Chosen Government Railway
|Dates of operation||1909–1945|
|Predecessor||Gyeongin Railway, Gyeongbu Railway, military railways, etc|
1,435 mm (4 ft 8 1⁄2 in)|
762 mm (2 ft 6 in)
|Electrification||3000 V DC (1,435 mm)|
|Chosen Government Railway|
|Alternate Japanese name|
|Alternate Korean name|
The Chosen Government Railway was a state-owned railway company in Korea under Japanese rule, and was a department of the Railway Bureau (Japanese: 鐵道局, Tetsudōkyoku; Korean: 철도국, Cheoldoguk) of the Government-General of Korea, whose functions were the management and operation of railways in Korea, as well as the supervision of privately owned railway companies.
- 20 August 1899 - Gyeongin Railway from Incheon to Noryangjin (Seoul) opened;
- 1 October 1902 - Gyeongbu Railway from Yeongdeungpo (Seoul) to Myeonghak (Anyang) opened;
- 1 November 1903 - Gyeongbu Railway acquired the Gyeongin Line;
- 21 February 1904 - Temporary military railway established by the Japanese Army;
- 28 April 1905 - Military railway from Yongsan to Sinuiju opened;
- 1 July 1906 - Railway Office of the Administration of the Japanese Resident-General of Korea established; Gyeongbu Railway acquired;
- 1 September 1906 - Military railways transferred to the Railway Office;
- 18 June 1909 - The Railway Office abolished and the Chosen Government Railway established;
- 16 December 1909 - Korea Railway Administration established;
- 29 August 1910 - Korea annexed by Japan, Government-General of Korea and the Railway Bureau of the Government-General of Korea established; Korea Railway Administration transferred to Railway Bureau;
- 1 November 1911 - Bridge across the Yalu River completed, establishing a connection to the South Manchuria Railway;
- 31 July 1917 - Management and operation of the Korean portions of the South Manchuria Railway transferred to the Chosen Government Railway; management of the South Manchuria Railway itself transferred to a new Bureau of the Government-General in Seoul;
- 1 April 1925 - Management and operation of the Korean portions of the South Manchuria Railway transferred from the Chosen Government Railway to the new Manchuria Railway Bureau;
- 1 October 1934 - Management of the Chosen Government Railway lines north of Ch'ongjin transferred to the South Manchuria Railway;
- 12 March 1943 - Railway Bureau abolished, Chosen Government Railway transferred to the Ministry of Transportation.
After the end of the Second World War, all railways in Korea were nationalised, with the lines in South Korea becoming part of the Korean National Railroad, and those in North Korea becoming part of the Korean State Railway.
The organisation of the Railway Bureau as of 1 September 1941:
- General Affairs Section
- Railway Library
- Railway Clinic
- Research Division
- Inspection Division
- Marketing Division
- Transportation Division
- Construction Division
- Improvements Division
- Track Maintenance Division
- Work Division
- Electrical Division
- Accounting Department
- Railway Employees' Training School
- Regional Railway Bureaux: Gyeongseong (Seoul), Busan, Hamhŭng
- Railway Offices: Gyeongseong, Busan, Daejeon, P'yŏngyang, Sunch'ŏn, Wŏnsan, Sŏngjin, Kanggye
- Construction Offices: Gyeongseong, P'yŏngyang, Andong, Kangneung
- Improvements Offices: Gyeongseong, Busan, P'yŏngyang
- Railway Factories: Gyeongseong, Busan, Ch'ŏngjin
- Gyeongseong Railway Hospital
Steam locomotive classes were expressed in the form of two characters taken from the US-style wheel arrangement names, plus a class number.
