Bahá'í Faith in Scotland

The Bahá'í Faith in Scotland is a minority religion. According to the 2001 Census in Scotland, roughly four hundred people living there declared themselves to be Bahá'ís,[1] compared to a 2004 figure of approximately 5,000 Bahá'ís in the United Kingdom.[2]

Scotland's Bahá'í history began around 1905 when European visitors, Scots among them, met `Abdu'l-Bahá, then head of the religion, in Ottoman Palestine.[3] One of the first and most prominent Scots who became a Bahá'í was John Esslemont. Starting in the 1940s a process of moving to promulgate the religion called pioneering by Bahá'ís began for the purpose of teaching the religion.[4] These were joined by new converts and established local Spiritual Assemblies and eventually a National Bahá'í Council for Scotland was elected under the Assembly of the Bahá'ís of the United Kingdom.

Bahá'ís are well known for their inter-faith activities in Scotland.[5]

Early days

Up to World War I

In 1895, Scotsman Thomas Edward Gordon published Persia Revisited which mentions the Báb and the Babis, whom Bahá'ís claim to be predecessors of their religion.[6] covering largely events circa 1891.

In 1908, the Young Turks revolution freed all political prisoners in the Ottoman Empire, including `Abdu'l-Bahá, then head of the Bahá'í Faith. With the freedom to leave the country, in 1910 he embarked on a three-year journey to Egypt, Europe, and North America, publicising the Bahá'í message.[7]

`Abdu'l-Bahá returned to the British Isles and, recalling an invitation in 1905 by Jane Whyte, wife of Alexander Whyte, and others who visited him in Ottoman Palestine,[3] he chose to visit in Edinburgh in 1913.[4] A journal of his visit, including entries written in Edinburgh is still extant.[8][9] See `Abdu'l-Bahá's journeys to the West.

It has been claimed that Jane Whyte (1857–1944) was the first Scottish Bahá'í.[10] She visited `Abdu'l-Bahá in Akko (then in Palestine). A Scotsman resident in London, A.P. Cattanach, is also listed as a member prior to 1913.[10]

After his last return to Palestine `Abdu'l-Bahá mentioned various parts of the British Isles. He wrote a series of letters, or tablets, to the followers of the religion in the United States in 1916–1917; these letters were compiled together in the book Tablets of the Divine Plan. The seventh of the tablets mentioned European regions where the religion was not already present like the Shetland Islands. It was written on 11 April 1916, but was delayed in being presented in the United States until 1919—after the end of the First World War and the Spanish flu. The seventh tablet was translated and presented on 4 April 1919, and published in Star of the West magazine on 12 December 1919 and mentioned the islands.[11] He says:

"Therefore, O ye believers of God! Show ye an effort and after this war spread ye the synopsis of the divine teachings in the British Isles, France, Germany, Austria-Hungary, Russia, Italy, Spain, Belgium, Switzerland, Norway, Sweden, Denmark, Holland, Portugal, Rumania, Serbia, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Greece, Andorra, Liechtenstein, Luxemburg, Monaco, San Marino, Balearic Isles, Corsica, Sardinia, Sicily, Crete, Malta, Iceland, Faroe Islands, Shetland Islands, Hebrides and Orkney Islands."[12]

For his actions `Abdu'l-Bahá was knighted by the British Mandate for Palestine for his humanitarian efforts during the war.[7]

The development of the religion in Scotland suffered a serious blow in 1921 when `Abdu'l-Bahá died. This caused a decline in membership and activities until the mid-thirties.[10]

John Esslemont

Main article: John Esslemont

In 1955, John Esslemont was posthumously described by Shoghi Effendi, then head of the Bahá'í Faith, as one of the "three luminaries of the Irish, English and Scottish Bahá'í communities"[13]

Born in Aberdeen in 1874, Esslemont had become the first Bahá'í of Bournemouth[14] in early 1915 after hearing of the religion in December 1914 from a co-worker's wife[15] who had met `Abdu'l-Bahá in 1911 and had some pamphlets to share.[14]

