Grand Canal (Venice)
The Grand Canal (Italian: Canal Grande [kaˌnal ˈɡrande], Venetian: Canałasso [kanaˈɰaso]) is a canal in Venice, Italy. It forms one of the major water-traffic corridors in the city. Public transport is provided by water buses (Italian: vaporetti) and private water taxis, and many tourists explore the canal by gondola.
One end of the canal leads into the lagoon near the Santa Lucia railway station and the other end leads into Saint Mark Basin; in between, it makes a large reverse-S shape through the central districts (sestieri) of Venice. It is 3.8 km long, and 30 to 90 m wide, with an average depth of five meters (16.5 ft).
The banks of the Grand Canal are lined with more than 170 buildings, most of which date from the 13th to the 18th century, and demonstrate the welfare and art created by the Republic of Venice. The noble Venetian families faced huge expenses to show off their richness in suitable palazzos; this contest reveals the citizens’ pride and the deep bond with the lagoon. Amongst the many are the Palazzi Barbaro, Ca' Rezzonico, Ca' d'Oro, Palazzo Dario, Ca' Foscari, Palazzo Barbarigo and to Palazzo Venier dei Leoni, housing the Peggy Guggenheim Collection. The churches along the canal include the basilica of Santa Maria della Salute. Centuries-old traditions, such as the Historical Regatta, are perpetuated every year along the Canal.
Because most of the city's traffic goes along the Canal rather than across it, only one bridge crossed the canal until the 19th century, the Rialto Bridge. There are currently three more bridges, the Ponte degli Scalzi, the Ponte dell'Accademia, and the controversial Ponte della Costituzione from 2008, designed by Santiago Calatrava, connecting the train station to Piazzale Roma, one of the few places in Venice where buses and cars can enter. As was usual in the past, people can still take a ferry ride across the canal at several points by standing up on the deck of a simple gondola called a traghetto, although this service is less common than even a decade ago.
Most of the palaces emerge from water without pavement. Consequently, one can only tour past the fronts of the buildings on the grand canal by boat.
The first settlements
The Grand Canal probably follows the course of an ancient river (possibly a branch of the Brenta) flowing into the lagoon. Adriatic Veneti groups already lived beside the formerly-named "Rio Businiacus" before the Roman age. They lived in stilt houses and on fishing and commerce (mainly salt). Under the rule of the Roman empire and later of the Byzantine empire the lagoon became populated and important, and in the early 9th century the doge moved his seat from Malamocco to the safer "Rivoaltus".
Increasing trade followed the doge and found in the deep Grand Canal a safe and ship accessible canal-port. Drainage reveals that the city became more compact over time: at that time the Canal was wider and flowed between small, tide-subjected islands connected by wooden bridges.
Along the Canal, the number of "fondaco" houses increased, buildings combining the warehouse and the merchant's residence.
A portico (the curia) covers the bank and facilitates the ships' unloading. From the portico a corridor flanked by storerooms reaches a posterior courtyard. Similarly, on the first floor a loggia as large as the portico illuminates the hall into which open the merchant's rooms. The façade is thereby divided into an airy central part and two more solid sides. A low mezzanine with offices divides the two floors.
The fondaco house often had lateral defensive towers (torreselle), as in the Fondaco dei Turchi (13th century, heavily restored in the 19th). With the German warehouse, the Fondaco dei Tedeschi (which is also situated on the Grand Canal), it reflects the high number of foreign merchants working in Venice, where the republic supplied them with storerooms and lodging and simultaneously controlled their trading activity.
More public buildings were built along the Canal at Rialto: palaces for commercial and financial Benches (Palazzo dei Camerlenghi and Palazzo dei Dieci Savi, rebuilt after 1514 fire) and a mint. In 1181 Nicolò Barattieri constructed a pontoon bridge connecting Rialto to Mercerie area, which was later replaced by a wooden bridge with shops on it. Warehouses for flour and salt were more peripheral.
