Banū Thaqīf was one of the tribes of Arabia during Muhammad's era that settled in Ta'if, in present-day Saudi Arabia. Its descendants, al-Thaqafī, are today found in Saudi Arabia, Hatay , Lebanon Tripoli , Syria , Morocco , jordan , Iraq .
Muhammad's (S.A.W) visit to Ta'if — 620
Muhammad went to the city named Ta'if and invited them to Islam, but they refused his message.
Battle of Badr — 624
Akhnas ibn Shariq al-Thaqifi and the Banu Zuhrah where with the Meccan as part of the escort that preceded the battle of Badr but since he believed the caravan to be safe, he did not join Quraish on their way to a festival in Badr. He together with Banu Zuhrah returned, so this two clans present in the battle
Siege — 630
Before the battle of Tabuk and after the battle of Hunayn, they were subjected to the Siege of Taif. However, they held their position and did not succumb to the siege. One of their chieftains, Urwah ibn Mas'ud, was absent in Yemen during that siege.
Urwah ibn Mas'ud
After Urwah returned from Yemen and learned of the battle that had taken place at Tabuk, he hastened to Medina. Urwah had met Muhammad before as an adversary, but he accepted Islam on this meeting. When he declared his intentions of returning to his city to preach, he was warned by Muhammad that they would fight him. Urwah, however, felt too sure of his position and influence with his people. He answered:
Upon his return, he was largely avoided by his tribesmen, apparently after concluding a consultation among themselves. The following morning, Urwah gave the call to prayer from his roof. He was then surrounded and shot to death by citizens who had gathered bows and arrows. As his relatives panicked around him, it is related according to Muslim sources that his last words were:
- "This is indeed an honor granted to me by God, the honor to die as a martyr in His cause. For my case is identical to that of all the other martyrs who gave up their lives at the gates of this city, while the Prophet of God, may God's peace and blessings be upon him, was laying siege to it."
Eventually, most of the remaining chieftains went to Mecca to confront Muhammed, and became Muslims after some negotiation, resulting in the destruction of the religion of Allāt. People involved were Abd-Ya-Layl ibn Amr, Mugheera ibn Shu'ba, Khalid ibn Sa'id ibn al-Aas, Uthman ibn Abu-al-Aas and Abu Sufyan ibn Harb.
With the dismantling of the popular cult of Allāt and the subsequent conversion of Al'Taw, the conversion of the Hijaz was complete. Muhammad's power expanded from the frontiers of Byzantium in the north to al Yaman and Hadramawt in the south. The territories of Southern Arabia were all being encouraged to join the new religion and integrate themselves into a unified system of defense. It subsequently follows that delegations from all around the region proceeded to Medina to declare allegiance to the new order and to convert to the new faith.
Notable members of the tribe include:
- Abd-Ya-Layl ibn Amr
- Uthman ibn Abu-al-Aas
- Urwah ibn Mas'ud
- Mugheera ibn Shu'ba
- Nafi ibn al-Harith Pre-Islamic physician
- Dawud ibn Urwah ibn Masa'ud al-Thaqifi, whom married Habibah binte Ubayd-Allah .
- Akhnas ibn Shariq
- Al-Hurr ibn Abd al-Rahman al-Thaqafi moorish in Spain and France
- al-Hajjaj ibn Yusuf al-Thaqafi
- Yusuf ibn Umar al-Thaqafi