Part of War of the Roses|
Overthrow of Richard III|
|Parties to the civil conflict|
Richard III of England
John Howard, 1st Duke of Norfolk
Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham
Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond
Buckingham's rebellion was a failed but significant uprising, or collection of uprisings, of October 1483 in England and parts of Wales against Richard III of England. To the extent that these local risings had a central coordination, the plot revolved around Henry Stafford, 2nd Duke of Buckingham, who had become disaffected from Richard, and had backing from the exiled Henry Tudor (the future king Henry VII) and his mother Margaret Beaufort. Seven ships from Brittany carrying over 500 Breton soldiers, Henry Tudor, and many of his supporters were to have risen simultaneously against Richard III. A gale ended their dream, and in England a premature uprising in Kent forewarned Richard that Buckingham had changed sides.
Buckingham's precise motivation has been called "obscure"; he had been treated well by Richard. The traditional naming of the rebellion after him has been labelled a misnomer, with John Morton and Reginald Bray more plausible leaders.
Rebels took arms against the king, who had assumed power from Edward V in June of that year. They included many loyalists of Edward V, and others who had been Yorkist supporters of his father Edward IV.
Preparations for the rebellion proved insufficient to coordinate the broad base of the rebellion: Richard in the field defeated the rising in a few weeks. In those military terms it was a complete failure. It did, however, deepen the opinion of many towards Richard as king, and its effect over the next few months was to drive a number of leading figures into Henry Tudor's camp. Five hundred Englishmen slipped through the King's net and found their way to Rennes, the capital of Brittany, where in desperation or fresh expectation they forged an alliance with the Earl of Richmond.
||Part in rebellion
| Sir Robert Willoughby
|| Brooke in Westbury, Wiltshire
|| High Sheriff of Devon and High Sheriff of Cornwall under Edward IV
|| Openly supported Henry of Richmond
|| Joined Richmond in Brittany. Fought at Bosworth, became Lord Steward and created Robert Willoughby, 1st Baron Willoughby de Broke|
| Thomas Grey, 1st Marquess of Dorset
|| Westminster Abbey in sanctuary as Richard took the throne, Yorkshire, Exeter
|| Constable of the Tower of London for Edward V
|| Openly supported Henry of Richmond in Exeter.
|| Joined Richmond in Brittany.|
||Commission of the peace in Cornwall
||He went Brittany, and was attainted in 1484. He took part in the battle of Bosworth, and was created Earl of Devon by Henry VII. (ODNB)|
||Somerset, south-west England
||Attainted after the rebellion; restored in 1485.|
||Rebel leader in Salisbury.
||Diocese of Salisbury, southern England
||Probable support of local rebels.
||Suffered loss of income; may have become a supporter of Richmond at this point.|
|Walter Hungerford of Farleigh
||Pardoned, confined briefly to the Tower of London.|
||In Buckingham's custody in Brecon Castle
||Bishop of Ely, conspirator
||Attainted, escaped to Flanders, pardoned December 1484 but went to Rome.|
||At Brecon with Buckingham and Morton.
||He took part in a later revolt against Richard around Colchester, and was outlawed.|
||Conspirator and go-between
||North-west England and Wales
||Liaison between Morton and Margaret Beaufort. Recruited Daubeny, Cheyne, Richard Guildford.
||Pardoned January 1484.|
|Sir George Browne
||Landowner and sheriff
||Imprisoned in the Tower. Beheaded on Tower Hill, 4 December 1484|
- ↑ Christine Carpenter (13 November 1997). The Wars of the Roses: Politics and the Constitution in England, C.1437-1509. Cambridge University Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-521-31874-7. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- ↑ Ronald H. Fritze; William Baxter Robison (2002). Historical dictionary of late medieval England, 1272-1485. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 77. ISBN 978-0-313-29124-1. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- ↑ Bosworth: The Birth of the Tudors; Phoenix Press; 2013; pp. 153-4 Recorded by Polydore Vergil.
- 1 2 3 Stephen, Leslie; Lee, Sidney, eds. (1890). "Grey, Thomas (1451-1501)". Dictionary of National Biography. 23. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- 1 2 Lee, Sidney, ed. (1895). "Paulet, Amias (d.1538)". Dictionary of National Biography. 44. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
- ↑ Ford, David Nash (2010). "John Cheney (c.1442-1499)". Royal Berkshire History. Nash Ford Publishing. Retrieved 29 November 2010.
- 1 2 Hayes, Rosemary C. E. "Hill, Richard". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/47267. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- 1 2 Hicks, Michael. "Hungerford, Sir Walter". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/14182. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- 1 2 Harper-Bill, Christopher. "Morton, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/19363. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- 1 2 Douglas L. Biggs; Sharon D. Michalove; Albert Compton Reeves, eds. (2004). Reputation and Representation in Fifteenth Century Europe. BRILL. p. 281. ISBN 978-90-04-13613-7. Retrieved 5 April 2013.
- 1 2 Condon, M. M. "Bray, Reginald". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/3295. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- 1 2 Horrox, Rosemary. "Ashton, Sir Ralph". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/776. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- ↑ Crawford, Anne. "Howard, John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/13921. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)