Cardinal electors for the papal conclave, 2013

The cardinal electors eligible to participate at the 2013 papal conclave are those cardinals under the age of 80 before the resignation of Pope Benedict XVI took effect on 28 February 2013. On March 13, 2013, the electors named Jorge Mario Cardinal Bergoglio as Pope, taking the name Francis.

List of attending cardinal electors

The following is a list of cardinal electors eligible and participating in the conclave.[1][2][3][4] Cardinals are ranked in order of precedence, with cardinal bishops having highest precedence, followed by cardinal priests, then cardinal deacons; precedence within each group is determined by date of elevation to the cardinalate. Within the group of cardinal-bishops, precedence is determined by the date they were promoted to cardinal-bishops which may or may not be the same as the date of elevation to the cardinalate. Also within the order of cardinal-bishops the cardinals with title to the suburbicarian sees take precedence followed by the patriarchs of sui iuris Eastern Catholic Churches whose patriarchal sees serve as their cardinalatial sees.[lower-alpha 1]

Four cardinal-electors came from the Eastern Catholic Churches, the biggest number up to that point since 1939 when Ignatius Gabriel I Tappouni, Patriarch of the Syrian Catholic Church participated as a cardinal-elector in the conclave of 1939[lower-alpha 2] having been created a cardinal with the title of Cardinal-Priest of Ss. XII Apostoli in 1935.[lower-alpha 3] The four Eastern Catholic cardinal-electors at the 2013 conclave were Coptic Catholic Patriarch-Emeritus Antonios Naguib, Maronite Patriarch Bechara Boutros al-Rahi,[lower-alpha 4] Syro-Malabar Major Archbishop George Alencherry and Syro-Malankara Major Archbishop Baselios Cleemis Thottunkal.[2][3][lower-alpha 5]

Two of these cardinals were the first from their sui iuris churches ever to participate in a papal conclave: Béchara Boutros Raï, Patriarch of Antioch of the Maronite Church[9][lower-alpha 6] and Baselios Cleemis, Major-Archbishop of Trivandrum of the Syro-Malankara Church, the first bishop from the Syro-Malankara Church to be created cardinal.[10] Baselios Cleemis was also the youngest cardinal-elector and the youngest member of the College of Cardinals.[3][11]

In addition to those listed below, an additional 90 living cardinals were excluded from the conclave by reason of age. The youngest of these, Lubomyr Husar of Ukraine, turned 80 only two days before the pope's resignation took effect. He is only seven days older than Walter Kasper of Germany, the oldest eligible cardinal elector in the conclave. Kasper in fact turned 80 shortly before the conclave started, but as he had been summoned to be an elector before that, he was not excluded.

