Battle of Pfaffenhofen
|Battle of Pfaffenhofen|
|Part of the War of the Austrian Succession|
The retreat of the French troops
and German allies
|Commanders and leaders|
|Karl Josef Batthyány||General Ségur|
|Casualties and losses|
The Battle of Pfaffenhofen was fought on 15 April 1745 between France and Austria. The Austrians under Karl Josef Batthyány defeated the outnumbered French under General Ségur, ending the war in Bavaria.
In October 1744, the Franco-Bavarian army had succeeded, in coordination with Prussia, to expel the Austrians from Bavaria, and to reinstate Charles VII, Prince-elector of Bavaria and Holy Roman Emperor, in his capital Munich. Here he died 3 months later.
His 18-year-old son and heir Maximilian III Joseph wavered between the Peace-party, led by his mother Maria Amalia of Austria and Army Commander Friedrich Heinrich von Seckendorff and the War-party, led by Foreign Minister General Ignaz von Törring and the French envoy Chavigny.
This hampered the ongoing peace negotiations, so Maria Theresia ordered the Austrian Army to start a new offensive to put pressure on the Bavarian negotiators. Amberg and Vilshofen were taken and the Bavarian army under Törring and its French, Hessian and Palatinate allies were pushed on the defensive.
Törring decided to pull back his Bavarian and Hessian troops behind the Lech River.
The French Army commander Henri François de Ségur was not informed of this manoeuver and waited unaware and unprotected near Pfaffenhofen on Palatinate reinforcements under General Zastrow, which arrived on 14 April. The next day Segur decided to also pull back behind the Lech.
The Austrians, aware of the isolated French position, had by then reached Pfaffenhofen with a force larger than the French.
First the Austrians attacked the town of Pfaffenhofen and were met by French fire. But the Austrians took the town in house-to-house combat in which the fierce Croatian Pandurs inflicted heavy casualties on the French defenders.
Meanwhile, François de Ségur had hastily improvised a defensive position around a hill west of the city. But, when more and more Austrian troops, including the main force under Batthyány, reached the battlefield, de Ségur was forced twice to withdraw his army, to avoid encirclement. When the sign for a general withdrawal was given, panic broke out amongst the Palatinate troops and they fled. de Ségur had the greatest difficulty in preventing the panic spreading amongst his French troops.
Only after the French and Palatinates had crossed the Paar river at Hohenwart at 18:00, the Austrians gave up their pursuit. The defeated army reached Rain on the Lech the next day at 11:00 at set up camp. But the next morning the Austrian army appeared and the allies fled over the Lech River, leaving all its material behind. Only the burning down of the bridge prevented a total disaster for the allies.
de Ségur had lost many troops and material, but his maintenance of discipline had prevented the total destruction of his army.
Maximilian recognized the Pragmatic Sanction. He also abandoned his father's claims on Bohemia and the imperial crown and promised to support the imperial candidacy of Maria Theresa's husband, Francis Stephen of Lorraine, who in fact became the next Emperor on 13 September 1745.
- "The Austrian imperial standard has, on a yellow ground, the black double-headed eagle, on the breast and wings of which are imposed shields bearing the arms of the provinces of the empire . The flag is bordered all round, the border being composed of equal-sided triangles with their apices alternately inwards and outwards, those with their apices pointing inwards being alternately yellow and white, the others alternately scarlet and black" (Chisholm 1911, p. 461)
- "The imperial banner was a golden yellow cloth...bearing a black eagle...The double-headed eagle was finally established by Sigismund as regent..." (Smith 1975, pp. 114–119)
- "...the standard of France was white, sprinkled with golden fleur de lis..." (Ripley & Dana 1879, p. 250).
- On the reverse of this plate it says: "Le pavillon royal était véritablement le drapeau national au dix-huitième siecle...Vue du chateau d'arrière d'un vaisseau de guerre de haut rang portant le pavillon royal (blanc, avec les armes de France)" (Vinkhuijzen collection 2011).
- "The oriflamme and the Chape de St Martin were succeeded at the end of the 16th century, when Henry III., the last of the house of Valois, came to the throne, by the white standard powdered with fleurs-de-lis. This in turn gave place to the famous tricolour"(Chisholm 1911, p. 460).
- All statistics taken from Chandler 1990, p. 306.
- Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Flag". Encyclopædia Britannica. 10 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 454–463.
- Chandler, David (1990). The Art of Warfare in the Age of Marlborough. Spellmount. Unknown parameter
- Ripley, George; Dana, Charles A., eds. (1879). "Flag". The American Cyclopædia. 8. p. 250.
- "The Vinkhuijzen collection of military uniforms: France, 1750-1757". New York Public Library. 25 March 2011 . Archived from the original on 8 March 2013.
- Smith, Whitney (1975). Flags through the ages and across the world. England: McGraw-Hill. pp. 114–119. ISBN 0-07-059093-1.