Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development
|Headquarters||Wimbledon, London, England|
Peter Cheese, Chief Executive
The Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) is a professional association for human resource management professionals. It is headquartered in Wimbledon, London, England. The organisation was founded in 1913 - it is the world's oldest association in its field and has over 135,000 members internationally working across private, public and voluntary sectors. Peter Cheese was announced in June 2012 as CIPD's new CEO from July 2012.
In the United Kingdom factory inspectors were appointed for the first time in 1893. In 1896 to look after its women and child workers Rowntree's appointed their first inspector - a Mrs E M Wood. Edward Cadbury of Cadbury Brothers in 1909 called together employers to discuss industrial welfare work and as a result 25 employers formed an association with Mrs Wood of Rountree's as Secretary. The work of 'welfare workers' came to public attention during a trade show in 1912 at Olympia in London.
The forerunner of the CIPD, the Welfare Workers' Association (WWA) was formed at an employers' conference in York on 6 June 1913. The meeting was chaired by Seebohm Rowntree. Alongside his company, Rowntree's around fifty other companies were present including; Boots, Cadbury and Chivers and Sons. Thirty-four of the employers present decided that the WWA be founded as...an association of employers interested in industrial betterment and of welfare workers engaged by them. The outbreak of World War I in 1914 led to many women and children taking up the work of men, particularly in the larger munition factories where the appointment of welfare officers was made compulsory by legislation and was monitored by the Health of Munition Workers Committee. This led to the rapid expansion of female welfare workers. There were concerns about the training of welfare staff, and in 1917, at a gathering in Leeds of the seven welfare associations formed during the period it was agreed that they merge by forming the Central Association of Welfare Workers which to accommodate the regional associations established the beginnings of a local branch structure. The Association's position was also enhanced during the war years by nationally driven encouragement of workers to join trade unions to reduce the occurrence of industrial strife. Another development which increased the numbers of company staff dealing with labour and welfare matters occurred with the inclusion of managers, mainly men, from the North-western Area Industrial Association to assist with discipline, dismissal and industrial relations in increasingly unionised organisations. In 1918, to avoid confusion as to its purpose the Association changed its name to the Central Association of Welfare Workers (Industrial) (CAWWI).
Another important event which had a recurring impact on the activities of the CAWWI occurred in 1918 when the Rev. Robert Hyde founded the Boys’ Welfare Association soon after renamed the Industrial Welfare Society (IWS) with six employers who were concerned with the welfare of boys employed or apprenticed in the shipbuilding industry. From the outset there was a strained relationship between the two bodies which continued right through the inter-war period until resolved in 1946. Though both organisations were concerned with 'welfare at work' the CAWWI developed as an institution for practitioners and the IWS was established as a membership body for employers and there was strong disagreement on how best to bring about improvements in workplace conditions and workers' welfare. The IWS later became the Industrial Society and is now known as the Work Foundation.
The post-World War I period
In November 1919, following merger with welfare associations for men the Central Association of Welfare Workers (Industrial) was renamed the Welfare Workers' Institute and now had a membership of 700. However, the next five years saw a reduction in membership to 250 coinciding with the rapid collapse in industrial output as the government sought to reduce the national debt. Again in 1924 on incorporation the organisation changed its name to the Institute of Industrial Welfare Workers (IIWW). Minnie Louise Haskins, the author of the famous poem The Gate of the Year and a lecturer at LSE, was closely involved with the IIWW and edited its monthly bulletin. As a consequence of the activities of welfare workers during the General Strike of 1926 distrust in the welfare movement grew amongst trade unions which saw a new breed of 'labour managers' part of 'management' which was reflected in 1931 when the IIWW became the Institute of Labour Management and its magazine, rebranded Labour Management. Members of the institute experienced new demands during the 1930s. Firstly, economic growth resulted in a shortfall in skilled labour as companies competed to recruit workers. Secondly, this was followed by lay-offs and industrial action as a world-wide depression took hold, particularly in the industrially-focussed north of England. This influence also had the effect of increasing the number of male members of the institute which significantly shifted the gender balance of the membership. Thirdly, new human relations practices developed in the US were finding their way into more enlightened business which invested in their employees through training and provision of such things as salary benefits, pensions and paid holidays. In 1938 the first of the institute branches opened in the Republic of Ireland. In 1939 membership stood at 760. Mirroring the First World War during World War II, the government insisted on personnel officers to be deployed in factories engaged in war-related production.
The latter part of 20th century
Directly after the Second World War the incoming Labour government instigated a policy of industry nationalisation and launched the National Health Service, further increasing the role of personnel professions in handling public sector recruitment, retention, payroll, training, and industrial relations issues. The enlightened practices of large American corporations, some of which had adopted the ideas of human relations thinkers, such as Elton Mayo, and the Civil Service in the field of personnel management were being taken up by the larger UK companies. Both influences were reflected in a further change of name in 1946 to the Institute of Personnel Management (IPM).
The 1950s were marked by government efforts to improve productivity both through introducing more modern management practices and increase labour supply through encouraging migration of people from the British Commonwealth also known as the Windrush generation. In 1955, responding to these changes, the IPM sought to increase the professional standards and standing of its members by introducing an externally moderated examination scheme, and restricting entry to full membership to fully qualified or practising personnel officers over age 35 with several years' experience. Membership in 1956 stood at 3,979.