Circa 1918, `Abdu'l-Bahá wrote a tablet in Esslemont's honour and also mentioned interest in a book he was working on. After receiving an early draft of this book `Abdu'l-Bahá invited Esslemont to Palestine which he accomplished in the winter of 1919–20, after the Battle of Megiddo (1918) settled the land. Ultimately `Abdu'l-Bahá was able to personally review several chapters. News of Esslemont's declaration of faith, and his forthcoming book, played a role in establishing the beginning of the Bahá'í Faith in Australia.[16] This book in development was to become the well-known introductory book on the Bahá'í Faith, Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era,[17] which was originally published in 1923 and has been translated into numerous languages and remains a key introduction to the religion.[18]

Esslemont was elected chairman of the assembly of Bournemouth when it was elected in a few years and later as vice-chairman of the national assembly until he left the country in 1924 following the closing of the sanatorium where he had been employed. He then traveled to Palestine to assist in translation work.[14] In 1925, the first Bahá'í of New Zealand, Margaret Stevenson, had gone on pilgrimage and the group she was in spent time in the UK afterwards – Esslemont specifically urged her to visit his family in Scotland.[19]

Shoghi Effendi, head of the religion after the death of `Abdu'l-Bahá, posthumously designated Esslemont as the first of the Hands of the Cause he appointed, and as one of the Disciples of `Abdu'l-Bahá.[10] Esslemont was also an accomplished medical doctor and linguist becoming proficient in western and eastern languages.

Other developments

In late 1926 Martha Root, a Bahá'í well known for travelling widely in the world, travelled to Scotland for an Esperanto convention[20] joined by Lydia Zamenhof, daughter of the founder of Esperanto and who carried on that work, after she also became a Bahá'í.[21] In 1927, a Caithness paper, the John O' Groats Journal carried a story on the religion.[22]

A Spiritual Assembly, elected councils of 9 adults that govern in the religion because the Bahá'í Faith has no clergy, was elected in Edinburgh in 1939 and is the longest continuously operating assembly in Scotland.[10]

Bahá'ís sought non-combatant status in World War Two when drafted and often served as medics.[23][24][25][26][27]

Post-World War II history

In 1946, a great pioneering movement began with sixty percent of the British Bahá'í community eventually relocating.[4] Intranationally this effort would take the Bahá'í Faith to Scotland, Wales, and Ireland and raising the numbers of Local Assemblies in the British Isles. In 1946, first of these to Scotland was Dr. M. Said of Egypt in 1946, who was joined in 1947, by Isobel Locke (later Sabri) and John Marshall, a native Scot who had met `Abdu'l-Bahá in 1911. The first to become a Bahá'í in this period (in March 1948) was Dr. William Johnston, who had met `Abdu'l-Bahá in Edinburgh in 1913.

The first continuously functioning local spiritual assembly of Scotland was formed in Edinburgh when it was elected in 1948. Then in 1953, a number of Bahá'ís spread out across Scotland[4] – Brigitte Hasselblatt, an Estionian, arrived in Lerwick,[28][29] Charles Dunning moved to Orkney followed by Daryoush Mehrabi[30] and a Bahá'í arrived in Stornoway.[31] The first Bahá'í convert outside the mainland of Scotland then joined the religion – Lilian McKay in September 1956 in Shetland and in 1963 she attended the first Bahá'í World Congress.[32][33] There have been Bahá'ís in Inverness since 1959[34] when Harold and Betty Shepherd pioneered there.[35] Hasselblatt moved to Finland, where she married, in 1959.[36]

Late Twentieth Century

In 1960 the Bahá'ís of Edinburgh held an observance of World Religion Day at the Grosvenor Hotel, in Haymarket.[37] The first Spiritual Assembly of Inverness was elected in April 1962.[34] Gloria Faizi, wife of Abu'l-Qásim Faizi, was the first Bahá'í to visit the outlying islands of Shetland, such as Fetlar, Unst, Yell, Whalsay and the Out Skerries in 1964.[32] The first Orcadian assembly was elected in Kirkwall in 1969, with four natives of Orkney.[38] Its nine members were: Shezagh King, Daryoosh Mehrabi, Adele Senior, Jacqueline Mehrabi, Moira Macleod, Ernest Bertram, Parvin Jahanpour, Eric King, and Violet Bertram.

