City University of New York

"Cuny" redirects here. For the surname, see Cuny (surname).
This article is about "CUNY," the public university of the City of New York. For a list of universities in New York, see Universities in New York. For the state university system in New York, see State University of New York (SUNY).
The City University of New York
Type Public system
Established 1847[1]
Budget $3.0 billion[2]
Chancellor James B. Milliken[3]
Academic staff
6,700 full-time teaching faculty members[4]
Students 516,000[4]
Location New York City, New York

The City University of New York (CUNY; pron.: /ˈkjuːni/) is the public university system of New York City, and the largest urban university in the United States. CUNY and the State University of New York (SUNY) are separate and independent university systems, although both are public institutions that receive funding from New York State. CUNY, however, is additionally funded by the City of New York.

Enrollment and demographics

CUNY is the third-largest university system in the United States, in terms of enrollment, behind the State University of New York (SUNY), and the California State University system. More than 270,000-degree-credit students and 273,000 continuing and professional education students are enrolled at campuses located in all five New York City boroughs.

The university has one of the most diverse student bodies in the United States, with students hailing from 208 countries. The black, white and Hispanic undergraduate populations each comprise more than a quarter of the student body, and Asian undergraduates make up 18 percent. Fifty-eight percent are female, and 28 percent are 25 or older.[5]

Component institutions

The following table is 'sortable'; click on a column heading to re-sort the table by values of that column.

CUNY Component Institutions
Est. Type Name
1847 Senior College City College
1870 Senior College Hunter College
1919 Senior College Baruch College
1930 Senior College Brooklyn College
1937 Senior College Queens College
1946 Senior College New York City College of Technology
1976 Senior College College of Staten Island
1964 Senior College John Jay College of Criminal Justice
1966 Senior College York College
1968 Senior College Lehman College
1970 Senior College Medgar Evers College
2005 Senior College William E. Macaulay Honors College
1957 Community College Bronx Community College
1958 Community College Queensborough Community College
1963 Community College Borough of Manhattan Community College
1963 Community College Kingsborough Community College
1968 Community College LaGuardia Community College
1970 Community College Hostos Community College
2011 Community College Guttman Community College
1961 Graduate / professional CUNY Graduate Center
1973 Graduate / professional Sophie Davis School of Biomedical Education
1983 Graduate / professional CUNY School of Law
2006 Graduate / professional CUNY Graduate School of Journalism
2006 Graduate / professional CUNY School of Professional Studies
2008 Graduate / professional CUNY School of Public Health
2016 Graduate / professional CUNY Medical School

Notable faculty



CUNY was created in 1961, by New York State legislation, signed into law by Governor Nelson Rockefeller. The legislation integrated existing institutions and a new graduate school into a coordinated system of higher education for the city, under the control of the "Board of Higher Education of the City of New York", which had been created by New York State legislation in 1926. By 1979, the Board of Higher Education had become the "Board of Trustees of the CUNY".[6]

The institutions that were merged in order to create CUNY were:[6]

Accessible education

CUNY has served a diverse student body, especially those excluded from or unable to afford private universities. Its four-year colleges offered a high quality, tuition-free education to the poor, the working class and the immigrants of New York City who met the grade requirements for matriculated status. During the post-World War I era, when some Ivy League universities, such as Yale University, discriminated against Jews, many Jewish academics and intellectuals studied and taught at CUNY.[7] The City College of New York developed a reputation of being "the Harvard of the proletariat."[8]

As the city's population—and public college enrollment—grew during the early 20th century and the city struggled for resources, the municipal colleges slowly began adopting selective tuition, also known as instructional fees, for a handful of courses and programs. During the Great Depression, with funding for the public colleges severely constrained, limits were imposed on the size of the colleges' free Day Session, and tuition was imposed upon students deemed "competent" but not academically qualified for the day program. Most of these "limited matriculation" students enrolled in the Evening Session, and paid tuition.[9]

Demand in the United States for higher education rapidly grew after World War II, and during the mid-1940s a movement began to create community colleges to provide accessible education and training. In New York City, however, the community-college movement was constrained by many factors including "financial problems, narrow perceptions of responsibility, organizational weaknesses, adverse political factors, and another competing priorities."[10]