The Venetian-Byzantine style
From the Byzantine empire, goods arrived together with sculptures, friezes, columns and capitals to decorate the fondaco houses of patrician families. The Byzantine art merged with previous elements resulting in a Venetian-Byzantine style; in architecture it was characterized by large loggias with round or elongated arches and by polychrome marbles abundance.
Along the Grand Canal, these elements are well preserved in Ca' Farsetti, Ca' Loredan (both municipal seats) and Ca' da Mosto, all dating back to the 12th or 13th century. During this period Rialto had an intense building development, determining the conformation of the Canal and surrounding areas. As a matter of fact, in Venice building materials are precious and foundations are usually kept: in the subsequent restorations, existing elements will be used again, mixing the Venetian-Byzantine and the new styles (Ca' Sagredo, Palazzo Bembo). Polychromy, three-partitioned façades, loggias, diffuse openings and rooms disposition formed a particular architectural taste that continued in the future.
Venetian Gothic architecture found favor quite late, as a splendid flamboyant Gothic ("gotico fiorito") beginning with the southern façade of the Doge's Palace. The verticality and the illumination characterizing the Gothic style are found in the porticos and loggias of fondaco houses: columns get thinner, elongated arches are replaced by pointed or ogee or lobed ones. Porticos rise gently intertwining and drawing open marbles in quatrefoils or similar figures. Façades were plastered in brilliant colors.
The open marble fascias, often referred as "laces", quickly diffused along the Grand Canal. Among the 15th-century palaces still showing the original appearance are Ca' d'Oro, Palazzo Bernardo, Ca' Foscari (now housing the University of Venice), Palazzo Pisani Moretta, Palazzi Barbaro, Palazzo Cavalli-Franchetti.
By the start of the 15th century, Renaissance architecture motifs appear in such buildings as the Palazzo Dario and the Palazzo Corner Spinelli; the latter was designed by Mauro Codussi, pioneer of this style in Venice. Ca' Vendramin Calergi, another of his projects (now hosting the Casino), reveals a completed transition: the numerous and large windows with open marbles are round-arched and have columns in the three classical orders.
Classical architecture is more evident in Jacopo Sansovino's projects, who arrived from Rome in 1527. Along the Canal he designed Palazzo Corner and Palazzo Dolfin Manin, known for grandiosity, for the horizontal layout of the white façades and for the development around a central courtyard. Other Renaissance buildings are Palazzo Papadopoli and Palazzo Grimani di San Luca. Several palaces of this period had façades with frescoes by painters such as Il Pordenone, Tintoretto, Paolo Veronese, all of them unfortunately lost. Particularly noteworthy were the frescoes by Veronese and Zelotti on Ca Cappello, overlooking the Grand Canal at the intersection with the Rio de S. Polo.
In 1582, Alessandro Vittoria began the construction of Palazzo Balbi (now housing the Government of Veneto), in which Baroque elements can be recognized: fashioned cornices, broken pediments, ornamental motifs.
The major Baroque architect in Venice was Baldassarre Longhena. In 1631 he began to build the magnificent Santa Maria della Salute basilica, one of the most beautiful churches in Venice and a symbol of Grand Canal. The classical layout of the façade features decorations and by many statues, the latter crowning also the refined volutes surrounding the major dome.
Longhena later designed two majestic palaces like Ca' Pesaro and Ca' Rezzonico (with many carvings and chiaroscuro effects) and Santa Maria di Nazareth church (Chiesa degli Scalzi). For various reasons the great architect did not see any of these buildings finished, and the designs for all but Santa Maria della Salute were modified after his death.
Longhena's themes recur in the two older façades of Palazzo Labia, containing a famous fresco cycle by Giambattista Tiepolo. In the Longhenian school grew Domenico Rossi (San Stae's façade, Ca' Corner della Regina) and Giorgio Massari, who later completed Ca' Rezzonico.
The 16th and 17th centuries mark the beginning of the Republic's decline, but nevertheless they saw the highest building activity on the Grand Canal. This can be partially explained by the increasing number of families (like the Labia) becoming patrician by the payment of an enormous sum to the Republic, which was then facing financial difficulties. Once these families had achieved this new status, they built themselves with impressive residences on the Canal, often inducing other families to renew theirs.