The first Bahá'í of Midlothian joined the religion in 1968.[39]

Later, in 1969, Hand of the Cause Jalál Kházeh visited Scotland as far north as the Orkney Islands.[40]

Harold and Betty Shepherd moved from Inverness to Uganda in 1972, where they helped run a primary school and renovate the Bahá'í House of Worship there. Following that service, the Shepherds moved back to Scotland, eventually to the Orkney Islands in 1976, where Harold died in 1980.[35]

In 1972 the local assembly of the Bahá'ís of Lerwick was first elected.[41]

Alexe Cookson was born on the Isle of Harris, Outer Hebrides, Scotland, and about 1918 moved to New Zealand where she became a Bahá'í in 1964. She also went on pilgrimage and on the return trip went to Scotland where she died in Fort William.[35]

In 1975 the assembly of Mull was first elected with members from the towns of Tobermory, Salen, and Kilchrenan, and from the Isle of Ulva.[42]

In 1978 Scotland became the first part of the UK to recognize Bahá'í marriage ceremonies as legally binding.[10]

In 1981 Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum, visited Edinburgh and the Shetland Islands.[43] While in Edinburgh she preached on some matters of interest to local Baha'is, such as that the eagle marker for Shoghi Effendi's grave was bought in Edinburgh, that one her parents was Scottish (she claimed descent from Clan McBean, Clan Sutherland and Clan Maxwell)[44] how she and Shoghi Effendi had visited the area twice after World War II – seeing Loch Lomond, Gleneagles, Stirling, Edinburgh and Glasgow.[45]

In 1989 the Skye community received its first adult convert and in 1991 held the first election of the Local Spiritual Assembly of Skye and Kyle of Lochalsh was held.[46]

Modern community

The recent community of Bahá'ís have been involved in a variety of projects and undertakings and is organized under the Bahá’í Council for Scotland, also known as Comhairle Luchd Bahà-i na h-Alba [sic], under the National Spiritual Assembly for the Bahá'ís of the United Kingdom. The 2012 members of the Council are:

Allan Forsyth, Chairman, (Liaison member for Ayrshire, Lochaber, Mull, Argyll) Maureen Sier, Vice-Chair, (Liaison member for Caithness and Sutherland, Inverness, Moray, Renfrew and Inverclyde) Anwen Shahim, Secretary, (Liaison member for Central, Fife and Kinross, Perth and Kinross) Venus Alae-Carew, Treasurer, (Liaison member for Dumfries and Stewartry, Wigtownshire, Arran, Lanarkshire), Hari Docherty, (Liaison member for Borders) Nahid Donald, (Liaison member for Aberdeen, Banff and Buchan, Upper Strathdon, Upper Strathdee), Alan McKay, (Liaison member for Orkney, Shetland) Rolf Schmidt, (Liaison member for Edinburgh, Lewis and Harris, Skye, Uist and Barra) and Wendy Keenan.[47]

A new national Bahá’i centre in Scotland took place on 23 May 2011, on the anniversary of the Declaration of the Báb and accepted by Bahá'ís as the inception of their religion. Over 80 guests heard Kenny MacAskill, Scottish Minister for Justice, giving the opening address.[48]

Interfaith and public activities

In the teachings of the Bahá'í Faith, Jesus is considered to be one of a number of Manifestations of God, a concept in the Bahá'í Faith that refers to what are commonly called prophets.[49] Mohammed, Moses, Buddha, Krishna, and Bahá'u'lláh are also considered Manifestations of God.

The Dumfries Inter-Faith Group formed in 1998, at the initiative of the Bahá'í community, and as of 2005 still had a Bahá'í member.[5]

Bahá'ís have participated in the regional Scottish Inter-Faith Council since at least 2002.[50]

A "World Religions" class including one session on the Bahá'í Faith was offered at the University of Dundee as part of its Continuing Education program as an initiative by a Bahá'í and organized in conjunction with Dundee Inter-Faith Association after two years of insufficient interest in holding a class just on the Bahá'í Faith.[51][52]

At the invitation of the Moderator of the Church of Scotland in the winter of 2002–2003 an interfaith delegation from Scotland including a Bahá'í attended the Brussels European Union Commission and Parliament including Scottish MEPs.[53] The Bahá'í representative reports the politicians he spoke with had heard of the religion before. This same year, for the first time,[54] the Church of Scotland received representatives of the non-Christian faiths of Scotland at its 18 May General Assembly as a result of a major theme of that year's Moderator: to progress interfaith dialogue in Scotland. Both the outgoing and incoming Moderators commented on the representatives of the religions that had been invited and attended: the Bahá’í, Buddhist, Jewish and Sikh faiths. The Moderator then asked the representatives of these faiths to stand and invited the General Assembly to show its appreciation. The ovation from those gathered was warm, sincere, long and very moving. Bahá'í support for the effort was specific as a result of the then recent letter of the Universal House of Justice "Message to the World's Religious Leaders" released the previous April.[55]