The type designations included the following:
- Goro (ゴロ) - "Columbia", 2-4-2
- Ame (アメ) - "American", 4-4-0
- Moga (モガ) - "Mogul", 2-6-0
- Puri (プリ) - "Prairie", 2-6-2
- Toho (トホ) - "Ten-Wheeler", 4-6-0
- Pashi (パシ) - "Pacific", 4-6-2
- Sori (ソリ) - "Consolidation", 2-8-0
- Mika (ミカ) - "Mikado", 2-8-2
- Mate (マテ) - "Mountain", 4-8-2
- Sata (サタ) - "Santa Fe", 2-10-2
For example, 4-6-2 is Pacific type, thus "Pashi", 2-8-2 is Mikado type, thus "Mika".
The class number is taken from Japanese numbers:
- 1 - i (イ), from イチ, "ichi"
- 2 - ni (ニ), from ニ, "ni"
- 3 - sa (サ), from サン, "san"
- 4 - shi (シ), from シ, "shi"
- 5 - ko (コ), from ゴ, "go"
- 6 - ro (ロ), from ロク, "roku"
- 7 - na (ナ), from ナナ, "nana"
- 8 - ha (ハ), from ハチ, "hachi"
- 9 - ku (ク), from ク, "ku"
- 10 - chi (チ), from ヂウ, "jyu"
Thus, the third class of locomotives with a 4-6-2 wheel arrangement would be called パシサ - Pashisa.
Narrow-gauge steam locomotives did not use the designation forms based on wheel arrangement; instead, they all used ナキ ("Naki", from English "Narrow Gauge") plus a class number.
Classification of electric locomotives was slightly different from that used for steam locomotives. Although this also used the two character + class number arrangement, the first character was デ ("de", from 電気, denki, "electric"), while the second character indicated the number of powered axles (using the same number abbreviations as used for the class number). In practice, Sentetsu had only two types of electric locomotive, both with six powered axles - デロイ (DeRoI) and デロニ (DeRoNi).
The rail lines of the Chosen Government Railway in 1945:
- Bakcheon Line (Maengjung-ri-Pakch'ŏn) - to Korean State Railway Pakch'ŏn Line
- Bukcheong Line (Sinbukch'ŏng-Pukch'ŏng) - to Korean State Railway, extended to create Tŏksŏng Line
- Chaho Line (Chŭngsan-Ch'aho) - to Korean State Railway P'yŏngra Line as the Ch'aho Branch
- Chonnaeri Line (Ryongdam-Ch'ŏnnae) - to Korean State Railway Kangwŏn Line as the Ch'ŏnnae Branch
- Daegu Line (Daegu-Haksan) - to Korail Daegu Line
- Donghae Line (Moryang-Pohang) - to Korail Donghae Line
- Dohae Line (Kaep'ung-Haeju) - to Korean State Railway Paech'ŏn Line
- Domun Line (Hoeryŏng-Unggi) - to Korean State Railway as part of the Hambuk Line
- Gaecheon Line (Sinanju-Kaech'ŏn) - to Korean State Railway Kaech'ŏn Line
- Gangdeok Line (Namgangdŏk-Susŏng) - to Korean State Railway Kangdŏk Line
- Gunsan Line (Iksan-Gunsan) - to Korail Gunsan Hwamul Line
- Gwangju Line (Gwangju-Songjeong-ri) - to Korail Gwangju Line
- Gyeomipo Line (Hwangju-Songrim) - to Korean State Railway Songrim Line
- Gyeongbu Line (Seoul-Busan) - to Korail Gyeongbu Line
- Gyeongbuk Line (Gimcheon-Yeongju) - to Korail Gyeongbuk Line
- Gyeongin Line (Seoul-Incheon) - to Korail Gyeongin Line
- Gyeongjeon Line (Samnangjin, Miryang-Gwangju) - to Korail Gyeongjeon Line