Neoclassical architectures along the Canal date to the 18th century: during the first half was built San Simeone Piccolo, with an impressive corinthian portico, central plan and a high copper-covered dome ending in a cupola shaped as a temple. Date to the second half Massari's Palazzo Grassi.
After the fall of the Republic in 1797, much of the palatial construction in Venice was suspended, as symbolized by the unfinished San Marcuola and Palazzo Venier dei Leoni (housing the Peggy Guggenheim Collection). The Patrician families, bereft of their hereditary role in governance and sometimes persecuted by revolutionary forces, sought other residences. Several historical palaces were pulled down, but many found other uses, and some restorations have saved their 18th century appearance. By the late 20th century, most of the more prominent palaces were owned by the city, state, or civic institutions.
During the era of the Kingdom of Italy, the Napoleonic suppression of the monastic religious orders vacated large sectors of real estate in the city. It also freed large amounts of furnishings and works of art into the antiquarian market or into the possession of the state. Large monasteries changed functions: the Santa Maria della Carità complex became a museum, the Gallerie dell'Accademia); the Santa Croce complex, was converted into the Papadopoli Gardens area; and the Santa Lucia complex (partially designed by Palladio) was razed for the establishment of the Santa Lucia Station.
The Kingdom of Italy accession restored serenity in the city and stimulated construction along the Grand Canal respecting its beauty, often reproduced in Gothic Revival architectures like the Pescaria at Rialto.
On the first Sunday of September takes place the Historical Regatta ("Regata Storica"), a competition between Venetian boats watched by thousands of people from the banks or from floating stands. Competitions are preceded by a historical procession ("Corteo Storico") remembering the entrance of the Queen of Cyprus Catherine Cornaro after abdication in 1489: gondoliers in costumes sail in typical 16th century boats following the Bucentaur, doge's state galley.
The Feast-day of the Madonna della Salute
On November 21, Venetians thank the Virgin Mary for saving from the plague epidemic in 1630-38 with a pilgrimage to Santa Maria della Salute. Pilgrims cross Grand Canal on a temporary pontoon bridge from Campo Santa Maria Zobenigo, and enjoy stalls and traditional dishes.
|RIGHT SIDE||LEFT SIDE|
|Ponte della Libertà|
|Ex Monastery of Santa Chiara (now Questura or Police Precinct)||Railway area|
|~~Canal of Santa Chiara~~|
|Ponte della Costituzione|
|Piazzale Roma vaporetto station||Old Railway Station buildings|
|~~Rio della Croce~~|
|Palazzo Emo Diedo||Santa Lucia Train Station|
|Wool-cloth Weavers Guildhall|
|Church of San Simeone Piccolo|
|Palazzo Foscari-Contarini||Church of Santa Maria di Nazareth or Scalzi|
|Ponte degli Scalzi|
|~~Rio Marin~~||Ferrovia vaporetto station|
|Campo San Simeon Grande||Palazzo Calbo Crotta|