On 28 October 2003, the Bahá'í pamphlet Treasuring Our Youth was officially presented to the Scottish Inter-Faith Council.[56] The religion was represented at a religion and faith focus group in Glasgow, on 1 December 2008 on the issue of a Patients' Rights Bill for Users of the NHS in Scotland organised by the Scottish Inter-Faith Council.[57] There is a Bahá'í representative to the local interfaith council in Sheltand Island as well.[58]

Also in 2005 the second Edinburgh International Festival of Middle Eastern Spirituality and Peace took place over an extended period from mid February to early March.[59] Many performances and events were offered by Bahá'ís in the proceedings including – a selection of The Hidden Words was set with music for viola, an event on "Tranquility Space" by the University of Edinburgh Baha'i Society, "The Baha'i Faith Exhibition", created originally for the St Mungo Museum of Religious Life and Art, a two-hour guided tour of some of the places where `Abdu'l-Bahá spoke at or visited in Edinburgh in 1913, and a talk by Bahá'í scholar Dr Moojan Momen.

The Bahá'ís published World Religions; The Bahá'í Faith (A Pack for Primary Schools) which covers most of the "Attainment Targets and strands" delineated in the Scottish Education Department’s 5–14 Document for the teaching of World Religions in schools (Religious and Moral Education) by 2006.[60]

On 18 January 2006, the Scottish Parliament opened its prayer meeting with a "Time for Reflection" presented by Carrie Varjavandi. She represented the Bahá'í Council for Scotland explained elements of the history and teachings of the religion.[61]

In 2009, the religion was represented in the chaplaincy and spiritual care in NHS Scotland through its "Spiritual Care Development Committee".[62]

In 2007 the Scottish Interfaith Council produced a booklet, Religion and Belief Matter: An Information Resource for Healthcare Staff reviewing issues member religions have in medical care situations. The Bahá'í Faith section notes Bahá'ís accept a role for prayer when ill, there is a regular period of fasting in March when not sick, and that there are requirements in the case of death.[63] The Council also produced a booklet A Guide to Faith Communities in Scotland reviewing members of the council including introductory information, a space for societal issues and giving voice to concerns the faiths have for society. The Bahá'í entry notes "Baha‘is are concerned about anything that leads to conflict or disunity in the community or in the world. To this end, they are encouraged to support activities which further one or all of the principles of their faith. Baha‘is are encouraged to protect the interests of their community and country but are also expected to take on the role and responsibility of world citizens."[64]

Women's activities

The "Association of Baha'i Women (Scotland)" held its inaugural meeting in Glasgow on 3 November 1999, with the UK National Spiritual Assembly chairman, Wendi Momen, and director of the Office for the Advancement of Women, Zarin Hainsworth-Fadaei, travelling from London, the English capital, for the occasion.[65] It has met often with local and regional women's groups through 2001.[66] The group has also held inter-faith activities as recently as 2012.[67]

Research in Glasgow

In 2005, tensions were noted among the religions of Glasgow especially following September the Eleventh, but faith communities, including the Bahá'ís, thought greater cooperation and outreach with Glasgow City Council was important while at the same time acknowledging some gaps in understanding coming from both sides.[68] A university review of the situation in Glasgow, pointed out that the Bahá'ís and Jews were the only religions in Glasgow giving a high priority to inter-faith work, resulting in representation above their proportion in the community, and that it was the Bahá'ís who were able to assist the researchers in identifying participants from faith groups other than their own – and that such openness was a foundational quality of Bahá'ís.[5] The same research included a survey where 13 out of 14 Bahá'í respondents felt their community’s inter-faith involvement was "about right" while most thought Glasgow City Council’s involvement in inter-faith activities needed to expand. In 2005 an Inter-faith Liaison Officer for the City Council of Glasgow was piloted for three years[69] to address issues of sectarianism and included the Bahá'í Faith as a contact point.[70]

