Bishopric of Speyer
|Prince-Bishopric of Speyer|
|State of the Holy Roman Empire|
The Prince-Bishopric of Speyer circa 1700
|Capital|| Speyer (to 1379)|
Bruchsal (from 1723)
|Languages||Rhine Franconian, South Franconian|
|Historical era||Middle Ages|
|•||Established||3rd or 4th century|
Imperial Free City
|•||Lost territory to France||1681–97|
|•|| Partitioned and
France and Baden
The Bishopric of Speyer, or Prince-Bishopric of Speyer (formerly known as Spires in English), was an ecclesiastical principality in what are today the German states of Rhineland-Palatinate and Baden-Württemberg. It was secularized in 1803. The prince-bishop resided in Speyer, a Free Imperial City, until the 14th century when he moved his residence to Uddenheim (Philippsburg), then in 1723 to Bruchsal, in large part due to the tense relationship between successive prince-bishops and the civic authorities of the Free City, officially Protestant since the Reformation. The prince-provostry of Wissemburg in Alsace was ruled by the prince-bishop of Speyer in a personal union relationship.
The bishopric of Speyer belonged to the Upper Rhenish Circle of the Holy Roman Empire. One of the smallest principalities of the Holy Roman Empire, it consisted of more than half a dozen separate enclaves totalling about 28 German square miles (about 1540 km²) on both sides of the Rhine. It included the towns of Bruchsal (on the right bank) as well as Deidesheim, Herxheim bei Landau, and Lauterburg (on the left bank). Around 1800 the bishopric included about 55,000 people.
A diocese of Speyer has possibly existed since the 3rd or 4th century. It was first mentioned in historical documents in 614. Up to 748 it was a suffragant bishopric of the archdiocese of Trier, and from then until the secularisation of the prince-bishopric in 1803, of the archdiocese of Mainz.
The history of the Bishopric of Speyer began latest in the late 7th century when the bishop of Speyer received royal domains in the neighboring Speyergau. In the 10th and 11th centuries, the diocese received additional lands, including gifts by emperor Otto I. In 1030 the building of the cathedral was begun. In 1061 the cathedral was consecrated. In 1086 emperor Henry IV granted the bishopric the remaining parts of the county of Speyergau.
From 1111 the citizens of the city of Speyer began to increasingly loosen their bonds to the rulership of the bishop. In 1230 a Bürgermeister was mentioned for the first time. 1294 Speyer became a Free Imperial City. The bishop moved his palace in 1371 to Udenheim. At the beginning of the 17th century bishop Philipp Christoph von Sötern expanded the fortress of Philippsburg. The prince-bishops reigned from there from 1371 to 1723. Afterwards the prince-bishop moved his seat to Bruchsal.
From 1681 to 1697, at the end of the War of the Grand Alliance, the fortress of Philippsburg on the left-bank went to France. In 1801/1802, the remaining left-bank territories of Speyer were conquered by French troops in the course of the French Revolution. The right-bank territories went to margraves of Baden.
This ended the secular responsibilities of the bishop of Speyer. The secularized bishopric continued ecclesiastically as the Diocese of Speyer. Finally French part of former prince-bishopric was divided between Bavaria and Hesse Darmstadt in 1815.
The Bishop's palace next to Speyer Cathedral (1765)
Udenheim Castle (main residence of the bishops from 1371)
Bruchsal Palace (main residence from 1723)
Prince-bishops of Speyer
The following were prince-bishops of Speyer, who were secular as well as ecclesiastical rulers.
|Jesse of Speir||circa 346|
|Hildericus episcopus||circa 613|
|Benedikt||814||828 or 830|
|Bertin, also Hertinus||828 or 830||845 or 846|
|Gebhard I||845 or 847||880|
|Goddank||881||895 or 898|
|Einhard, also Eginhard||895 or 898||913|
|Amalrich||913 or 923||943|
|Reginwalt I, also Reginhard||943 or 944||950|
|Reinher, also Reginher||1032||1033|
|Reginhard II of Dillingen, also Reginbald||1033||1039|
|Sigbodo I, also Siegbodo||1039||1051|
|Arnold I of Falkenberg||1051||1056|
|Eginhard II of Katzenelnbogen||1060||1067|
|Heinrich of Scharfenberg||1067||1072 or 1073|
|Rüdiger Hutzmann (Hußmann?)||1073||1090|
|Johann I of Kraichgau||1090||1104|
|Gebhard II, Count of Urach||1105||1107 († 1110)|
|Bruno, Count of Saarbrücken (Count of Saargau)||1107||1123|
|Arnold II, Count of Leiningen||1124||1126|
|Siegfried I, Count of Wolffölden||1127||1146|
|Günther, Count of Henneberg||1146||1161|
|Ulrich I of Dürrmenz||1161||1163|
|Rabodo, Count of Lobdaburg||1167||1176|
|Ulrich II of Rechberg||1178||1187|
|Otto II, Count of Henneberg||1187||1200|
|Conrad III of Scharfenberg||1200||1224|
|Beringer of Entringen||1224||1232|
|Konrad IV of Dahn||1233||1236|
|Konrad V, Count of Eberstein||1237||1245|
|Heinrich II, Count of Leiningen||1245||1272|
|Friedrich of Bolanden||1272||1302|
|Sigibodo II of Lichtenberg, also Siegbodo||1302||1314|
|Emich, Count of Leiningen, also Emicho||1314||1328|
|Berthold, Count of Bucheck||1328||1328|
|Walram, Count of Veldenz||1328||1336|
|Baldwin, Archbishop of Trier (Administrator)||1332||1336|
|Gerhard of Ehrenberg||1336||1363|
|Lambert of Born (Brunn?)||1364||1371|
|Adolf I, Count of Nassau||1371||1388|
|Nikolaus I aus Wiesbaden||1388||1396|
|Raban of Helmstatt||1396||1438|
|Reinhard of Helmstatt||1438||1456|
|Siegfried III Freiherr of Venningen||1456||1459|
|Johann II Nix of Hoheneck, aka Enzenberger||1459||1464|
|Matthias Freiherr of Rammingen||1464||1478|
|Ludwig of Helmstädt||1478||1504|
|Philip I of Rosenberg||1504||1513|
|George, Count Palatine by Rhine||1513||1529|
|Philip II of Flersheim||1529||1552|
|Rudolf of Frankenstein||1552||1560|
|Marquard Freiherr of Hattstein||1560||1581|
|Eberhard of Dienheim||1581||1610|
|Philipp Christoph von Sötern||1610||1652|
|Lothar Friedrich of Metternich||1652||1675|
|Johann Hugo von Orsbeck||1675||1711|
|Heinrich Hartard of Rollingen||1711||1719|
|Hugo Damian of Schönborn||1719||1743|
|Franz Christoph of Hutten zu Stolzenberg||1743||1770|
|Damian August Philipp Karl, Count of Limburg-Stirum-Vehlen||1770||1797|
|Philipp Franz Wilderich of Walderdorf||1801||1802 († 1810)|
|Secularization and division of the diocese||1803|
- Franck Lafarge, Les comtes Schönborn, 1642-1756, L'Harmattan, Paris, 2008, vol. 2, p. 349-350.
- Reginhard II/Reginbald according to Gumbert was the architect of the Speyer Cathedral.
- Hugo Damian of Schönborn moved the seat of the bishopric to Bruchsal.
- The diocese was and secularized in 1803 by France and with the Rhine as a border, divided between France and the margraviate of Baden.