No Name Date of Birth Country Office Rank
1 Re, Giovanni BattistaGiovanni Battista Re 30 January 1934  Italy Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Bishops Cardinal-Bishop
2 Bertone, TarcisioTarcisio Bertone 2 December 1934  Italy Secretary of State and Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church Cardinal-Bishop
3 Naguib, AntoniosAntonios Naguib 18 March 1935  Egypt Patriarch emeritus of Alexandria of the Copts Cardinal-Bishop/Patriarch
4 Raï, Béchara BoutrosBéchara Boutros Raï 25 February 1940  Lebanon Patriarch of Antioch of the Maronites Cardinal-Bishop/Patriarch
5 Danneels, GodfriedGodfried Danneels 4 June 1933  Belgium Archbishop emeritus of Mechelen-Brussels Cardinal-Priest
6 Meisner, JoachimJoachim Meisner 25 December 1933  Germany Archbishop of Cologne Cardinal-Priest
7 López Rodríguez, Nicolás de JesúsNicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez 31 October 1936  Dominican Republic Archbishop of Santo Domingo Cardinal-Priest
8 Mahony, RogerRoger Mahony 27 February 1936  United States Archbishop emeritus of Los Angeles Cardinal-Priest
9 Ortega y Alamino, Jaime LucasJaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino 18 October 1936  Cuba Archbishop of San Cristóbal de la Habana Cardinal-Priest
10 Turcotte, Jean-ClaudeJean-Claude Turcotte 26 June 1936  Canada Archbishop emeritus of Montreal Cardinal-Priest
11 Puljić, VinkoVinko Puljić 8 September 1945  Bosnia and Herzegovina Archbishop of Vrhbosna Cardinal-Priest
12 Sandoval Íñiguez, JuanJuan Sandoval Íñiguez 28 March 1933  Mexico Archbishop emeritus of Guadalajara Cardinal-Priest
13 Rouco Varela, Antonio MaríaAntonio María Rouco Varela 24 August 1936  Spain Archbishop of Madrid Cardinal-Priest
14 Tettamanzi, DionigiDionigi Tettamanzi 14 March 1934  Italy Archbishop emeritus of Milan Cardinal-Priest
15 Pengo, PolycarpPolycarp Pengo 5 August 1944  Tanzania Archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam Cardinal-Priest
16 Schönborn, ChristophChristoph Schönborn 22 January 1945  Austria Archbishop of Vienna Cardinal-Priest
17 Rivera Carrera, NorbertoNorberto Rivera Carrera 6 June 1942  Mexico Archbishop of Mexico (City) Cardinal-Priest
18 George, FrancisFrancis George 16 January 1937  United States Archbishop of Chicago Cardinal-Priest
19 Grocholewski, ZenonZenon Grocholewski 11 October 1939  Poland Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education Cardinal-Priest
20 Sepe, CrescenzioCrescenzio Sepe 2 June 1943  Italy Archbishop of Naples Cardinal-Priest
21 Kasper, WalterWalter Kasper 5 March 1933  Germany President emeritus of Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity Cardinal-Priest
22 Dias, IvanIvan Dias 14 April 1936  India Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples Cardinal-Priest
23 Agnelo, Geraldo MajellaGeraldo Majella Agnelo 19 October 1933  Brazil Archbishop emeritus of São Salvador da Bahia Cardinal-Priest
24 Bačkis, AudrysAudrys Bačkis 1 February 1937  Lithuania Archbishop of Vilnius Cardinal-Priest
25 Errázuriz Ossa, Francisco JavierFrancisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa 5 September 1933  Chile Archbishop emeritus of Santiago de Chile Cardinal-Priest
26 Terrazas Sandoval, JulioJulio Terrazas Sandoval 7 March 1936  Bolivia Archbishop of Santa Cruz de la Sierra Cardinal-Priest
27 Napier, WilfridWilfrid Napier 8 March 1941  South Africa Archbishop of Durban Cardinal-Priest
28 Rodríguez Maradiaga, Óscar AndrésÓscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga 29 December 1942  Honduras Archbishop of Tegucigalpa Cardinal-Priest
29 Cipriani Thorne, Juan LuisJuan Luis Cipriani Thorne 28 December 1943  Peru Archbishop of Lima Cardinal-Priest
30 Hummes, CláudioCláudio Hummes 8 August 1934  Brazil Prefect emeritus of Congregation for the Clergy Cardinal-Priest
31 Bergoglio, JorgeJorge Bergoglio (Elected Pope Francis) 17 December 1936  Argentina Archbishop of Buenos Aires Cardinal-Priest
32 Policarpo, JoséJosé Policarpo 26 February 1936  Portugal Patriarch emeritus of Lisbon Cardinal-Priest
33 Poletto, SeverinoSeverino Poletto 18 March 1933  Italy Archbishop emeritus of Turin Cardinal-Priest
34 Lehmann, KarlKarl Lehmann 16 May 1936  Germany Bishop of Mainz Cardinal-Priest
35 Scola, AngeloAngelo Scola 7 November 1941  Italy Archbishop of Milan Cardinal-Priest
36 Okogie, Anthony OlubunmiAnthony Olubunmi Okogie 16 June 1936  Nigeria Archbishop emeritus of Lagos Cardinal-Priest
37 Zubeir Wako, GabrielGabriel Zubeir Wako 27 February 1941  South Sudan
Archbishop of Khartoum Cardinal-Priest
38 Amigo Vallejo, CarlosCarlos Amigo Vallejo 23 August 1934  Spain Archbishop emeritus of Seville Cardinal-Priest