Community colleges would have drawn from the same city coffers that were funding the senior colleges, and city higher education officials were of the view that the state should finance them. It wasn't until 1955, under a shared-funding arrangement with New York State, that New York City established its first community college, on Staten Island. Unlike the day college students attending the city's public baccalaureate colleges for free, the community college students had to pay tuition fees under the state-city funding formula. Community college students paid tuition fees for approximately 10 years.[10]

Over time, tuition fees for limited-matriculated students became an important source of system revenues. In fall 1957, for example, nearly 36,000 attended Hunter, Brooklyn, Queens and City Colleges for free, but another 24,000 paid tuition fees of up to $300 a year – the equivalent of $2,413 in 2011.[11] Undergraduate tuition and other student fees in 1957 comprised 17 percent of the colleges' $46.8 million in revenues, about $7.74 million — a figure equivalent to $62.4 million in 2011 buying power.[12]

Three community colleges had been established by early 1961, when the city's public colleges were codified by the state as an single university with a chancellor at the helm and an infusion of state funds. But the city's slowness in creating the community colleges as demand for college seats was intensifying, had resulted in mounting frustration, particularly on the part of minorities, that college opportunities were not available to them.

In 1964, as the city's Board of Higher Education moved to take full responsibility for the community colleges, city officials extended the senior colleges' free tuition policy to them, a change that was included by Mayor Robert Wagner in his budget plans and took effect with the 1964–65 academic year.[13]

In 1969, a group of Black and Puerto Rican students occupied City College demanding the racial integration of CUNY, which at the time had an overwhelmingly white student body.[10]

Student protests

Students at some campuses became increasingly frustrated with the university's and Board of Higher Education's handling of university administration. At Baruch College in 1967, over a thousand students protested the plan to make the college an upper-division school limited to junior, senior, and graduate students.[14] At Brooklyn College in 1968, students attempted a sit-in to demand the admission of more black and Puerto Rican students and additional black studies curriculum.[15] Students at Hunter College also demanded a Black studies program.[16] Members of the SEEK program, which provided academic support for underprepared and underprivileged students, staged a building takeover at Queens College in 1969 to protest the decisions of the program's director, who would later be replaced by a black professor.[17][18] Puerto Rican students at Bronx Community College filed a report with the New York State Division of Human Rights in 1970, contending that the intellectual level of the college was inferior and discriminatory.[19] Hunter College was crippled for several days by a protest of 2,000 students who had a list of demands focusing on more student representation in college administration.[20] Across CUNY, students boycotted their campuses in 1970 to protest a rise in student fees and other issues, including the proposed (and later implemented) open admissions plan.[21]

Like many college campuses in 1970, CUNY faced a number of protests and demonstrations after the Kent State shootings and Cambodian Campaign. The Administrative Council of the City University of New York sent U.S. President Richard Nixon a telegram in 1970 stating, "No nation can long endure the alienation of the best of its young people."[22] Some colleges, including John Jay College of Criminal Justice, historically the "college for cops," held teach-ins in addition to student and faculty protests.[23]

Open admissions

In 1969, the Board of Trustees implemented a new admissions policy. The doors to CUNY were opened wide to all those demanding entrance, assuring all high school graduates entrance to the university without having to fulfill traditional requirements such as exams or grades. This policy was known as open admissions and nearly doubled the number of students enrolling in the CUNY system to 35,000 (compared to 20,000 the year before). With greater numbers came more diversity: Black and Hispanic student enrollment increased threefold.[24] Remedial education, to supplement the training of under-prepared students, became a significant part of CUNY's offerings.[25]

Financial crisis of 1976

In fall 1976, during New York City's fiscal crisis, the free tuition policy was discontinued under pressure from the federal government, the financial community that had a role in rescuing the city from bankruptcy, and New York State, which would take over the funding of CUNY's senior colleges.[26] Tuition, which had been in place in the State University of New York system since 1963, was instituted at all CUNY colleges.[27][28]

Meanwhile, CUNY students were added to the state's need-based Tuition Assistance Program (TAP), which had been created to help private colleges.[29] Full-time students who met the income eligibility criteria were permitted to receive TAP, ensuring for the first time that financial hardship would deprive no CUNY student of a college education.[29] Within a few years, the federal government would create its own need-based program, known as Pell Grants, providing the neediest students with a tuition-free college education. By 2011, nearly six of ten full- time undergraduates qualified for a tuition-free education at CUNY due in large measure to state, federal and CUNY financial aid programs.[30] CUNY's enrollment dipped after tuition was re-established, and there were further enrollment declines through the 1980s and into the 1990s.

