Microscopic traffic flow models have been proposed for bidirectional automobile, pedestrian, and railway traffic. Bidirectional traffic can be observed in ant trails and this has been researched for insight into human traffic models. In a macroscopic theory proposed by Laval, the interaction between fast and slow vehicles conforms to the Newell kinematic wave model of moving bottlenecks.
In air traffic control traffic is normally separated by elevation, with east bound flights at odd thousand feet elevations and west bound flights at even thousand feet elevations (1000ft ≈ 305m). Above 28,000ft (~8.5km) only odd flight levels are used, with FL 290, 330, 370, etc., for eastbound flights and FL 310, 350, 390, etc., for westbound flights. Entry to and exit from airports is always one-way traffic, as runways are chosen to allow aircraft to take off and land into the wind, to reduce ground speed. Even in no wind cases, a preferred calm wind runway and direction is normally chosen and used by all flights, to avoid collisions. In uncontrolled airports, airport information can be obtained from anyone at the airport. Traffic follows a specific traffic pattern, with designated entry and exits. Radio announcements are made, whether anyone is listening or not, to allow any other traffic to be aware of other traffic in the area.
Most modern roads carry bidirectional traffic, although one-way traffic is common in dense urban centres. Bidirectional traffic flow is believed to influence the rate of traffic collisions. In an analysis of head-on collisions, rear-end collisions, and lane-changing collisions based on the Simon-Gutowitz bidirectional traffic model, it was concluded that "the risk of collisions is important when the density of cars in one lane is small and that of the other lane is high enough", and that "heavy vehicles cause an important reduction of traffic flow on the home lane and provoke an increase of the risk of car accident".
Bidirectional traffic is the most common form of flow observed in trails, however, some larger pedestrian concourses exhibit multidirectional traffic.
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- airways and aircraft separation
- Relative Velocity
- Calm Wind Runways
- Operations at nontowered airports
- Moussa, Najem (2009). "Simulation study of traffic accidents in bidirectional traffic models". arXiv:0905.4252 [physics.soc-ph].
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Two-lane rural highways with bidirectional traffic
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Satellite subcenters would function as countermagnets to central Stockholm, leading to efficient bidirectional traffic flows.
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Madras conducted some field studies to evolve a relationship between speed and volume of traffic on single and two lane bidirectional traffic roads.
- Bickel, John; T. R. Kuesel (1982). Tunnel engineering handbook. University of California: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. p. 499. ISBN 978-0-442-28127-4.
This results in bidirectional traffic in a single tunnel.
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Obviously the hazards are far more numerous and the need for better headlighting much greater on these millions of miles of streets and highways carrying bidirectional traffic, particularly because so few of these miles have even mediocre fixed highway lighting.
- National Research Council; Transportation Research Board (1993). Pavement management systems. National Academy Press. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-309-05468-3.
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Conversely, at 44 sq ft (4.1 sq m), passing slower pedestrian traffic is easier, crossing bidirectional traffic is nearly unhindered, and traveling through the zone is dramatically less affected by other walking or standing pedestrians.
- Stone, H. David (2008). Vital rails: the Charleston & Savannah Railroad and the Civil War in coastal South Carolina. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 978-1-57003-716-0.
Single tracking and the relative lack of sidings made bidirectional traffic difficult — a difficulty that became more obvious during the conflict with the North.
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The average yard handle 350 vans of bidirectional traffic each day.
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This is especially true for physically challenged users and the elderly, who have to weave through bidirectional traffic.
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It consists of a network containing 23 nodes (stations) and a corresponding upper-triangular origin-destination matrix (d0st) with 210 nonzero entries that account for a symmetric bidirectional traffic.
- Burger, H. (1993). "Options for tunnelling". Developments in Geotechnical Engineering: 35. ISBN 978-0-444-89935-4.
A tunnel with an inner diameter of 9.75 meters allowing a bidirectional traffic of 2 x 3 car lanes on two superimposed levels.
- Cervero, Robert (1998). The transit metropolis: a global inquiry. Island Press. p. 77. ISBN 978-1-55963-591-2.
As shown in Stockholm and Curitiba, mixed land uses can translate into balanced, bidirectional traffic flows.
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But to get the sign's X-band Doppler radar to work reliably from overpasses (see photo) or from overhead sign posts, two major problems had to be overcome: fluctuations in the Doppler returns because of multipath cancellations from cars approaching the sign, and interference caused by bidirectional traffic flow.
- Tang, T.Q.; Huang, H.J.; Wong, S.C.; Xu, X.Y. (2007-03-15). "A new overtaking model and numerical tests". Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications. 376: 649–657. doi:10.1016/j.physa.2006.10.044.
The overtaking in a two-lane bidirectional traffic flow is also analyzed.
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In Fig. 3 the s = f (V∗) functions are presented, showing the V∗ PCU/h fictive bidirectional traffic volumes delimiting the proposed three grades of level of services.
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In the Fastest-Links approach, links that are not on the multicast tree are allowed to have bidirectional traffic, so we only need to enforce certain directions for the traffic flowing through the intersections/nodes in the multicast tree.
- US 5815161 "As shown, the two links 100, 102 have mutually opposite traffic directions. This means that in the joining, the complex road junction can get a bidirectional traffic indication."
- Sato, Yoshimichi; Koji Makanae (December 2006). "Development and Evaluation of In-vehicle Signing System Utilizing RFID tags as Digital Traffic Signs" (PDF). International Journal of ITS Research. 40 (1). Retrieved 2009-09-09.
This approach makes the system applicable also to a narrow undivided road carrying bidirectional traffic
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The bi-directional vehicular flow model focuses on modeling acceleration and passing movements within the framework of two lanes of opposing flow.
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The bidirectional traffic flow is controlled by traffic lights.
- Christmann, Samantha (2009-08-10). "Traffic brings new life to Main Street". The Buffalo News. Retrieved 2009-09-09.
A month after the 700 block of Main Street opened to bidirectional traffic, business owners said they are seeing an improvement -- no two ways about it.
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