Battle of the Cremera

Battle of the Cremera
Part of the Roman-Etruscan wars
Date477 BC
LocationCremera, Italy
Result Veientian (Etruscan) victory
Roman Republic Etruscan city of Veii
Commanders and leaders
unknown unknown
306 men unknown
Casualties and losses
306 men unknown

The Battle of the Cremera was fought between the Roman Republic and the Etruscan city of Veii, in 477 BC (276 AUC).

Historical records show the defeat of the Roman stronghold on the river Cremera, and the consequent incursions of the Veientes in Roman territory.

The preserved account of the battle, written by Livy, is an elaboration of the real events, and celebrates the sacrifice of the gens Fabia. Probably, its aim is to give a reason of the absence of Fabii from consular lists in the years following the battle. Furthermore, this account is clearly influenced by the Spartan last stand at the Battle of Thermopylae.


After a peaceful coexistence between Rome and Veii, open war erupted between the neighboring cities, escalating into a battle in 480 BC, in which the Roman army was close to defeat, and saved by consul Marcus Fabius Vibulanus. After the battle, the Veientes continued raiding Roman territory, retreating in front of Roman legions to deny them open battle.

Engaged in a conflict with Aequi and Volsci, the Romans were fighting on two fronts. Thus, in 479 BC, the gens Fabia offered to deal with Veii on its own, while the Republican legions had to fight against the other enemies. Livy says that all of the 306 adult (i.e. more than fifteen years old) Fabii went to the war, together with their clients.

The Fabii built a stronghold on the Cremera, close to Veii, from which they managed to limit Veii raids. The Veientes engaged an open battle near the Roman stronghold, but were defeated by the Fabii and a Roman army led by consul Lucius Aemilius Mamercus, and obliged to ask for a truce.

After the truce was broken, the Veientes renewed their raids, but were repeatedly defeated by the Fabii, who, encouraged by the successes, became bold and attacked and pillaged Veii territory.

Account of the battle

In the end, however, the Fabii fell in the trap laid by the Veientes. Considering the enemies far from the stronghold, the Romans left the stronghold to capture a herd, scattering in pursuit of the animals. In that moment, a larger force of Veientes surrounded the Fabii. Adopting the wedge formation, the Romans broke through and reached a hill, where they successfully repulsed the Etruscan attacks, until a Veienite formation arrived to their back.

All of the Fabii were slaughtered save Quintus Fabius Vibulanus, who was too young to be sent to war.


Primary sources

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