Youth activities

In 2003 the youth Bahá'í Workshop (see Oscar DeGruy) named "Northern Lights" toured many events in the year.[71] The dance troupe disband in 2004 but at a civic "Drugs Awareness" event in Glasgow there was a video presentation which, unknown to the group, included the Northern Lights ‘Drug Dance’ and mentioned that Northern Lights were a Bahá’í youth group who were opposed to the drug culture.[72][73] In November 2006, a junior youth group was registered with the government in Inverness[74]Ruhi Institutes have a section regarding adolescents about ages 12 to 15 and in this case it included a dance Bahá'í workshop on diversity.

"The History of the Bahá’í Faith in Orkney" was produced by a 13-year-old junior youth for the Orkney Heritage Society who was awarded her one of twelve runners-up places and a "Very Highly Commended" certificate.[75]

Three junior youth groups were run by Bahá'ís in Shetland in 2010.[76]

Persecution of Bahá'ís in Iran

From initiatives of Bahá'ís and the considered opinions of leaders various individuals have spoken out about Iran's treatment of Bahá'ís in Scotland.

In 1995 the spiritual assembly of the Bahá'ís of Edinburgh welcomed Olya Roohìzadegan to the chaplaincy centre of the University of Edinburgh who addressed the audience on the martyrdom of Mona Mahmudnizhad she witnessed.[77]

In 2010 a Dundee SNP MP, Stewart Hosie, called on British PM David Cameron to act on behalf of a group of Iranian prisoners who have been jailed for their religious beliefs.[78] There was also coverage of the persecution on local TV news. Also in 2010, Cardinal O' Brien of the Roman Catholic Church issued a public statement in which he condemned Iran's treatment of Bahá'ís:

"Having been united in prayer with seven Baha’i Leaders, who were arrested more than two years ago in Iran, I deeply regret the news that these leaders have now been sentenced to 20 years imprisonment.
I am happy to join in the recent statement issued by William Hague MP, Foreign Secretary, on this matter and regard what has happened as being a most appalling transgression of justice and at heart a gross violation of the human right of freedom of belief."[79]

Indeed at least one resident in Scotland had herself escaped after her husband was killed according to her own testimony, adding her voice to those of various international leaders.[80]


The Scottish community of Bahá'ís numbered 421 people, 0.008% of the population of Scotland, according to the 2001 Census. Respondents had to use the "write in" section as it was not listed as an available choice.[1] However across all of Scotland some householders were confused by the Census format or, for whatever reason, declined to follow its logic and it should be noted the census does not measure religious activity or commitment, but overall was supported as "robust, reliable and – crucially – representative" according to a University of Glasgow study.[5] Non-Christian religions are less strong in Scotland than in the rest of the UK but relatively speaking, the Bahá’ís are better represented in Scotland than any other non-Christian community in proportion to its national community with 8% of its members living in Scotland.[81] Indeed the religion is recognized world wide as the second-most geographically widespread religion after Christianity.[82][83] This is partly because of their conscious effort to "pioneer" Scotland, by sending members there.

As of 2004 the elected Local Spiritual Assemblies of Scotland were: Aberdeen, Dundee, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Inverness, Lerwick, Orkney Mainland East, and Skye Central.[84]

The same University of Glasgow research included a focus providing a possible rough profile of the Glasgow Bahá'í community.[5] Bahá'ís returned a maximum of 24 surveys in the various rounds of surveys. And when done according to language preference most were done in English – 16 were in English and 8 in Persian – the native language of Iranians where both the religion originated and where Persecution of Bahá'ís is well documented. Note also the only other group to report Persian returns was a women's group. The same research did a follow-up survey looking for ethnic breakdowns – 15 Bahá'í respondents included 6 from "Asian-Other" or "Mixed-Other".