39 Rigali, Justin FrancisJustin Francis Rigali 19 April 1935  United States Archbishop emeritus of Philadelphia Cardinal-Priest
40 Antonelli, EnnioEnnio Antonelli 18 November 1936  Italy President emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Family Cardinal-Priest
41 Turkson, PeterPeter Turkson 11 October 1948  Ghana President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace Cardinal-Priest
42 Toppo, Telesphore PlacidusTelesphore Placidus Toppo 15 October 1939  India Archbishop of Ranchi Cardinal-Priest
43 Pell, GeorgeGeorge Pell 8 June 1941  Australia Archbishop of Sydney Cardinal-Priest
44 Bozanić, JosipJosip Bozanić 20 March 1949  Croatia Archbishop of Zagreb Cardinal-Priest
45 Phạm Minh Mẫn, Jean-BaptisteJean-Baptiste Phạm Minh Mẫn 5 March 1934  Vietnam Archbishop of Ho Chi Minh City Cardinal-Priest
46 Barbarin, PhilippePhilippe Barbarin 17 October 1950  France Archbishop of Lyon Cardinal-Priest
47 Erdő, PéterPéter Erdő 25 June 1952  Hungary Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest Cardinal-Priest
48 Ouellet, MarcMarc Ouellet 8 June 1944  Canada Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops Cardinal-Priest
49 Vallini, AgostinoAgostino Vallini 17 April 1940  Italy Vicar General of His Holiness for the Diocese of Rome Cardinal-Priest
50 Urosa, JorgeJorge Urosa 28 August 1942  Venezuela Archbishop of Caracas Cardinal-Priest
51 Ricard, Jean-PierreJean-Pierre Ricard 25 September 1944  France Archbishop of Bordeaux Cardinal-Priest
52 Cañizares Llovera, AntonioAntonio Cañizares Llovera 15 October 1945  Spain Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments Cardinal-Priest
53 O'Malley, Seán PatrickSeán Patrick O'Malley 29 June 1944  United States Archbishop of Boston Cardinal-Priest
54 Dziwisz, StanisławStanisław Dziwisz 27 April 1939  Poland Archbishop of Kraków Cardinal-Priest
55 Caffarra, CarloCarlo Caffarra 1 June 1938  Italy Archbishop of Bologna Cardinal-Priest
56 Brady, SeánSeán Brady 16 August 1939  Ireland
 Northern Ireland
Archbishop of Armagh Cardinal-Priest
57 Sistach, Lluís MartínezLluís Martínez Sistach 29 April 1937  Spain Archbishop of Barcelona Cardinal-Priest
58 Vingt-Trois, AndréAndré Vingt-Trois 7 November 1942  France Archbishop of Paris Cardinal-Priest
59 Bagnasco, AngeloAngelo Bagnasco 14 February 1943  Italy Archbishop of Genoa Cardinal-Priest
60 Sarr, Théodore-AdrienThéodore-Adrien Sarr 28 November 1936  Senegal Archbishop of Dakar Cardinal-Priest
61 Gracias, OswaldOswald Gracias 24 December 1944  India Archbishop of Bombay Cardinal-Priest
62 Robles Ortega, FranciscoFrancisco Robles Ortega 2 March 1949  Mexico Archbishop of Guadalajara Cardinal-Priest
63 DiNardo, DanielDaniel DiNardo 23 May 1949  United States Archbishop of Galveston-Houston Cardinal-Priest
64 Scherer, OdiloOdilo Scherer 21 September 1949  Brazil Archbishop of São Paulo Cardinal-Priest
65 Njue, JohnJohn Njue 31 December 1944  Kenya Archbishop of Nairobi Cardinal-Priest
66 Vela Chiriboga, Raúl EduardoRaúl Eduardo Vela Chiriboga 1 January 1934  Ecuador Archbishop emeritus of Quito Cardinal-Priest
67 Monsengwo Pasinya, LaurentLaurent Monsengwo Pasinya 7 October 1939  Democratic Republic of the Congo Archbishop of Kinshasa Cardinal-Priest
68 Romeo, PaoloPaolo Romeo 20 February 1938  Italy Archbishop of Palermo Cardinal-Priest
69 Wuerl, DonaldDonald Wuerl 12 November 1940  United States Archbishop of Washington Cardinal-Priest
70 Assis, Raymundo DamascenoRaymundo Damasceno Assis 15 February 1937  Brazil Archbishop of Aparecida Cardinal-Priest
71 Nycz, KazimierzKazimierz Nycz 1 February 1950  Poland Archbishop of Warsaw Cardinal-Priest
72 Ranjith, MalcolmMalcolm Ranjith 15 November 1947  Sri Lanka Archbishop of Colombo Cardinal-Priest
73 Marx, ReinhardReinhard Marx 21 September 1953  Germany Archbishop of Munich and Freising Cardinal-Priest
74 Alencherry, GeorgeGeorge Alencherry 19 April 1945  India Major Archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly Cardinal-Priest
75 Collins, Thomas ChristopherThomas Christopher Collins 16 January 1947  Canada Archbishop of Toronto Cardinal-Priest
76 Duka, DominikDominik Duka 26 April 1943  Czech Republic Archbishop of Prague Cardinal-Priest
77 Eijk, WimWim Eijk 22 June 1953  Netherlands Archbishop of Utrecht Cardinal-Priest
78 Betori, GiuseppeGiuseppe Betori 25 February 1947  Italy Archbishop of Florence Cardinal-Priest
79 Dolan, Timothy M.Timothy M. Dolan 6 February 1950  United States Archbishop of New York Cardinal-Priest
80 Woelki, RainerRainer Woelki 18 August 1956  Germany Archbishop of Berlin Cardinal-Priest
81 Tong Hon, JohnJohn Tong Hon 31 July 1939  People's Republic of China
 Hong Kong
Bishop of Hong Kong Cardinal-Priest
