obvious speculation in the news reports has been expertly countered. [55]

Largest trees

Redwood with a large burl in Humboldt Redwoods State Park

Some volumes shown are based on additional stems. Some extra stems have a point of origin above ground off the main trunk, but others stems can be basal and emerge from soil level. For Lost Monarch, some writers included 6,000 ft3 worth of large basal sprouts, referred to by Dr. Robert Van Pelt as "separate trees".[56] The largest single coast redwood tree trunk revealed is "Grogan's Fault". More have been found, but remain undisclosed. One apparently surpasses General Sherman's (Giant Sequoia) 1321 American Forest big tree registry champion points by 40 points or more.[6] The volume of Melkor and Illuvatar include extra stems. These are 12 of the largest coast redwoods by total wood volume in the main trunk, or trunk and stems combined, as of 2009 - 2016:.[57] Starting in 2014, a new trend emerged where new redwood discovery photos are not being released.[6]

Rank Name Volume Height Diameter Location Volume and Trunks
1 [6] undisclosed undisclosed undisclosed undisclosed RNP One of several undisclosed but reported trees discovered 2014 to 2016.[6] Whether this is the one surpassing General Sherman by more than 40 AF points is also undisclosed.
2 [58] Grogan's Fault [6] over 38,299 cu ft (1,084.5 m3) over 300 ft Over 25 ft., but a photo shows nearly 30 ft. trunk width.[59] RNP [58] Single. Reiterations not added to volume. 38,299 is one main trunk. Confirmed largest trunk for species in 2014. Retains 1307 points,[59] surpassing National Big Tree registry champion for Sequoia sempervirens. Discovered 2014.[60]
3 (2b) Melkor, aka Fusion Giant 39,100 cu ft (1,110 m3) 349 ft (106.4 m) 22.4 ft (6.83 m) RNP Fused. Total volume also includes all reiterations. The main trunk is 33,500 ft3 [6]
4 Iluvatar 37,500 cu ft (1,060 m3) 300 ft (91.4 m) 20.5 ft (6.25 m) PCRSP Single. Significant volume in 100 reiterated stems.[56] Main trunk is 32,890 ft3 [6]
5 Del Norte Titan 37,200 cu ft (1,050 m3) 307 ft (93.6 m) 23.7 ft (7.22 m) JSRSP Single. Significant volume in reiterated stems.[56] Main trunk is 33,670 ft3.[6] In the past, this was commonly referred to as the largest single-stem coast redwood. Discovered 1998.
6 Lost Monarch 36,500 cu ft (1,030 m3) 321 ft (97.8 m) 26.0 ft (7.92 m) JSRSP Multi-stem. 6,000 cu. ft. sprout (tree) from root soil.[56] Main bole 36,500 ft3. Some sources add extra sprout volumes for 42,500 ft3. Listed at American Forests and California Big Tree Registries as species champion with 1291 points. Discovered 1998.
7 El Viejo Del Norte 35,400 cu ft (1,000 m3) 324 ft (98.8 m) 23.0 ft (7.01 m) JSRSP Single.
8 Howland Hill Giant 33,580 cu ft (951 m3) 330 ft (100.6 m) 19.8 ft (6.04 m) JSRSP Single. All volume in main bole. A circulated description "stovepipe" refers to slow trunk taper, not a hollow in the bole.[6]
9 Sir Isaac Newton 33,192 cu ft (939.9 m3) 299 ft (91.1 m) 22.5 ft (6.86 m) PCRSP Single. Huge burl adds small percentage
10 Terex Titan 32,384 cu ft (917.0 m3) 270 ft (82.3 m) 21.3 ft (6.49 m) PCRSP Single. Includes small cave in base
11 Adventure Tree 32,140 cu ft (910 m3) 334 ft (101.8 m) 16.5 ft (5.03 m) PCRSP Single. Includes four small caves in upper trunk
12 Bull Creek Giant 31,144 cu ft (881.9 m3) 339 ft (103.3 m) 22.3 ft (6.80 m) HRSP Single. All volume in main bole [56]

Diameter stated is as measured at 1.4 m (about 4.5 ft) above average ground level (diameter at breast height). Details of the precise locations of all above trees have not been announced to the general public for fear of publicity causing damage to the trees and the surrounding ecology. The order of largest and tallest can change at any time due to new discoveries, loss of stem and foliage, growth, and new measurements. One of the better known internet databases for large conifers is the Gymnosperm Database,[17] but its data can be different from other resources due to differences in standards.