Financial crisis of 1995

In 1995, CUNY suffered another fiscal crisis when Governor George Pataki proposed a drastic cut in state financing.[31] Faculty cancelled classes and students staged protests. By May, CUNY adopted deep cuts to college budgets and class offerings.[32] By June, in order to save money spent on remedial programs, CUNY adopted a stricter admissions policy for its senior colleges: students deemed unprepared for college would not be admitted, this a departure from the 1970 Open Admissions program.[33] That year's final state budget cut funding by $102 million, which CUNY absorbed by increasing tuition by $750 and offering a retirement incentive plan for faculty.

In 1999, a task force appointed by Mayor Rudolph Giuliani issued a report that described CUNY as "an institution adrift" and called for an improved, more cohesive university structure and management, as well as more consistent academic standards. Following the report, Matthew Goldstein, a mathematician and City College graduate who had led CUNY's Baruch College and briefly, Adelphi University, was appointed chancellor. CUNY ended its policy of open admissions to its four-year colleges, raised its admissions standards its most selective four-year colleges (Baruch, Brooklyn, City, Hunter and Queens), and required new-enrollees who needed remediation, to begin their studies at a CUNY open-admissions community colleges.[34]

2010 onwards

CUNY's enrollment of degree-credit students reached 220,727 in 2005 and 262,321 in 2010 as the university broadened its academic offerings.[35] The university added more than 2,000 full-time faculty positions, opened new schools and programs, and expanded the university's fundraising efforts to help pay for them.[34] Fundraising increased from $35 million in 2000 to more than $200 million in 2012.[36]

As of Autumn 2013, all CUNY undergraduates are required to take an administration-dictated common core of courses which have been claimed to meet specific "learning outcomes" or standards. Since the courses are accepted University wide, the administration claims it will be easier for students to transfer course credits between CUNY colleges. It also reduced the number of core courses some CUNY colleges had required, to a level below national norms, particularly in the sciences.[37][38] The program is the target of several lawsuits by students and faculty, and was the subject of a "no confidence" vote by the faculty, who rejected it by an overwhelming 92% margin.[39]

Chancellor Goldstein retired on July 1, 2013, and was replaced on June 1, 2014 by James Milliken, president of the University of Nebraska, and a graduate of University of Nebraska and New York University Law School.[40]

Management structure

The forerunner of today's City University of New York was governed by the Board of Education of New York City. Members of the Board of Education, chaired by the President of the board, served as ex officio trustees. For the next four decades, the board members continued to serve as ex officio trustees of the College of the City of New York and the city's other municipal college, the Normal College of the City of New York.

In 1900, the New York State Legislature created separate boards of trustees for the College of the City of New York and the Normal College, which became Hunter College in 1914. In 1926, the Legislature established the Board of Higher Education of the City of New York, which assumed supervision of both municipal colleges.

In 1961, the New York State Legislature established the City University of New York, uniting what had become seven municipal colleges at the time: the City College of New York, Hunter College, Brooklyn College, Queens College, Staten Island Community College, Bronx Community College and Queensborough Community College. In 1979, the CUNY Financing and Governance Act was adopted by the State and the Board of Higher Education became the City University of New York Board of Trustees.

Today, the City University is governed by the Board of Trustees composed of 17 members, ten of whom are appointed by the Governor of New York "with the advice and consent of the senate," and five by the Mayor of New York City "with the advice and consent of the senate." The final two trustees are ex officio members. One is the chair of the university's student senate, and the other is non-voting and is the chair of the university's faculty senate. Both the mayoral and gubernatorial appointments to the CUNY Board are required to include at least one resident of each of New York City's five boroughs. Trustees serve seven-year terms, which are renewable for another seven years. The Chancellor is elected by the Board of Trustees, and is the "chief educational and administrative officer" of the City University.