82 Cleemis, BaseliosBaselios Cleemis 15 June 1959  India Major Archbishop of Trivandrum Cardinal-Priest
83 Onaiyekan, JohnJohn Onaiyekan 29 January 1944  Nigeria Archbishop of Abuja Cardinal-Priest
84 Salazar Gómez, RubénRubén Salazar Gómez 22 September 1942  Colombia Archbishop of Bogotá Cardinal-Priest
85 Tagle, Luis AntonioLuis Antonio Tagle 21 June 1957  Philippines Archbishop of Manila Cardinal-Priest
86 Tauran, Jean-LouisJean-Louis Tauran 3 April 1943  France President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue Cardinal-Deacon/Protodeacon
87 Nicora, AttilioAttilio Nicora 16 March 1937  Italy President of Financial Information Authority Cardinal-Deacon
88 Levada, WilliamWilliam Levada 15 June 1936  United States Prefect emeritus of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith Cardinal-Deacon
89 Rodé, FrancFranc Rodé 23 September 1934  Slovenia Prefect emeritus of Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life Cardinal-Deacon
90 Sandri, LeonardoLeonardo Sandri 18 November 1943  Argentina Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches Cardinal-Deacon
91 Lajolo, GiovanniGiovanni Lajolo 3 January 1935  Italy President emeritus of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State Cardinal-Deacon
92 Cordes, Paul JosefPaul Josef Cordes 5 September 1934  Germany President emeritus of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum Cardinal-Deacon
93 Comastri, AngeloAngelo Comastri 17 September 1943  Italy Archpriest of St. Peter's Basilica, Vicar General for the Vatican City State Cardinal-Deacon
94 Ryłko, StanisławStanisław Ryłko 4 July 1945  Poland President of the Pontifical Council for the Laity Cardinal-Deacon
95 Farina, RaffaeleRaffaele Farina 24 September 1933  Italy Archivist and Librarian emeritus of the Holy Roman Church Cardinal-Deacon
96 Amato, AngeloAngelo Amato 8 June 1938  Italy Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints Cardinal-Deacon
97 Sarah, RobertRobert Sarah 15 June 1945  Guinea President of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum Cardinal-Deacon
98 Monterisi, FrancescoFrancesco Monterisi 28 May 1934  Italy Archpriest Emeritus of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls Cardinal-Deacon
99 Burke, Raymond LeoRaymond Leo Burke 30 June 1948  United States Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signature Cardinal-Deacon
100 Koch, KurtKurt Koch 15 March 1950   Switzerland President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity Cardinal-Deacon
101 Sardi, PaoloPaolo Sardi 1 September 1934  Italy Cardinal Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta Cardinal-Deacon
102 Piacenza, MauroMauro Piacenza 15 September 1944  Italy Prefect of the Congregation for the Clergy Cardinal-Deacon
103 Paolis, Velasio deVelasio de Paolis 19 September 1935  Italy Pontifical Delegate for the administration of the Legionaries of Christ Cardinal-Deacon
104 Ravasi, GianfrancoGianfranco Ravasi 18 October 1942  Italy President of the Pontifical Council for Culture Cardinal-Deacon
105 Filoni, FernandoFernando Filoni 15 April 1946  Italy Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples Cardinal-Deacon
106 Monteiro de Castro, ManuelManuel Monteiro de Castro 29 March 1938  Portugal Major Penitentiary Cardinal-Deacon
107 Abril y Castelló, SantosSantos Abril y Castelló 21 September 1935  Spain Archpriest of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore Cardinal-Deacon
108 Vegliò, Antonio MariaAntonio Maria Vegliò 3 February 1938  Italy President of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants Cardinal-Deacon
109 Bertello, GiuseppeGiuseppe Bertello 1 October 1942  Italy President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State Cardinal-Deacon
110 Coccopalmerio, FrancescoFrancesco Coccopalmerio 6 March 1938  Italy President of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts Cardinal-Deacon
111 Aviz, João Braz deJoão Braz de Aviz 24 April 1947  Brazil Prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life Cardinal-Deacon
112 O'Brien, Edwin FrederickEdwin Frederick O'Brien 8 April 1939  United States Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem Cardinal-Deacon
113 Calcagno, DomenicoDomenico Calcagno 3 February 1943  Italy President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See Cardinal-Deacon
114 Versaldi, GiuseppeGiuseppe Versaldi 30 July 1943  Italy President of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See Cardinal-Deacon
115 Harvey, James MichaelJames Michael Harvey 20 October 1949  United States Archpriest of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls Cardinal-Deacon