Tallest trees

Trees over 112 m (367 ft), as of 2010:.[36] New data are likely to be published without corresponding names, and the actual tallest trees may remain unknown after 2010, indefinitely. Moreover, it has been revealed by one authority that since 2013 new record height trees have been discovered, even exceeding that of Hyperion, and by 2014 Redwood National Park no longer held claim to the three tallest trees, but the specific locations and definite knowledge has been kept confidentially among only about 20 professional tree researchers and discoverers.[61]

Rank Name Height Diameter Location
1 Hyperion 379.3 ft (115.61 m) 15.2 ft (4.63 m) RNSP
2 Helios 375.9 ft (114.57 m) 16.0 ft (4.88 m) RNSP
3 Icarus 371.2 ft (113.14 m) 12.4 ft (3.78 m) RNSP
4 Stratosphere Giant 371.1 ft (113.11 m) 17.0 ft (5.18 m) HRSP
5 National Geographic 369.9 ft (112.75 m) 14.4 ft (4.39 m) RNSP
6 Orion 369.5 ft (112.62 m) 13.7 ft (4.18 m) RNSP
7 Lauralyn 369.5 ft (112.62 m) 14.9 ft (4.54 m) HRSP
8 Paradox 369.3 ft (112.56 m) 12.8 ft (3.90 m) HRSP
9 Mendocino 368.1 ft (112.20 m) 10.1 ft (3.08 m) MWSR
10 Apex 367.4 ft (111.98 m) 11.1 ft (3.38 m) HRSP

Diameter stated is as measured at 1.4 m (about 4.5 ft) above average ground level (at breast height). Details of the precise locations of all above trees have not been announced to the general public for fear of publicity causing damage to the trees and the surrounding ecology. The tallest coast redwood easily accessible to the public is the Founders Tree in Humboldt Redwoods State Park, standing over 346 ft tall (a taller coast redwood is accessible to the public in Tall Trees Grove of Redwood National Park).

Other notable examples

See also


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  2. Sunset Western Garden Book, 1995:606–607
    "sempervirent". Oxford English Dictionary (3rd ed.). Oxford University Press. September 2005. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
  3. "BSBI List 2007" (xls). Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Retrieved 2014-10-17.
  4. The related Sequoiadendron giganteum is commonly referred to as "giant redwood".
  5. "Sequoia gigantea is of an ancient and distinguished family". 2007-02-02. Retrieved 2012-08-07.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 "Coast Redwood Discovery. Sequoia sempervirens.".
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  8. Don, David (1824). Lambert, Aylmer Bourke, ed. A description of the genus Pinus :illustrated with figures, directions relative to the cultivation, and remarks on the uses of the several species. 2. London, United Kingdom: J. White. p. 24.
  9. Endlicher, Stephan (1847). Synopsis Coniferarum. St. Gallen: Scheitlin & Zollikofer.
  10. Yang, Z.Y.; Ran, J.H.; Wang, X.Q. (2012). "Three Genome-based Phylogeny of Cupressaceae s.l: Further Evidence for the Evolution of Gymnosperms and Southern Hemisphere Biogeography". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 64: 452–470. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2012.05.004.
  11. "Sequoia sempervirens (D. Don) Endlicher". Flora of North America. Retrieved 1 February 2015.
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  13. Neale, DB; Marshall, KA; Sederoff, RR (1989). "Chloroplast and Mitochondrial DNA are Paternally Inherited in Sequoia sempervirens". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 86 (23): 9347–9. Bibcode:1989PNAS...86.9347N. doi:10.1073/pnas.86.23.9347. PMC 298492Freely accessible. PMID 16594091.
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  16. "Los Padres National Forest". Retrieved 2012-08-07.
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  20. 1 2 Koch, G.W.; Sillett, S.C.; Jennings, G.M.; Davis, S.D. (2004). "The limits to tree height". Nature. 428: 851–854. doi:10.1038/nature02417.
  21. 1 2 Ishii, H. T.; Jennings, Gregory M.; Sillett, Stephen C.; Koch, George W. (July 2008). "Hydrostatic constraints on morphological exploitation of light in tall Sequoia sempervirens trees". Oecologia. 156 (4): 751–63. doi:10.1007/s00442-008-1032-z. PMID 18392856.
  22. Sperry, J. S.; Meinzer; McCulloh (May 2008). "Safety and efficiency conflicts in hydraulic architecture: scaling from tissues to trees. Plant". Plant, Cell, and Environment.
  23. Mullen, L. P.; Sillett, S. C.; Koch, G. W.; Antonie, K. P.; Antoine, M. E. (May 29, 2009). "Physiological consequences of height-related morphological variation in Sequoia sempervirens foliage" (PDF). Tree Physiology. 29 (8): 999–1010. doi:10.1093/treephys/tpp037. PMID 19483187.
  24. Ishii, H. T.; Azuma, Wakana; Kuroda, Keiko; Sillett, Stephen C. (May 26, 2014). "Pushing the limits to tree height: Could foliar water storage compensate for hydraulic constraints in sequoia sempervirens?". Functional Ecology. 28 (5): 1087–1093. doi:10.1111/1365-2435.12284.
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Further reading

External links

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