In 2006 the regional community of Forth and Clyde was considered by Bahá'ís to be the best developed of Scotland.[85]

Individuals of note

Robert Ghillies is a Bahá'í composer that has had works performed nationally. His music features in Tobermory and the Otter and he's composed many pieces related to the religion.[86]

Jackie Mehrabi is editor of the Bahá'í published magazine Dayspring and writer of children's literature, lives in Dumfries[87] and received the 2011 Joe Foster Award for Services to Education.[88]

See also


  1. 1 2 Office of the Chief Statistician (17 May 2006). ANALYSIS OF RELIGION IN THE 2001 CENSUS: Summary Report. Scotland: Office of the Chief Statistician, Scotland Government. pp. Annex, A.2 Write–in responses for 'Another Religion', Table A.2: Top 10 answers for those responding 'Another Religion' – All People who listed their current religion as 'Another Religion'. ISBN 0-7559-3912-3.
  2. "In the United Kingdom, Bahá'ís promote a dialogue on diversity". One Country. 16 (2). July–September 2004.
  3. 1 2 Weinberg, Robert; Bahá'í International Community (27 January 2005). "History springs to life on Scottish stage". Bahá'í World News Service.
  4. 1 2 3 4 U.K. Bahá'í Heritage Site. "The Bahá'í Faith in the United Kingdom – A Brief History". Archived from the original on 26 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-18.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 Dr Clegg, Cecelia; Dr Rosie, Michael (8 November 2005). Faith Communities and Local Government in Glasgow (PDF). Scotland: Centre for Theology and Public Issues, University of Edinburgh & Scottish Executive Social Research. pp. 19, 39, 45, 47, 49–51, 56. ISBN 0-7559-2773-7.
  6. Sir Thomas Edward Gordon (1896). Persia Revisited (1895). E. Arnold. pp. 81–92. Retrieved 31 May 2013.
  7. 1 2 "ʿABD-AL-BAHĀʾ". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  8. "Abdu'l-Bahá's Visit to Edinburgh 1913" (pdf). Official Website of the Bahá'ís of Edinburgh. Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Edinburgh. 22 June 2007. Retrieved 2010-10-13.
  9. "The Diary of Ahmad Sohrab" (pdf). Official Website of the Bahá'ís of Edinburgh. Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Edinburgh. 16 June 2008. Retrieved 2010-10-13.
  10. 1 2 3 4 5 6 "Bahá'í History of the United Kingdom". Retrieved 2008-02-18.
  11. Abbas, `Abdu'l-Bahá (April 1919). Tablets, Instructions and Words of Explanation. Mirza Ahmad Sohrab (trans. and comments).
  12. `Abdu'l-Bahá, Tablet to the Bahá'ís of the United States and Canada, April, 11th, 1916
  13. Effendi, Shoghi (1971). Messages to the Bahá'í World, 1950–1957. Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. p. 174. ISBN 0-87743-036-5.
  14. 1 2 3 "J. E. Esslemont – Named a Hand of the Cause at His Passing". Bahá'í News. No. 15. June 1973. pp. 6–8.
  15. Esslemont, John (1874–1925) by Moojan Momen, London: Bahá'í Publishing Trust, 1975. Baha'i World 1:133-6.
  16. William Miller (b. Glasgow 1875) and Annie Miller (b. Aberdeen 1877) – The First Believers in Western Australia The Scottish Bahá'í No.33 – Autumn, 2003
  17. Esslemont, J.E. (1980). Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era (5th ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-160-4.
  18. Fazel, Seena; Danes, John (1995). "Bahá'í scholarship: an examination using citation analysis". Bahá'í Studies Review. 5 (1). Archived from the original on 14 November 2007. Retrieved 2008-02-18., Table 4: Most cited Bahá'í books, 1988–1993.
  19. Shoghi Effendi (1982). Arohanui – Letters to New Zealand (1982 ed.). Suva, Fiji Islands: Bahá’í Publishing Trust of Suva, Fiji Islands. pp. 8–9.
  20. "Martha Root and Montfort Mills hold public meeting in England". Bahá'í News. No. 15. January 1927. p. 8.
  21. "The Cost of Constancy: impressions of Lydia Zamenhof". Bahá'í News. No. 515. February 1974. p. 20.
  22. "Baha'i Publicity in Scotland". Bahá'í News. No. 22. March 1928. p. 8.
  23. Publication, Center on Conscience & War, from the Baha'i Lights of Guidance