Non-attending cardinal electors

The following is a list of cardinal electors eligible to participate in the conclave but who did not attend.

No[2] Name[1] Date of Birth[3] Country Office[1] Rank[1] Reason cited for not attending
1 Darmaatmadja, JuliusJulius Darmaatmadja 20 December 1934  Indonesia Archbishop emeritus of Jakarta Cardinal-Priest Ill health and failing eyesight.[12]
2 O'Brien, KeithKeith O'Brien 17 March 1938  Scotland Archbishop emeritus of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh Cardinal-Priest Resigned his see because he admitted unchastity as a priest; desired not to be a distraction[13][14]

Number of cardinal electors by country

Papal Conclave of 2013[15]

Cardinal-electors by continent
  Rest of Europe
  North America
  South America
  Asia and Oceania
Total Electors 115
Not attending
Pope emeritus Benedict XVI
New pope Francis
Country Number of Electors
Italy 28
United States 11
Germany 6
Spain 5
India 5
Brazil 5
France 4
Poland 4
Mexico 3
Canada 3
Portugal 2
Nigeria 2
Argentina 2
Australia, Austria, Belgium, Bolivia,
Bosnia and Herzegovina, Chile,
Congo, Colombia, Croatia, Cuba,
Czech Republic, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, Egypt, Ghana, Guinea,
Honduras, Hong Kong, Hungary, Ireland, Kenya,
Lebanon, Lithuania, Netherlands,
Peru, Philippines, Senegal, Slovenia,
South Africa, Sri Lanka, Sudan,
Switzerland, Tanzania, Venezuela,
1 from each (35 total)
Total 115