- Gyeongui Line (Seoul-Sinŭiju) - split between Korail Gyeongui Line (Seoul-Dorasan-DMZ), and Korean State Railway P'yŏngbu Line (DMZ-Kaesong-P'yŏngyang) and P'yŏngŭi Line (P'yŏngyang-Sinŭiju)
- Gyeongwon Line (Seoul-Wŏnsan) - split between Korail Gyeongwon Line (Seoul-Sintalli-DMZ), and Korean State Railway Kangwŏn Line (DMZ-P'yŏnggang-Wŏnsan-Kowŏn)
- Hamgyeong Line (Wŏnsan-Sambong) - to Korean State Railway, split between Kangwŏn Line (Wŏnsan-Kowŏn), P'yŏngra Line (Kowŏn-Ch'ŏngjin) and Hambuk Line (Ch'ŏngjin-Sambong)
- Haseong Line (Hasŏng-Sariwŏn) - to Korean State Railway, merged with Hwanghae line to form Hwanghae Ch'ŏngnyŏn Line
- Hoeryeongtangwang Line (Hoeryŏng-Yusŏn) - to Korean State Railway Hoeryŏng T'an'gwang Line
- Honam Line (Daejeon-Mokpo) - to Korail Honam Line
- Hwanghae Line (Sanghae-Hasŏng) - to Korean State Railway, merged with Haseong line to form Hwanghae Ch'ŏngnyŏn Line
- Hyesan Line (Kilju-Hyesan) - to Korean State Railway Paektusan Ch'ŏngnyŏn Line
- Jangyeon Line (Sariwŏn-Ch'ŏlgwang) - to Korean State Railway Ŭllyul Line; Sugyo-Changyŏn branch to Changyŏn Line
- Jeolla Line (Iksan-Yeosu) - to Korail Jeolla Line
- Jinhae Line (Changwon-Tonghae) - to Korail Jinhae Line
- Jeongdo Line (Wangsin-Chŏngdo) - to Korean State Railway Ongjin Line as the Chŏngdo Branch
- Jungang Line (Seoul-Gyeongju) - also called Gyeonggyeong Line; to Korail Jungang Line
- Manpo Line (Sunch'ŏn-Manp'o) - to Korean State Railway Manp'o Line
- Masan Line (Samngangjin, Miryang-Masan) - to Korail Masan Line
- Naeto Line (Hwasan-Naeto) - to Korean State Railway as Naeto Branch of the former Hwanghae line, becoming part of the Hwanghae Ch'ŏngnyŏn Line
- Ongjin Line (Haeju-Ongjin) - to Korean State Railway Ongjin Line
- Paengmu Line (Paegam-Musan) - to Korean State Railway Paengmu Line
- Pyeongnam Line (P'yŏngyang-P'yŏngnam Onch'ŏn) - to Korean State Railway P'yŏngnam Line
- Pyeongwon Line (Sŏp'o, P'yŏngyang-Kowŏn) - to Korean State Railway, split between Ryongsŏng Line (Sŏp'o-Tongbuk-ri) and P'yŏngra Line (Tongbuk-ri-Kowŏn)
- Pyeongyangtangwang Line (P'yŏngyang–Sŭngho-ri) - to Korean State Railway, merged into P'yŏngdŏk Line (P'yŏngyang-Kujang)
- Riwon Cheolsan Line (Riwŏn Ch'ŏlsan-Ch'aho) - to Korean State Railway - to Korean State Railway P'yŏngra Line as the Riwŏn Branch
- Ryongdeung Line (Kujang-Ryongam) - to Korean State Railway Manp'o Line as the Ryongam Branch
- Ryongmuntangwang Line (Ŏryong-Ryongmun T'an'gwang) - to Korean State Railway Manp'o Line as the Ryongmun T'an'gwang Branch
- Yongsan Line (Yeongsan, Seoul-Gajwa, Seoul) - to Korail Yongsan Line
A number of private railways existed during the period of the Japanese occupation of Korea; these were overseen by the Railway Bureau. After the end of the Second World War, these were all nationalised, both in North and South Korea.