During the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s influences on the UK workplace ranged from a series of technological revolutions, economic pressures from entry into the Common Market and impact of globalisation, deregulation of the financial services industry (the Big Bang). Government intervention in industrial relations and the growth of health and safety, equality, collective and recruitment and employment legislation encouraged new specialisms to develop in the function. In some companies a shift was seen from reactive personnel management processes towards what became known as strategic human resource management practices, or in shorthand HRM. All these factors also influenced a steady increase in membership, which in 1987 was 31,400. The IPM underwent a period of contemplation during which it considered whether; to shift towards an HRM approach as its counterpart in the US the Society for Human Resource Management had already done, or to maintain its focus on the more traditional personnel management practices where the majority of its members still operated, or find a third way reflecting a more UK-focussed approach. In 1994, a merger took place between the IPM and the Institute of Training and Development (ITD). The new organisation which had 70,000 members was named the Institute of Personnel and Development (IPD), sought to represent the range of professionals engaged in one or more elements of people management.
Chartered status was achieved in 2000 and the IPD was incorporated under Royal Charter from 1 July of that year to become known as the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development (CIPD) and reported it had a membership of 120,000 practitioners. In June 2013 the CIPD commemorated its centenary year.
As of June 2014 the CIPD reported it had over 135,000 members working or studying both in the UK and internationally. Following the redesignation of chartered and non-chartered membership status in 2010 the membership structure comprises:
- Chartered Companion (CCIPD) By invitation only, awarded in recognition of contributions to the profession or the institute.
- Chartered Fellow (FCIPD) An upgrade from Chartered MCIPD, applicants must have at least 10 years relevant experience.
- Chartered Member (MCIPD) Awarded on request to graduate members who have three years' relevant managerial experience. Or a non-graduate member assessed against the professional standards after five years' relevant experience.
- Associate (Assoc CIPD) This Associate grade was introduced in 2010 and has since replaced the Licentiate grade in 2010 and Graduate level which was phased out in 2014.
- Affiliate: a basic level of membership, not assessed against professional standards but relevant qualification and work experience is mandatory.
On an annual basis the institute conducts regular surveys on reward management, employee expectations and attitudes to pay and benefits, resourcing and talent planning, and learning and development. The CIPD’s 2015 research programme includes specific projects on; the behavioural sciences and learning, people management in small and medium-sized enterprises, social media and technology impacts in the workplace, leadership and management development, valuing the impact of an organisation's people on business performance, the 'megatrends' shaping the labour market and the future workplace. Periodic research reports are published for members on the results from surveys and the findings from research projects.
The CIPD contributes on public policy issues on behalf of its members by using its in-house research team and draws on the professional experience of its members to develop responses to public policy issues including government consultations. It researches and publishes surveys and responds to media enquiries on the range of human resource issues such as labour markets, reward and employment policy. Commentating on labour market economics and trends has become an increasingly important feature of the CIPD's services to members. The institute's chief economist (currently Mark Beatson) provides economic intelligence to members via CIPD publications and events and as its key spokesperson on labour market economic analysis and forecasting is involved in promoting the institute in the national and business media.
The CIPD is represented at local level through its 52 branches in the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, Channel Islands, Isle of Man and Gibraltar. The branches provide learning and networking opportunities, events, information services, and membership and upgrading help for CIPD members and students.
The CIPD runs a training programme for international HR practitioners and has links with European and World Federations of HR. The CIPD hosted the 2008 WFPMA World HR Congress.
The CIPD website provides podcasts, an RSS news feed, blogs and a professional discussion forum.
CIPD Enterprises Limited is the wholly owned subsidiary of the CIPD. Commercial services supplied by CIPD Enterprises include:
- CIPD Publishing
- CIPD Training
- CIPD Events.
- People Management Jobs
Publications and events
- Haymarket Media Group publishes the HR journal People Management, on behalf of the Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
- Annual Conference and Exhibition: The CIPD ow holds its Annual Conference and Exhibition in Manchester during November
- HRD Conference and Exhibition: This is held at Olympia, London in April.
- Personnel Today "CIPD Appoints Peter Cheese as new chief executive" 16 May 2012
- CIPD What's New
- Qualifying Associations IIs by Geoffrey Millerson, Accessed 09 February 2014
- HRD Happy 100th anniversary CIPD, Accessed 09 February 2015
- [Human Resources in Organisations by John Leopold Pearson Education, 2002], Accessed 09 February 2015
- A potted history of work-related ideas and events CIPD June 1913, Accessed 09 February 2015
- Labour Management vs Welfare Work Alistair Evans PHd Thesis, University of West London 2003, Retrieved 10 February 2015
- Annual report. (1994-1999) London: Institute of Personnel and Development [and] Annual Report. (2000-2004/5) London Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development.
- CIPD Report and Financial Statement June 2014, Accessed 09 February 2015
- CIPD Transforming Membership accessed:26.04.10
- CIPD Transforming Membership - New membership criteria accessed:26.04.10 Archived March 9, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- Personnel Today - Associate membership will boost HR recognition Accessed: 26.04.10
- Personnel Today - CIPD membership changes raises concerns Accessed 26.04.10
- Personnel Today - Extra effort required if you want full CIPD membership Accessed 26.04.10
- What's new from CIPD research CIPD, Accessed 10 February 2015
- Dissecting the latest CIPD Labour Market Outlook report January 2014, Accessed 10 February 2015
- Business First August 2014 Archived February 10, 2015, at the Wayback Machine., Accessed 10 February 2014
- CIPD appoints Mark Beatson as Chief Economist published 29 Nov 2012, Accessed 09 February 2015]
- wage growth will struggle until 2016, says Chartered Institute of Personnel and Development City A.M., Accessed 10 Feb 2015
- "HRM Guide" accessed 23.09.2009 Archived October 26, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- "The Training Gateway" accessed 23.09.2009
- "Training Journal" accessed 23.09.2009
- CIPD website
- People Management
- People Management Jobs
- Catalogue of the CIPD archives, held at the Modern Records Centre, University of Warwick