The administrative offices are in mid-town Manhattan.[41]

Chairs of the board

  • 1847 Townsend Harris
  • 1848 Robert Kelly
  • 1850 Erastus C. Benedict
  • 1855 William H. Neilson
  • 1856 Andrew H. Green
  • 1858 William H. Neilson
  • 1859 Richard Warren
  • 1860 William E. Curtis
  • 1864 James M. McLean
  • 1868 Richard L. Larremore
  • 1870 Bernard Smyth
  • 1873 Josiah Gilbert Holland
  • 1874 William H. Neilson
  • 1876 William Wood
  • 1880 Stephen A. Walker
  • 1886 J. Edward Simmons
  • 1890 John L.N. Hunt
  • 1893 Adolph Sanger
  • 1894 Charles H. Knox
  • 1895 Robert Maclay (merchant)
  • 1897 Charles Bulkley Hubbell
  • 1899 J. Edward Swanstrom / Joseph J. Little
  • 1901 Miles M. O'Brien
  • 1902 Edward Lauterback / Charles C. Burlingham
  • 1903 Henry A. Rogers
  • 1904 Edward M. Shepard
  • 1905 Henry N. Tifft
  • 1906 Egerton L. Winthrop, Jr.
  • 1911 Theodore F. Miller
  • 1913 Frederick P. Bellamy / Thomas Winston Churchill
  • 1914 Charles Edward Lydecker
  • 1915 Paul Fuller
  • 1916 George McAneny / Edward J. McGuire
  • 1919 William G. Willcox
  • 1921 Thomas Winston Churchill
  • 1923 Edward Swann / Edward C. McParlan
  • 1924 Harry P. Swift
  • 1926 Moses J. Strook
  • 1931 Charles H. Tuttle
  • 1932 Mark Eisner
  • 1938 Ordway Tead
  • 1953 Joseph Cavallaro
  • 1957 Gustave G. Rosenberg
  • 1966 Porter R. Chandler
  • 1971 Luis Quero-Chiesa
  • 1974 Alfred A. Giardino
  • 1976 Harold M. Jacobs
  • 1980 James Murphy
  • 1997 Ann Paolucci
  • 1999 Herman Badillo
  • 2001 Benno C. Schmidt Jr.
  • 2016 Bill Thompson (New York politician)

Public Safety Department

CUNY has its own public safety force whose duties are to protect and serve all students and faculty members, and enforce all state and city laws at all of CUNY's universities. The force has more than 1000 officers, making it one of the largest public safety forces in New York City.

The Public Safety Department came under heavy criticism, from student groups, after several students protesting tuition increases tried to occupy the lobby of the Baruch College. The occupiers were forcibly removed from the area and several were arrested on November 21, 2011.[42]

City University Television (CUNY TV)

CUNY also has a broadcast TV service, CUNY TV (channel 75 on Time Warner cable, digital HD broadcast channel 25.3), which airs telecourses, classic and foreign films, magazine shows and panel discussions in foreign languages.

Further information: CUNY TV

City University Film Festival (CUFF)

CUFF is CUNY's official film festival. The festival was founded in 2009 by Hunter College student Daniel Cowen.

Notable Alumni

CUNY graduates include 13 Nobel laureates, a Fields Medalist, a U.S. Secretary of State, a Supreme Court Justice, several New York City mayors, members of Congress, state legislators, scientists and artists.[5][43]