In 1945 the following privately owned railways were in operation in Korea:
- Gyeongchun Railway
- Busan Port Railway
- Chosen Anthracite Company Railway
- Chosen Coal Industry Railway
- Chosen Gyeongnam Railway
- Chosen Magnesite Development Railway
- Chosen Pyeongan Railway
- Chosen Railway
- Chosen Synthetic Oil Company Railway
- Danpung Railway
- Dasado Railway
- East Manchuria Railway
- Geumgangsan Electric Railway
- North Chosen Colonial Railway
- Pyeongbuk Railway
- Samcheok Railway
- Sinheung Railway
- South Manchuria Railway
- West Chosen Central Railway
- 철도주요연표 - 한국철도협회 Chronology of Major Railways - Korean Railway Association
- 대구선 일부구간 이설 개통 (in Korean). Silvernet News. 2005-11-14.
- 朝鮮總督府官報 (The Public Journal of the Governor-General of Korea), Shōwa Nr. 5143, 29 March 1944
- 朝鮮総督府官報 (The Public Journal of the Governor-General of Korea), Shōwa No. 669, 28 March 1929 (in Japanese)
- 朝鮮総督府官報 (The Public Journal of the Governor-General of Korea), Shōwa No. 1741, 26 October 1932 (in Japanese)
- 朝鮮総督府官報 (The Public Journal of the Governor-General of Korea), Shōwa No. 1963, 26 July 1933 (in Japanese)
- 朝鮮総督府官報 (The Public Journal of the Governor-General of Korea), Taishō No. 998, 1 December 1915 (in Japanese)
- "[책갈피 속의 오늘]1901년 경부선 철도 기공 ". The Dong-a Ilbo. 2007-08-20.
- "경영원칙 > 경영공시 > 영업현황 > 영업거리현황". Korail.
- Kokubu, Hayato (2007), 将軍様の鉄道 (Shōgun-sama no Tetsudō), Tokyo, Shinchosha, ISBN 978-4-10-303731-6
- Japanese Government Railways (1937), 鉄道停車場一覧. 昭和12年10月1日現在(The List of the Stations as of 1 October 1937), Kawaguchi Printing Company, Tokyo, p502
- "전라지방 - 교통∙통신체계의 발달" (PDF). Land Portal.
- 朝鮮総督府官報 (The Public Journal of the Governor-General of Korea), Shōwa No. 4536, 13 March 1942
- 朝鮮總督府官報 (The Public Journal of the Governor-General of Korea), Shōwa No. 1947 7 July 1933
- Korail, 철도주요연표(The Principal Chronic of the Korean Railway) 2010, 2010
- 朝鮮總督府官報 (The Public Journal of the Governor-General of Korea), Meiji No. 32, 5 October 1910
- 朝鮮總督府官報 (The Public Journal of the Governor-General of Korea), Shōwa Nr. 4236, 8 March 1941
- 朝鮮総督府官報 (The Public Journal of the Governor-General of Korea), Shōwa No. 5070, 27 December 1943
- 朝鮮総督部官報 (The Public Journal of the Governor–General of Korea), Shōwa No. 4854, 9 April 1943 (in Japanese)
- 朝鮮總督府官報 (The Public Journal of the Governor-General of Korea), Shōwa No. 4729, 4 November 1942
- 朝鮮總督府官報 (The Public Journal of the Governor-General of Korea), Shōwa No. 3505, 20 September 1938
- 朝鮮總督府官報 (The Public Journal of the Governor-General of Korea), Shōwa No. 4695, 19 September 1942
- 朝鮮總督府官報 (The Public Journal of the Governor-General of Korea), Shōwa No. 3788, 4. September 1939
- 朝鮮總督府官報 (The Public Journal of the Governor-General of Korea), Shōwa No. 3841, 8 November 1939
- 金剛山電気鉄道について (in Japanese)
- 朝鮮總督府官報 (The Public Journal of the Governor-General of Korea), Shōwa No. 3813, 3 October 1939
- 朝鮮總督府官報 (The Public Journal of the Governor-General of Korea), Shōwa Nr. 3736, 5 July 1939