The city of Bolu viewed from air
Coordinates: 40°44′05″N 31°36′27″E / 40.73472°N 31.60750°E / 40.73472; 31.60750Coordinates: 40°44′05″N 31°36′27″E / 40.73472°N 31.60750°E / 40.73472; 31.60750
Country Turkey
Province Bolu
  Mayor Alaaddin Yılmaz (AKP)
  District 1,524.37 km2 (588.56 sq mi)
Population (2012)[2]
  Urban 131,264
  District 172,355
  District density 110/km2 (290/sq mi)

Bolu is a city in Turkey, and administrative center of the Bolu Province. The population is 131,264 (2012 census).[3] The mayor is Alaaddin Yılmaz (AK Party) since local elections in 2004.

Bolu is on the old highway from Istanbul to Ankara, which climbs over Mount Bolu, while the new motorway passes through Mount Bolu Tunnel below the town.



Bolu was part of one of the Hittite kingdoms around 2000 BC and later 500 BC became one of the leading cities of the Kingdom of Bithynia (279 BC - 79 BC) . Bebryces,Mariandynes, Koukones, Thyns and Paphlagons are native people of the area in antique era.Strabo (XII, 4, 7) mentions a Hellenistic town, Bithynium (Greek: Βιθύνιον), celebrated for its pastures and cheese, which according to Pausanias (VIII, 9) was founded by Arcadians from Mantinea.[4][5]

In the Ancient Roman era, as is shown by its coins, the town was commonly called Claudiopolis after Emperor Claudius. It was the birthplace of Antinous, the posthumously deified favourite of the Roman Emperor Hadrian, who was very generous to the city, and his name was later added to that of Claudius on the coins of the city. Emperor Theodosius II (408-50) made it the capital of a new province, formed out of Bithynia and Paphlagonia, and called by him Honorias in honour of his younger son Honorius.


The bishopric of Claudiopolis became the metropolitan see of the Roman province of Honorias, with five suffragan sees: Heraclea Pontica, Prusias ad Hypium, Tium, Cratia, and Hadrianopolis in Honoriade. It appears as such in the Notitiae Episcopatuum of Pseudo-Epiphanius of about 640 and in that of Byzantine Emperor Leo VI the Wise of the early 10th century. Lequien mentions twenty bishops of the see to the 13th century; the first is St. Autonomus, said to have suffered martyrdom under Diocletian; we may add Ignatius, a friend and correspondent of Photius. The city was known as Hadrianopolis under Byzantine rule. Turkmens migrating west settled the city in the 11th century and it was referred to as Boli, Turkicized short for Polis. It was recaptured by Byzantines in 1097 but was recaptured by Sultanate of Rum in 1197. It fell under Ottoman rule in the 14th century and lost to Heraclea Pontica the metropolitan dignity. It ceased to exist as a residential bishopric in the 15th century.[6][7][8][9][10] Accordingly, it is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see.[11]

The Ottoman era

In 1325, the town was conquered by the Ottoman Empire, becoming known under the present Turkish name (sometimes called Bolou or Boli). It was also ruled by Candaroğlu between 1402 and 1423. It became was the chief town of a sanjak in the vilayet (province) of Kastamonu and had a population of 10,000 inhabitants. In the late 19th and early 20th century, (after 1864 with Vilayetler Nizannamesi) Bolu was part of the Kastamonu Vilayet of the Ottoman Empire. Bolu was an Ottoman state ( eyalet ) until Vilayetler Nizannamesi 1864 and was covering from Beykoz kazasi of İsmid Sanjak to Boyabat kazasi of Sinop Sanjak.


Bolu is a busy market town rather than a large city. It has one long shopping street and an attractive forested mountain countryside. Students from the university and soldiers based in Bolu make an important contribution to the local economy, which traditionally depended on forestry and handicrafts. Market day is Monday, when people from the surrounding villages come into town for their weekly shop.

The main road from Istanbul to Ankara used to cross Bolu mountain, although more people would stop at the roadside restaurants than actually come into the town, and anyway now the Mount Bolu Tunnel is open most people will rush by on the motorway rather than climb up into Bolu, especially in winter when the road has often been closed due to ice and snow. Some of the service stations on the mountain road have already announced their closure or moved elsewhere.