  1. On February 11, 1965 Pope Paul VI decreed in his motu propio Ad Purpuratorum Patrum that Eastern Patriarchs who are elevated to the College of Cardinals would be made cardinal bishops, ranked after the suburbicarian cardinal-bishops, but not part of the Roman clergy and would not be assigned any Roman church or deaconry, their patriarchal see instead becoming their cardinalatial see.[5] This rule was confirmed by Pope John Paul II in the Code of Canon Law of 1983 Canon 350 §3.[6] Prior to this decree, Eastern Catholic patriarchs who were elevated to the cardinalate were given a titular Roman church or deaconry like any other cardinal. Eastern Catholic patriarchs who were elevated to the cardinalate prior to the 1965 decree were Armenian Catholic Patriarch Andon Bedros Hassoun (1880), Syrian Catholic Patriarch Ignatius Gabriel I Tappouni (1935) and Armenian Catholic Patriarch Grégoire-Pierre Agagianian (1946).
  2. The 1939 conclave had one Eastern Catholic cardinal-elector (Cardinal Tappouni); the conclaves of 1958, 1963, and 1978 (both August and October) had two Eastern Catholic cardinal-electors each and the 2005 conclave had three Eastern Catholic cardinal-electors.
  3. Prior to Patriarch Tappouni, the last Patriarch of a sui iuris Eastern Catholic Church who was made cardinal was the Patriarch of the Armenian Catholic Church Andon Bedros Hassoun who was made cardinal-priest of Ss. Vitale, Gervasio e Protasio by Pope Leo XIII on December 16, 1880[7] and the last Eastern Catholic prelate to be elevated to the College of Cardinals was Sylvester Sembratovych, archbishop of the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church who was made Cardinal-Priest of Santo Stefano al Monte Celio by Pope Leo XIII on November 29, 1895.[8] Both Hassoun and Sembratovych died before having an opportunity to participate in a conclave.
  4. His name is also sometimes listed as Béchara Boutros Raï
  5. His name is sometimes also shortened to Baselios Cleemis
  6. Raï is the fourth Maronite Cardinal-Bishop Patriarch. His three predecessors turned 80 before having the opportunity to participate in a conclave.


  1. 1 2 3 4 "Cardinal electors – Conclave of March 2013 – Arranged in alphabetical order". Salvador Miranda. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  2. 1 2 3 "Cardinal electors arranged by orders and precedence". Salvador Miranda. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  3. 1 2 3 4 "Cardinal electors arranged by age". Salvador Miranda. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  4. "Conclave of March 2013". Salvador Miranda. Retrieved 1 November 2013.
  5. "Ad Purpuratorum Patrum". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Retrieved 2013-05-27.
  6. 1983 Code of Canon Law - Canon 350 §3
  7. Miranda, Salvador. "HASSOUN, Andon Bedros". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  8. Miranda, Salvador. "SEMBRATOWICZ, Sylwester". The Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
  9. "No Arab in the running for Pope, but Maronite to get vote for first time". Al Bawaba News. 12 February 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  10. "Moran Mor Baselios Cardinal Cleemis left for Rome". Malankara Catholic News. 28 February 2013. Archived from the original on 27 September 2013. Retrieved 20 August 2013.
  11. "Living cardinals arranged by date of birth". Salvador Miranda. Retrieved 2 September 2013.
  12. "Conclave, Cardinal Darmaatmadja renounces for "health reasons"". Asia News. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  13. "Cardinal Keith O'Brien resigns, will not go to conclave". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 25 February 2013.
  14. Jerome Taylor (2013-03-04). "Catholic Church scandal: Cardinal O'Brien faces Vatican sexual conduct inquiry as he asks forgiveness of those he 'offended'". Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  15. "Resources on current eligible papal electors". Retrieved 2013-03-12.
  16. Hariyadi, Mathias (21 February 2013). "Conclave, Cardinal Darmaatmadja Renounces for 'Health Reasons'". AsiaNews. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
  17. Holden, Michael (25 February 2013). "Britain's Top Catholic Cleric Resigns, Won't Elect New Pope". Reuters. Retrieved 28 February 2013.
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