|~~Rio Tera' dei Sabbioni~~|
|Palazzo Gritti||Palazzo Flangini|
|Palazzo Corner||Scuola dei Morti|
|Palazzo Donà Balbi||San Geremia|
|Riva di Biasio vaporetto station||~~Canale di Cannaregio~~|
|Palazzo Marcello Toderini||Palazzo Emo a San Leonardo|
|~~Rio di San Zan Degolà~~||Palazzo Correr Contarini Zorzi|
|Palazzo Giovanelli||Palazzo Gritti|
|Casa Correr||San Marcuola|
|Traghetto Museo||Traghetto San Marcuola|
|Fondaco dei Turchi (Museum of Natural History)||San Marcuola vaporetto station|
|~~Rio del Fondaco dei Turchi~~||~~Rio di San Marcuola~~|
|Fondaco del Megio||Ca' Vendramin Calergi; winter home of Casino|
|Palazzo Belloni Battagia|
|~~Rio di Ca' Tron~~|
|Ca' Tron (IUAV)||Palazzo Marcello|
|Palazzo Duodo||Palazzo Erizzo alla Maddalena|
|Palazzo Priuli Bon||Palazzo Soranzo Piovene|
|San Stae vaporetto station||Palazzo Emo alla Maddalena|
|San Stae||Palazzo Molin Querini|
|Gold Craftsmen Guildhall||~~Rio della Maddalena~~|
|~~Rio della Rioda~~||Palazzo and Palazzetto Barbarigo|
|Palazzo Coccina Giunti Foscarini Giovannelli|
|~~Rio della Pergola~~||Palazzo Gussoni Grimani Della Vida|
|Ca' Pesaro (Museum of Modern Art)||~~Rio di Noale~~|
|~~Rio di Ca' Pesaro (or delle Due Torri)~~||Palazzetto da Lezze|
|Palazzo Donà a Santa Croce||Palazzo Boldù a San Felice|
|Palazzo Correggio||Palazzo Contarini Pisani|
|Ca' Corner della Regina|
|Ca' Favretto||~~Rio di San Felice~~|
|Rio di San Cassiano||Palazzo Fontana Rezzonico|
|Palazzo Morosini Brandolin||100x50px Palazzo Giusti|
|Fondamenta dell'Olio||Ca' d'Oro (Galleria Giorgio Franchetti)|
|Ca' d'Oro vaporetto station|
|Palazzo della Pretura||Palazzo Giustinian Pesaro|
|~~Rio delle Beccarie~~||Ca' Sagredo|
|Pescaria||Campo and Traghetto Santa Sofia|
|Campo and Traghetto della Pescaria||Palazzetto Foscari|
|Palazzo Michiel dalle Colonne|
|Fabbriche Nuove||Palazzo Michiel del Brusà|
|Palazzo Smith Mangilli Valmarana|
|~~Rio dei Santi Apostoli~~|
|Ca' da Mosto|
|Palazzo Bollani Erizzo|
|~~Rio di San Giovanni Crisostomo~~|
|Fabbriche Vecchie||Campiello del Remer|
|~~Rio del Fontego dei Tedeschi~~|
|Palazzo dei Camerlenghi||Fondaco dei Tedeschi (Poste italiane)|
|Palazzo dei Dieci Savi (Scarpagnino)||Riva del Ferro|
|Fondamenta del Vin||Rialto vaporetto station|
|Palazzo Dolfin Manin (Banca d'Italia)|
|~~Rio di San Salvador~~|
|Traghetto San Silvestro||Ca' Loredan (City Hall)|
|Casa Ravà||Ca' Farsetti (City Hall)|
|San Silvestro vaporetto station||Palazzo Cavalli (or Palazzo Corner Martinengo)|
|Palazzo Barzizza||Palazzo Corner Valmarana|
|Palazzo Giustinian Businello||Palazzo Grimani di San Luca (Appellate court)|
|~~Rio dei Meloni~~||~~Rio di San Luca~~|
|Palazzo Papadopoli||Palazzo Corner Contarini dei Cavalli|
|Palazzo Donà||Palazzo D'Anna Viaro Martinengo Volpi di Misurata|
|Palazzo Donà della Madoneta|
|~~Rio della Madoneta~~||Palazzo Querini Benzon|
|Palazzo Bernardo a San Polo||~~Rio di Ca' Michiel~~|
|Palazzo Querini Dubois||Palazzo Curti Valmarana|
|Palazzo Grimani Marcello||Palazzo Corner Spinelli|