CUNY Notable Alumni
The following table is 'sortable'; click on a column heading to re-sort the table by values of that column.
First Name Last Name Grad. College Notable for
Kenneth Arrow 1940 City American economist and joint winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics
Robert Aumann 1950 City mathematician and winner of the Nobel Prize in Economics
Herman Badillo 1951 City civil rights activist and the first Puerto Rican elected to the U.S. Congress
Arlene Davila 1996 City author and Anthropology and American Studies professor at New York University
Jesse Douglas 1916 City mathematician and winner of one of the first two Fields Medals
Abraham Foxman City national director, Anti-Defamation League
Felix Frankfurter 1902 City U.S. Supreme Court Justice
Andy Grove 1960 City former chairman and CEO, Intel Corporation
Herbert A. Hauptman 1937 City mathematician and winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry
Leonard Kleinrock 1957 City computer scientist, Internet pioneer
Guillermo Linares 1975 City New York City Council member, first Dominican-American City Council member and Commissioner of the Mayor's Office of Immigrant Affairs
Lisa Nakamura 1993 1996 City Director and Professor of the Asian American Studies Program at the Institute of Communication Research at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign
Barnett Newman 1927 City abstract expressionist artist
John O'Keefe City 2014 Nobel laureate in Medicine
Colin Powell 1958 City former Chairman or the Joint Chiefs of Staff and Secretary of State
Mario Puzo City novelist, Academy Award winning screenwriter for Best Adapted Screenplay (1972, 1974).
Faith Ringgold 1955 City feminist, writer and artist
AM Rosenthal 1949 City former executive editor of The New York Times who championed the publication of the Pentagon Papers; Pulitzer Prize–winning journalist expelled from Poland in 1959 for his reporting on the nation's government and society
Jonas Salk 1934 City developed the first polio vaccine
Daniel Schorr 1939 City Emmy award winning broadcast journalist for CBS-TV and National Public Radio
Bernard Weinraub City American journalist and playwright.
Egemen Bağış Baruch Turkish politician, government minister
Abraham Beame 1928 Baruch Mayor of New York City
Robin Byrd Baruch host of public access program The Robin Byrd Show (dropped out)[44]
Fernando Ferrer Baruch New York City mayoral candidate in 2001 and 2005
Sidney Harman 1939 Baruch founder and executive chairman of Harman Kardon
Marcia A. Karrow Baruch member of New Jersey General Assembly
James Lam 1983 Baruch author, Risk Management consultant
Ralph Lauren Baruch Chairman and CEO of Polo Ralph Lauren (dropped out)
Dolly Lenz Baruch New York City real estate agent
Dennis Levine Baruch prominent player in the Wall Street insider trading scandals of the mid-1980s
Jennifer Lopez Baruch actress, singer, dancer (dropped out)
Craig A. Stanley Baruch member of New Jersey General Assembly since 1996.[45]
Tarkan Baruch Turkish language singer
Bella Abzug 1942 Hunter feminist; political activist; U.S. Representative, 1971–1977
Carmen Beauchamp Ciparick 1963 Hunter First Hispanic woman named to the New York State Court of Appeals
Robert R. Davila 1965 Hunter President of Gallaudet University and advocate for the rights of the hearing impaired
Ruby Dee 1945 Hunter Emmy-nominated actress and civil rights activist
Martin Garbus 1955 Hunter First amendment attorney
Florence Howe 1950 Hunter founder of women's studies and founder/publisher of the Feminist Press/CUNY
Audre Lorde 1959 Hunter African-American lesbian poet, essayist, educator and activist
Mohamed Mahmoud Ould Mohamedou 1991 Hunter former Foreign Minister of Mauritania and adjunct professor at the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva.
Soia Mentschikoff 1934 Hunter first woman partner of a major law firm; first woman elected president of the Association of American Law Schools
Thomas J., Jr. Murphy 1973 Hunter three-term mayor of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, 1994–2006
Pauli Murray 1933 Hunter first African-American woman named an Episcopal priest; human rights activist; lawyer and co-founder of N.O.W
Edward Thomas Brady John Jay (MA), trial attorney and former Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of North Carolina