  24. WAR, GOVERNMENT AND CONSCIENCE IN THIS AGE OF TRANSITION – Authorized by the National Spiritual Assembly of the Baha'is of the United States, Baha'i National Review, No. 20, August 1969, pp. 2–5
  25. Hatcher, John (1996). "Child and Family in Baha'i Religion". In Coward, Harold G. Religious Dimensions of Child and Family Life: Reflections on the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child. Victoria, B.C.: University of Victoria. pp. 141–160. ISBN 978-1-55058-104-1.
  26. "William H. 'Smitty' Smith, Ed. D.". National Center for Race Amity, Wheelock College. Archived from the original on 6 July 2012. Retrieved 2012-09-01.
  27. Morrison, Sidney (1987). "Becoming a Man". In Caton, Peggy. Equal Circles: Women and Men in the Baha'i Community. Kalimat Press. p. 199. ISBN 0-933770-28-6.
  28. We had a wonderful Jubilee Celebration, by Robert Bennet, The Scottish Bahá’í, No.33 – Autumn, 2003
  29. A History of the Shetland Bahá'í Community – The 1950s, The Shetland Bahá'í Community (archived 30 April 2008)
  30. "The Bahá'í Faith in Orkney". Official Website of the Bahá'í Community of Orkney. Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Orkney. 2008. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-28.
  31. The Baha'i Story, History (Isle of Lewis Baha'i Community, Scotland)
  32. 1 2 The Shetland Bahá'í Community. "A History of the Shetland Bahá'í Community: 1950s". Archived from the original on 5 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-28.
  33. Lilian Jean McKay 10 February 1929 – 11 July 2004, The Scottish Bahá’í, No.37 – Autumn, 2004
  34. 1 2 "The Bahá'ís of Inverness". Official Website of the Bahá'í Community of Orkney. Local Spiritual Assembly of Baha'is of Inverness. 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-28.
  35. 1 2 3 Universal House of Justice (1986). In Memoriam. The Bahá'í World. XVIII. Bahá'í World Centre. pp. 730–1, 740–1. ISBN 0-85398-234-1.
  36. Laurence Lundblade; Luise Morris (2008). "1960–1984". Biography of Brigitte Hasselblatt-Lundblade. Laurence Lundblade and Luise Morris. Retrieved 2008-12-20.
  37. "Baha'i Publicity in Scotland". Bahá'í News. No. 350. April 1960. p. 5.
  38. "International News Briefs; Travels of Hands of the Cause". Bahá'í News. No. 463. November 1969. p. 9.
  39. A Brief History of the Baha'i Faith in Midlothian and Scotland, (archived 31 August 2001.)
  40. "First Assembly Formed in Orkney Islands". Bahá'í News. No. 464. October 1969. p. 10.
  41. The Shetland Bahá'í Community. "A History of the Shetland Bahá'í Community: 1970s". Archived from the original on 5 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-28.
  42. "Around the World; United Kingdom; Widely traveled Assembly re-formed". Bahá'í News. No. 543. June 1976. p. 14.
  43. The Shetland Bahá'í Community. "A History of the Shetland Bahá'í Community: 1980s". Archived from the original on 5 May 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-28.
  44. "The Great Safari of Hand of the Cause Rúhíyyih Khánum (part 11)". Bahá'í News. No. 501. December 1972. p. 20.
  45. Khanum, Ruhiyyih (19 September 2008). "Transcribed from Tape of Ruhiyyih Khanum speaking in Edinburgh Bahá'í Centre in 1981". Pilgrim notes. Bahá'í Library Online. Retrieved 2008-12-29.
  46. Local Spiritual Assembly of the Bahá'ís of Skye. "The Baha'i Communities of Skye – Milestones". Archived from the original on May 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-28.
  47. Who's Who – what they do, what they are responsible for ..., THE SCOTTISH BAHÁ'Í NEWSLETTER, 31 January 2012
  48. Scottish Interfaith Council Newsletter,, Issue 20, August 2011
  49. Stockman, Robert (1992). "Jesus Christ in the Bahá'í Writings". Bahá'í Studies Review. London: Association for Baha'i Studies English-Speaking Europe. 2 (1).
  50. Belief in Dialogue: Religion and Belief Relations in Scotland: Good Practice Guide, 22 March 2011, uk
  51. World Religions Course at Dundee University, The Scottish Bahá’í, No.34 – Winter, 2003