Architecture and sights

Bolu is home to examples of Ottoman architecture. The Grand Mosque dates to 1899, but was originally built by Bayezid I and is home to decorations that resemble embroideries.[12] The Kadı Mosque is perhaps the best example of classical Ottoman architecture in the city, having been built in 1499 and having its entrance embroidered with ornate kündekari works.[13][14] Other Ottoman mosques in the city include the İmaret Mosque, built in the 16th century,[15] Saraçhane Mosque, built in 1750, Ilıca Mosque, built in 1510-11, Karaköy Cuma Mosque, built in 1562-63 and Tabaklar Mosque, built in 1897.[13]

The remains of the ancient city of Bithynium have been found in four hills in the city centre, Kargatepe, Hisartepe, Hıdırlıktepe and the Uğurlunaip Hill. In Hıdırlıktepe, a tomb and the remains of a theatre have been uncovered. In Hisartepe, a temple believed to have been built by the Roman emperor Hadrian for his lover Antinous has been excavated.[13] In 1911, it was noted that "in and around [Bolu] are numerous marbles with Greek inscriptions, chiefly sepulchral, and architectural fragments."[16]

Bolu Museum was established in 1975 to display and protect artifacts found in the Bolu area. It functions as both an archaeological and an ethnographic museum and is home to 3286 archaeological and 1677 ethnographic artifacts, as well as 12,095 historical coins. The archaeological artifacts chronicle the history of the area from Neolithic to Byzantine eras.[17]


Local specialities include a sweet made of hazelnuts (which grow in abundance here) and an eau-de-cologne with the scent of grass. One feature of Bolu dear to the local people is the soft spring water (kökez suyu) obtained from fountains in the town.


Bolu is home to 12 local newspapers published in the city centre, two local TV channels (Köroğlu TV and Abant TV), three local radio stations and six local magazines.[18]


Bolu has a humid continental climate under the (Köppen climate classification Dfb), bordering an oceanic climate (Cfb), with cold and snowy winters and warm summers with cool nights. Unlike the low-lying, sheltered city center, many parts of the province, like Gerede, have humid continental climate (Dfb), due to very cold winters. January mean temperature is 0.7 °C, and temperatures rarely rise more than 12.3 °C and rarely drop below -15.0 °C during winter months. July mean temperature is 19.9 °C and temperatures rarely drop below 8.3 °C and rarely rise up to 32.2 °C in summer months. Lowest temperature recorded is -28.2 °C on 30 January 1958, and the highest was 39.8 on 06 August 2006. Bolu is a usually cloudy and foggy city and annual sunshine hours are about to be 1,600.Bolu's climate is similar to Budapest's climate.

Climate data for Bolu (1960-2012)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 19.8
Average high °C (°F) 5.3
Daily mean °C (°F) 0.7
Average low °C (°F) −3.3
Record low °C (°F) −24.3
Average precipitation mm (inches) 57.7
Average precipitation days 15.4 14.4 14.8 14.0 13.8 11.6 6.4 5.6 7.1 10.2 11.6 15.4 140.3
Average snowy days 14 11 6 0.4 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 3 9 43
Mean monthly sunshine hours 34 66 100 155 196 213 244 232 185 96 54 28 1,603
Source: Devlet Meteoroloji İşleri Genel Müdürlüğü [19]

Places of interest

The countryside around Bolu offers excellent walking and other outdoor pursuits. There are hotels in the town for visitors. Sights near the town include:

Notable people


  1. "Area of regions (including lakes), km²". Regional Statistics Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. 2002. Retrieved 2013-03-05.
  2. "Population of province/district centers and towns/villages by districts - 2012". Address Based Population Registration System (ABPRS) Database. Turkish Statistical Institute. Retrieved 2013-02-27.
  3. Statistical Institute
  4. History of Bolu (tr) Archived May 11, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  5. Bolu
  6. Raymond Janin, v. 1. Claudiopolis, in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de Géographie ecclésiastiques, vol. XII, Paris 1953, coll. 1077-1079
  7. Michel Lequien, Oriens christianus in quatuor Patriarchatus digestus, Paris 1740, Vol. I, coll. 567-572
  8. { Sophrone Pétridès, "Claudiopolis" in Catholic Encyclopedia" (New York 1908}]
  9. Heinrich Gelzer, Ungedruckte und ungenügend veröffentlichte Texte der Notitiae episcopatuum, in: Abhandlungen der philosophisch-historische classe der bayerische Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1901, pp. 529–641
  10. Pius Bonifacius Gams, Series episcoporum Ecclesiae Catholicae, Leipzig 1931, p. 442
  11. Annuario Pontificio 2013 (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2013 ISBN 978-88-209-9070-1), p. 838
  12. "Büyük Cami (Yıldım Bayezit Camii)". Bolu Directorate of Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  13. 1 2 3 Büyük Larousse, vol. 4 (1992), p. 1781, Milliyet Gazetesi Yayınları, "Bolu".
  14. "Kadı Camii". Bolu Directorate for Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  15. "İmaret Camii". Bolu Directorate for Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  16.  Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Boli". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  17. "Bolu Müzesi". Bolu Directorate for Culture and Tourism. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  18. "BOLU İLİ MAHALLİ BASIN KURULUŞLARI". Bolu Governorship. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
  19. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-04-30. Retrieved 2011-03-18.

 This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Herbermann, Charles, ed. (1913). "article name needed". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton. 

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