Baire space

For the concept in set theory, see Baire space (set theory).

In mathematics, a Baire space is a topological space such that every intersection of a countable collection of open dense sets in the space is also dense. Complete metric spaces and locally compact Hausdorff spaces are examples of Baire spaces according to the Baire category theorem. The spaces are named in honor of René-Louis Baire who introduced the concept.


In an arbitrary topological space, the class of closed sets with empty interior consists precisely of the boundaries of dense open sets. These sets are, in a certain sense, "negligible". Some examples are finite sets in ℝ, smooth curves in the plane, and proper affine subspaces in a Euclidean space. If a topological space is a Baire space then it is "large", meaning that it is not a countable union of negligible subsets. For example, the three-dimensional Euclidean space is not a countable union of its affine planes.


The precise definition of a Baire space has undergone slight changes throughout history, mostly due to prevailing needs and viewpoints. First, we give the usual modern definition, and then we give a historical definition which is closer to the definition originally given by Baire.

Modern definition

A Baire space is a topological space in which the union of every countable collection of closed sets with empty interior has empty interior.

This definition is equivalent to each of the following conditions:

Historical definition

Main article: Meagre set

In his original definition, Baire defined a notion of category (unrelated to category theory) as follows.

A subset of a topological space X is called

The definition for a Baire space can then be stated as follows: a topological space X is a Baire space if every non-empty open set is of second category in X. This definition is equivalent to the modern definition.

A subset A of X is comeagre if its complement is meagre. A topological space X is a Baire space if and only if every comeager subset of X is dense.


where is a sequence that enumerates the rational numbers.

Baire category theorem

The Baire category theorem gives sufficient conditions for a topological space to be a Baire space. It is an important tool in topology and functional analysis.

BCT1 shows that each of the following is a Baire space:

BCT2 shows that every manifold is a Baire space, even if it is not paracompact, and hence not metrizable. For example, the long line is of second category.


See also



    External links

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