  52. Relationships of faith, Forfar Dispatch, 18 December 2003
  53. Interfaith activities, The Scottish Bahá’í, No.31 – Spring, 2003
  54. Mention of Faith in Church of Scotland General Assembly, The Scottish Bahá’í, No.32 – Summer, 2003
  55. See Message to the World's Religious Leaders from the Universal House of Justice by the Universal House of Justice
  56. Scottish Inter-Faith Council 28 Oct 2003, uk
  57. Patients' Rights Bill for Users of the NHS in Scotland: Consultation Analysis Report, 10 June 2009, uk
  58. Who we are, Shetland Inter-Faith
  59. Festival Program, by the Edinburgh International Centre for World Spiritualities, (EICWS), and the Edinburgh Institute for Advanced Learning, (EIAL) see also Festival 2004 Welcome
  60. Religions; The Bahá'í Faith (A Pack for Primary Schools) (archived 2006)
  61. "Official Report 18 January 2006". Parliamentary Business. The Scottish Parliament. 18 January 2006. Retrieved 29 December 2008.
  62. Spiritual Care and Chaplaincy, 30 January 2009, uk
  63. Religion and Belief Matter: An Information Resource for Healthcare Staff,
  64. A Guide to Faith Communities in Scotland,
  65. "newly formed Association of Baha'i Women (Scotland)". The Scottish Bahá'í. Bahá'í Council for Scotland. Winter 1999 (18). 1999. Retrieved 2008-12-28.
  66. Association News, anthology of articles from The Scottish Bahá'í 1999 – 2001
  67. FaithBook – the Work of Many Hands, Interfaith Scotland.
  68. Faith Communities & Local Government in Glasgow, 23 November 2005,
  69. City Council Equality Scheme 2008 − 2011, Glasgow City Council, p. 15. Despite being looked at as a possible model for other places in Scotland – Sectarianism – and Update on Action PLan on Tackling Sectarianism in Scotland, p. 16 – the pilot was not continued following the change of government in 2009 – see St Mungo Museum of Religious Life and Art – some experiences, by Janice Lane – 11 February 2011
  70. Sectarianism: Update on Action Plan on Tackling Sectarianism in Scotland, 15 February 2007,
  71. Northern Lights update, by Wendy Keenan, The Scottish Bahá’í, No.32 – Summer, 2003
  72. Letters to the editor: SUBJECT: Northern Lights Dance Group, by Wendy Keenan, The Scottish Bahá’í, No.36 – Summer, 2004
  73. Voluntary Work in Scotland, "in your community ", (archived 23 June 2004)
  74. Youth Work – Opportunities for All: Consultation Response Booklet, 8 November 2006,
  75. Orkney Heritage Society, by Lorraine Miller, The Scottish Bahá’í, No.44 – Summer, 2006
  76. Baha'i Youth Groups by: EmJay, 27 Aug 2010,
  77. Death in the name of religion. In the early eighties fundamentalists attempted to wipe out Iran's largest religious minority. Stephen McGinty describes one woman's fight for her faith, by Stephen McGinty, The Herald (Glasgow), 4 September 1995, p. 8
  78. Dundee MP presses David Cameron for Iranian Baha'i action, by Graeme Ogston,, 9-23-2010
  79. Scottish Catholic leader condemns treatment of Iran’s Baha’i leaders, 26 Aug 2010, Baha’i News UK
  80. Scotland’s Baha’i community calls for support, by Billy Briggs, HeraldScotland, 26 October 2010
  81. Religious Diversity in Scotland, by Barry Thorne, The Scottish Bahá’í, No.40 – Summer, 2005 – the article has a typo of 245 Scottish Baha'is; adjusting for 421 vs national population which was quoted correctly....
  82. Encyclopædia Britannica (2002). "Worldwide Adherents of All Religions by Six Continental Areas, Mid-2002". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica.
  83. MacEoin, Denis (2000). "Baha'i Faith". In Hinnells, John R. The New Penguin Handbook of Living Religions (Second ed.). Penguin. ISBN 0-14-051480-5.
  84. More Council News, Local Spiritual Assemblies, The Scottish Bahá’í, No.36 – Summer, 2004
  85. Scottish Gathering, Inverness The Scottish Bahá’í, No.44 – Summer, 2006
  86. List of Works « Robert Ghillies
  87. Dayspring publisher information, 2005
  88. Scottish Inter-Faith Week Events 27 November – 4 December 2011

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