Carpathian Biosphere Reserve
|Carpathian Biosphere Reserve|
|Карпатський біосферний заповідник|
|Coordinates||48°13′N 24°22′E / 48.217°N 24.367°ECoordinates: 48°13′N 24°22′E / 48.217°N 24.367°E|
|Area||57,880 hectares (143,000 acres)|
Carpathian Biosphere Reserve (CBR) was established as a nature reserve in 1968 and became part of the World Network of Biosphere Reserves of UNESCO in 1992. It consists of six separate massifs, two botanic preserves (Chorna Hora and Yulivska Hora) and regional landscape park Stuzhytsia, with a total area of 57,880 hectares (143,000 acres). The greatest part of the reserve is covered by virgin forests. Administratively, the biosphere reserve is located in four districts of Zakarpattia Oblast, Ukraine. It is adjacent to the Carpathian National Nature Park.
The territory of Carpathian Biosphere Reserve is divided into several functional zones: core (A) and buffer zones (B), zone of the regulated protected regime (D) and anthropogenic landscapes (C). They differ one from another by the nature use regimes. Such division helps to achieve the most appropriate balance between nature protection needs and the requirements of local people.
Chornohirskyi protected massif is located on the southern macroslope of the Chornohora, the highest mountain belt in the Eastern Beskids and the Ukrainian Carpathians. Its total area is 16,375 hectares (40,460 acres).
Kuziyskyi protected massif is located on the southern branches of the Svydovets mountain range at an altitude of 350–1409 m.a.s.l. with total area of 4925 ha. Its territory is completely located in the forest area.
Uholsko-shyrokoluzhanskyi protected massif is located on the southern slopes of the Krasna and the Menchil mountains grasslands at an altitude of 400 – 1280 m.a.s.l. The total area of the protected territory is 15580 ha.
The “Chorna hora" botanical preserve occupies a territory of 823 ha in the Volcanic Carpathians, on the Chornahora mountain, which is a part of the Hutynskiy range. It was established to preserve oak, hornbeam-oak, oak-beech and beech-oak forests in 1974 and became a part of the Carpathians biosphere reserve in 1997.
The "Yulivska Hora" botanical preserve covers an area of 176 ha on the slopes of the Yulivski mountains island massif in the Vyhorlat-Hutynskiy volcanic ridge. It was established in 1974 and became a part of the Carpathian biosphere reserve in 1997. It aimed to preserve the oak-groves formed by many heat-loving Balkan and Mediterranean species. It is characterized by the warmest climate in the whole Ukrainian Carpathians.
Regional landscape park "Stuzhytsa", with total area of 14 th. ha, was established in 1993 for virgin beech forests protection. 4250 ha of its territory is subordinated to the CBR.
Flora and fauna
The flora of CBR consists of 262 fungi species, 392 species of lichens, 440 species of mosses and 1062 species of vascular plants. The algal flora includes 465 species. 64 of plants species represented in this reserve are listed in the Ukrainian Red Data Book as well as in IUCN and the European Red Lists. The fauna of the Carpathian biosphere reserve is represented by 64 mammal species, 173 birds, 9 reptiles, 13 amphibians, 23 fish and more than 10,000 invertebrate species. 72 of these species are listed in the Ukrainian Red Data Book and in IUCN and the European Red Lists.
- UNESCO: Carpathian, July 2011
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