Jennings Michael Burch John Jay author of the 1984 best-selling memoir "They Cage the Animals at Night"
Marcos Crespo John Jay (BA), New York State Assemblyman representing district 85[46]
Edward A. Flynn John Jay Chief of the Milwaukee Police Department
Petri Hawkins-Byrd 1989 John Jay Judge Judy bailiff
Henry Lee 1972 John Jay forensic scientist and founder of the Henry C. Lee Institute of Forensic Science
Miguel Martinez John Jay (BS), former member of the New York City Council representing the 10th District in upper Manhattan's Washington Heights, Inwood, and Marble Hill areas until his resignation on July 14, 2009
Eva Norvind John Jay (MA), actor and director
Pauley Perrette John Jay actor best known for her role as Abby Scuito on NCIS
Ronald Rice John Jay New Jersey State Senator
Ariel Rios John Jay undercover special agent for the United States Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF), killed in the line of duty
Imette St. Guillen John Jay a criminal justice graduate student murdered in February 2006. A scholarship was created in her name
Scott Stringer John Jay Comptroller, former Borough president of Manhattan, and former member of the New York State Assembly
Dorothy Uhnak John Jay (BA), novelist and detective for the New York City Transit Police Department
Bill Baird 1955 Brooklyn reproductive rights activist and co-director of the Pro Choice League
Barbara Levy Boxer 1962 Brooklyn anti-war activist, environmentalist, U.S. Representative, 1982–1993, and U.S. Senator
Shirley Chisholm 1946 Brooklyn first African- American U.S. Congresswoman, 1968–1982. Candidate for U.S. President, 1972
Bruce Chizen 1978 Brooklyn President & CEO, Adobe Systems
Stanley Cohen 1943 Brooklyn biochemist and Nobel laureate (Physiology or Medicine, 1986
Alan M. Dershowitz 1959 Brooklyn Harvard Law School professor and author
Jerry Della Femina 1957 Brooklyn Chairman & CEO, Della Femina, Jeary and Partners
Dan DiDio 1983 Brooklyn American comic book editor and executive for DC Comics
Benjamin Eisenstadt 1954 Brooklyn creator of Sweet'N Low and the founder of Cumberland Packing Corporation
Sandra Feldman 1960 Brooklyn President, American Federation of Teachers
Gata Kamsky 1999 Brooklyn chess grandmaster and former US chess champion
Don Lemon 1996 Brooklyn reporter, CNN
Leonard Lopate 1967 Brooklyn host of the public radio talk show The Leonard Lopate Show, broadcast on WNYC
Frank McCourt 1967 Brooklyn Pulitzer Prize-winning author of Angela's Ashes and 'Tis
Marty Markowitz 1970 Brooklyn Former New York State Senator; former Brooklyn Borough President
Paul Mazursky 1951 Brooklyn film director, writer, producer; actor
Jerry Moss 1957 Brooklyn co-founder of A&M Records
Gloria Naylor 1981 Brooklyn novelist; Winner National Book Award
Harvey Pitt 1965 Brooklyn former Chairman of the Securities and Exchange Commission
Steve Riggio 1974 Brooklyn CEO of Barnes & Noble, Inc.
Steve Schirripa 1980 Brooklyn American actor known for his role as Bobby Baccalieri on the HBO TV series The Sopranos
Timothy Shortell 1992 Brooklyn anti-Christian activist
Jimmy Smits 1980 Brooklyn Emmy Award-winning actor; NYPD Blue and L.A. Law
Benjamin Ward 1960 Brooklyn first black New York City Police Commissioner, 1983–1989
Iris Weinshall 1975 Brooklyn vice chancellor at the City University of New York and a former commissioner of the New York City Department of Transportation
Jack B. Weinstein 1943 Brooklyn Senior Judge, United States District Court for the Eastern District of New York
Joy Behar Queens comedian, television personality
Jerry Colonna Queens Well-known venture capitalist and entrepreneur coach
Joseph Crowley Queens member of the US House of Representatives
Alan Hevesi Queens former New York State Comptroller, former New York State Assemblyman, former Queens College professor
Cheryl Lehman 1975 Queens Professor of Accounting, Hofstra University
Ruth Madoff Queens wife of Bernard L. Madoff
Helen Marshall Queens Queens Borough President
Donna Orender Queens WNBA president
Jerry Seinfeld Queens actor and comedian
Charles Wang Queens founder of Computer Associates, owner of the New York Islanders
Carl Andrews Medgar Evers New York State Senator
Yvette Clarke Medgar Evers Congresswoman, member of the United States House of Representatives from New York's 11th and 9th congressional districts