|Ca' Cappello Layard||Sant'Angelo vaporetto station|
|~~Rio di San Polo~~||Casa Barocci|
|Palazzo Barbarigo della Terrazza||~~Rio di Ca' Garzoni~~|
|Palazzo Pisani Moretta||Palazzo Garzoni|
|Palazzo Tiepolo||Traghetto Garzoni|
|Palazzo Tiepolo Passi||Fondaco Marcello|
|Palazzo Giustinian Persico||Palazzo Corner Gheltoff|
|~~Rio di San Tomà~~||Palazzo Mocenigo#2|
|Traghetto San Tomà|
|Palazzo Marcello dei Leoni|
|San Tomà/Frari vaporetto station|
|Palazzo Dandolo Paolucci|
|Palazzo Civran Grimani|
|Rio della Frescada||Palazzo Contarini delle Figure|
|Palazzo Balbi (Government of Veneto)||Palazzo Erizzo Nani Mocenigo|
|Rio di Ca' Foscari|
|Ca' Foscari (University of Venice)||Palazzo Da Lezze|
|Palazzi Giustinian||Palazzo Moro-Lin|
|Palazzo Bernardo Nani||Palazzo Grassi|
|Ca' Rezzonico (Museum of 18th-century Venice)|
|Rio di San Barnaba||San Samuele|
|Palazzo Contarini Michiel||San Samuele vaporetto station|
|Ca' Rezzonico vaporetto station||Casa Francheschinis|
|Traghetto San Barnaba||Traghetto San Samuele|
|Palazzetto Stern||Palazzo Malipiero|
|Palazzo Loredan dell'Ambasciatore|
|~~Rio di San Trovaso~~|
|Palazzi Contarini degli Scrigni and Corfù||Ca' del Duca|
|~~Rio del Duca~~|
|Palazzo Falier Canossa|
|Palazzo Mocenigo Gambara||Palazzo Giustinian Lolin|
|Scuola Grande di Santa Maria della Carità (Gallerie dell'Accademia)||Palazzo Civran Badoer Barozzi|
|Accademia vaporetto station||~~Rio di San Vidal~~|
|Santa Maria della Carità (Gallery of Accademia museum)||Campo San Vidal|
|Palazzo Brandolin Rota||Palazzo Cavalli-Franchetti (Istituto Veneto di Scienze, Lettere ed Arti)|
|Palazzo Contarini Dal Zaffo|
|Palazzo Balbi Valier||Palazzi Barbaro|
|Palazzo Loredan-Cini||Palazzo Benzon Foscolo|
|~~Rio di San Vio~~||Palazzetto Pisani|
|Campo San Vio||Rio del Santissimo|
|Palazzo Barbarigo||Palazzo Succi|
|Palazzo Da Mula||Casa Stecchini|
|Palazzo Centani Morosini|
|Ca' Biondetti||Casina delle Rose|
|Palazzo Venier dei Leoni (Peggy Guggenheim Collection)||Palazzo Corner della Ca' Grande (Province of Venice Prefecture)|
|~~Rio delle Torreselle~~||~~Rio di San Maurizio~~|
|Palazzo Dario||Palazzo Minotto|
|Palazzo Barbaro Wolkoff||Palazzo Barbarigo|
|Rio della Fornace||Rio di Santa Maria Zobenigo|
|Palazzo Salviati||Santa Maria del Giglio vaporetto station|
|Palazzo Orio Semitecolo Benzon||Palazzo Venier Contarini|
|Traghetto San Gregorio||Traghetto Santa Maria del Giglio|
|Casa Santomaso||Palazzo Pisani Gritti|
|Palazzo Genovese||Rio delle Ostreghe|
|San Gregorio ex-abbey||Palazzo Ferro Fini (Regional Council of Veneto)|
|~~Rio della Salute~~|
|Salute vaporetto station||Palazzo Contarini Fasan|
|Basilica di Santa Maria della Salute||Palazzo Contarini|
|Palazzo Michiel Alvise|
|Patriarchal Seminary||Palazzo Badoer Tiepolo|
|Punta della Dogana||Palazzo Barozzi Emo Treves de Bonfili|
|Rio di San Moisè|
|Ca' Giustinian (municipal Venice Biennale offices)|
|Palazzo Vallaresso Erizzo|
|San Marco/Vallaresso vaporetto station|
|Fonteghetto della Farina|
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