See also


  1. The forerunner of today's City University of New York was founded in 1847.
  2. "University Budget Office FAQ's – Budget & Finance – CUNY". Retrieved 2014-04-29.
  3. "Nationally Prominent Higher Education Leader James B. Milliken Appointed Chancellor of The City University of New York". CUNY Newswire. Retrieved July 3, 2014.
  4. 1 2 "About."
  5. 1 2 "Investing in Our Future, The City University of New York's Master Plan 2012–2016" (PDF). The City University of New York. Retrieved July 1, 2013.
  6. 1 2 3 Fitzpatrick, John. "City University of New York" U.S. History Encyclopedia
  7. Oren, Dan A. (1985). Joining the Club: A History of Jews at Yale. Yale University Press.
  8. Fullinwider, Robert K.; Judith Lichtenberg (2004). Leveling the Playing Field: Justice, Politics, and College Admissions. Rowman & Littlefield.
  9. Neumann, Florence Margaret (1984). Access to Free Public Higher Education in New York City: 1847–1961. PhD Dissertation, Graduate Faculty in Sociology, The City University of New York.
  10. 1 2 3 Gordon, Sheila (1975). The Transformation of the City University of New York, 1945–1970. New York: PhD Dissertation, Columbia University.
  11. "U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics' online inflation calculator".
  12. Board of Higher Education of the City of New York (1959). "Report of the Chairman" (1957–1959): 86–87.
  13. Board of Higher Education of the City of New York (April 20, 1964). "Board of Higher Education Minutes of Proceedings".
  14. "1,000 C.C.N.Y. Students Protest Division Plan for Baruch School". New York Times. March 31, 1967.
  15. Farber, M.A. (May 24, 1968). "Brooklyn vs. Columbia: Failure of the Sit-In at One School Laid To Type of Student, Location and Policy". New York Times.
  16. "Negro Students Press Demands: Ask Stony Brook and Hunter for Black-Studies Program". New York Times. February 8, 1969.
  17. Lissner, Will (January 11, 1969). "City U. Examines College Dispute: Advisory Unit Weighs SEEK Protests at Queens". New York Times.
  18. "Negro Chosen Head of SEEK Program at Queens College". New York Times. September 4, 1969.
  19. "Students Protest College Teaching". New York Times. February 25, 1970. p. 36.
  20. Fried, Joseph P. (April 3, 1970). "Disruption at Hunter Is Ended After 200 Policemen Are Called". New York Times. p. 20.
  21. Fosburgh, Lacey (April 30, 1970). "City U. Boycotted by Students Protesting Proposed Fee Rise". New York Times. p. 36.
  22. Lelyveld, Joseph (May 6, 1970). "Protests on Cambodia and Kent State Are Joined by Many Local Schools". New York Times. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
  23. Montgomery, Paul L. (May 10, 1970). "John Jay College Gets Protests Too: Activity Unusual at School Attended by Policemen". New York Times. Retrieved May 23, 2014.
  24. Fullinwider, Robert K. (1999). "Open Admissions and Remedial Education at CUNY". Philosophy & Public Policy Quarterly. 19 (1).
  25. Suri, Duitch (2010). Open Admissions and Remediation: A Case Study of Policymaking by the City University of New York Board. New York: PhD Dissertation, The City University of New York.
  26. "When Tuition at CUNY Was Free, Sort of, CUNY Matters". CUNY Matters. October 2011.
  27. Applebome, Peter (July 23, 2010). "The Accidental Giant of Higher Education". The New York Times. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
  28. "When CUNY Was Free, Sort Of". CUNY Matters. October 2011.
  29. 1 2 "When Tuition at CUNY Was Free, Sort of". CUNY Matters. October 2011.
  30. The City University of New York. "CUNY Value". The City University of New York. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
  31. Honan, William (February 28, 1995). "CUNY Professors, Fearing Worst, Rush Out Their Resumes: With a financial emergency declared, many on the CUNY faculties could go". New York Times. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  32. Hevesi, Dennis (May 14, 1995). "CUNY Campuses Prepare to Reduce Faculty and Classes". New York Times. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  33. Jones, Charisse (June 27, 1995). "CUNY Adopts Stricter Policy on Admissions". New York Times. Retrieved April 17, 2013.
  34. 1 2 Kaminer, Ariel (April 13, 2013). "Longtime CUNY Chancellor to Step Down After Pushing Higher Standards". The New York Times. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
  35. "CUNY Value". The City University of New York. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
  36. "CUNY Mater Plan 2012 – 2016". The City University of New York. pp. 11–12. Retrieved July 8, 2013.
  37. "CUNY Pathways initiative". The City University of New York. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
  38. "Pathways Open, New Choices". The City University of New York. Retrieved July 11, 2013.
  39. "Pathways No Confidence". Professional Staff Congress-CUNY. Retrieved September 1, 2013.
  40. "Nationally Prominent Higher Education Leader James B. Milliken Appointed Chancellor of The City University of New York". The City University of New York. Retrieved May 21, 2014.
  41. "Administrative Offices." City University of New York. Retrieved on May 4, 2010.
  42. Speri, Alice; Phillips, Anna M. (November 21, 2011). "CUNY Students Protesting Tuition Increase Clash With Police". The New York Times.
  43. "Examples of DISTINGUISHED CUNY ALUMNI'S COMMITMENT TO FREEDOM". Let Freedom Ring. The City University of New York. Retrieved October 27, 2011.
  44. Morris, Bob. "Cable's First Lady Of Explicit", The New York Times, June 23, 1996. Accessed December 3, 2007. "At 17, Ms. Byrd got her graduate equivalency diploma and then pursued advertising design at Baruch College but dropped out in her senior year.
  45. Assemblyman Stanley's Legislative Website. Accessed August 27, 2007.
  46. "New York State Assemblymember Marcos A. Crespo". New York State Assembly. Retrieved February 11, 2013.
Not to be confused with the University of the City of New York, now known as New York University.
For other uses, see New York University.

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