View of Baden-Baden from Mount Merkur.
|Coordinates: 48°45′46″N 08°14′27″E / 48.76278°N 8.24083°ECoordinates: 48°45′46″N 08°14′27″E / 48.76278°N 8.24083°E|
|• Mayor||Margret Mergen (CDU)|
|• Total||140.18 km2 (54.12 sq mi)|
|• Density||390/km2 (1,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2)|
|Dialling codes||07221, 07223|
Baden-Baden is a spa town, located in the state of Baden-Württemberg in southwestern Germany. It lies at the northwestern border of the Black Forest mountain range on the small river Oos, just 10 km (6 mi) east of the Rhine, the border line to France, and about 40 km (25 mi) north-east of Strasbourg, France.
In modern German, Baden is a gerund meaning "bathing" but Baden, the original name of the town, derives from an earlier plural form of Bad ("bath"). (The modern plural has become Bäder.) As with the English placename "Bath", there are various other Badens at hot springs throughout Central Europe. The current doubled name arose to distinguish it from the others, particularly Baden near Vienna in Austria and Baden near Zürich in Switzerland. It is a reference to the Margraviate of Baden-Baden (1535–1771), a subdivision of the Margraviate of Baden, the territory named after the town. Baden-Baden became its formal name in 1931.
Baden-Baden lies in a valley of the Northern Black Forest in southwestern Germany. The western districts lie within the Upper Rhine Plain. The highest mountain of Baden-Baden is the Badener Höhe (), which is part of the Black Forest National Park. The old town lies on the side of a hill on the right bank of the Oos. Since the 19th century, the principal resorts have been located on the other side of the river. There are 29 natural springs in the area, varying in temperature from 115 to 153 °F (46 to 67 °C). The water is rich in salt and flows from artesian wells 1,800 m (5,900 ft) under Florentine Hill at a rate of 90 gallons (341 L) per minute and is conveyed through pipes to the town's baths.
Roman settlement at Baden-Baden has been dated as far back as the emperor Hadrian, but on dubious authority. The known ruins of the Roman bath were rediscovered just below the New Castle in 1847 and date to the reign of Caracalla (AD 210s), who visited the area to relieve his arthritic aches. The facilities were used by the Roman garrison in Strasbourg.
The town fell into ruin but its church was first constructed in the 7th century. By 1112, it was the seat of the Margraviate of Baden. The Lichtenthal Convent (Kloster Lichtenthal) was founded in 1254. The margraves initially used Hohenbaden Castle (the Old Castle, Altes Schloss), whose ruins still occupy the summit above the town, but they completed and moved to the New Castle (Neues Schloss) in 1479. Baden suffered severely during the Thirty Years' War, particularly at the hands of the French, who plundered it in 1643. They returned to occupy the city in 1688 at the onset of the Nine Years' War, burning it to the ground the next year. The margravine Sibylla rebuilt the New Castle in 1697, but the margrave Louis William removed his seat to Rastatt in 1706. The Stiftskirche was rebuilt in 1753 and houses the tombs of several of the margraves.
The town began its recovery in the late 18th century, serving as a refuge for émigrés from the French Revolution. The town was frequented during the Second Congress of Rastatt in 1797–99 and became popular after the visit of the Prussian queen in the early 19th century. She came for medicinal reasons, as the waters were recommended for gout, rheumatism, paralysis, neuralgia, skin disorders, and stones. The Ducal government subsequently subsidized the resort's development. The town became a meeting place for celebrities, who visited the hot springs and the town's other amenities: luxury hotels, the Spielbank Casino, horse races, and the gardens of the Lichtentaler Allee. Guests included Queen Victoria, Wilhelm I, and Berlioz. The pumproom (Trinkhalle) was completed in 1842. The Grand Duchy's railway's mainline reached Baden in 1845. Reaching its zenith under Napoleon III in the 1850s and '60s, Baden became "Europe's summer capital". With a population of around 10 000, the town's size could quadruple during the tourist season, with the French, British, Russians, and Americans all well represented. (French tourism fell off following the Franco-Prussian War.)
The theater was completed in 1861 and a Greek church with a gilt dome was erected on the Michaelsberg in 1863 to serve as the tomb of the teenage son of the Phanariot prince of Moldavia Michael Stourdza after he died during a family vacation. A Russian Orthodox church was also subsequently erected. The casino was closed for a time in the 1870s.
Just before the First World War, the town was receiving 70 000 visitors each year. The town escaped destruction through both world wars. After World War II, Baden-Baden became the headquarters of the French occupation forces in Germany as well as of the Südwestfunk, one of Germany's large public broadcasting stations, which is now part of Südwestrundfunk. From 23–28 September 1981, the XIth Olympic Congress took place in Baden-Baden's Kurhaus. The Festspielhaus Baden-Baden, Germany's largest opera and concert house, opened in 1998.
CFB Baden-Soellingen, a military airfield built in the 1950s in the Upper Rhine Plain, 10 km (6 mi) west of downtown Baden-Baden, was converted into a civil airport in the 1990s. Karlsruhe/Baden-Baden Airport, or Baden Airpark is now the second-largest airport in Baden-Württemberg by number of passengers.
Baden-Baden is a German spa town. The city offers many options for sports enthusiasts; golf and tennis are both popular in the area. Horse races take place each May, August and October at nearby Iffezheim. The countryside is ideal for hiking and mountain climbing. In the winter Baden-Baden is a skiing destination. There is an 18-hole golf course in Fremersberg.
- The Kurhaus, whose Kurgarten ("Spa Garden") hosts the annual Baden-Baden Summer Nights, featuring live classical music concerts
- Caracalla Spa
- Lichtentaler Allee park and gardens
- Staatliche Kunsthalle Baden-Baden (State Art Gallery)
- Museum Frieder Burda built by Richard Meier for one of Germany's most extensive collections of modern art
- Fabergé Museum
- Museum der Kunst und Technik des 19. Jahrhunderts (Lichtentaler Allee 8), covering the technology of the 19th century
- Kunstmuseum Gehrke-Remund, which exhibits the work of Frida Kahlo
- Brahmshaus, Johannes Brahms's residence, which has been preserved as a museum
- Hohenbaden Castle or Old Castle, a ruin since the 16th century
- New Castle (Neues Schloss), the former residence of the margraves and grand dukes of Baden, now a historical museum
- Festspielhaus Baden-Baden, the second-largest festival hall in Europe
- Ruins of Roman baths, excavated in 1847
- Stiftskirche, a church including the tombs of fourteen margraves of Baden
- Paradise (Paradies), an Italian-style Renaissance garden with lots of trick fountains
- Mount Merkur, including the Merkurbergbahn funicular railway and observation tower
- Fremersberg Tower
- Sturdza Chapel on the Michaelsberg, a neoclassical chapel with a gilded dome designed by Leo von Klenze which was erected over the tomb of prince Michel Sturdza's son
Old Town (Altstadt)
Florentine Hill (Florentinerberg), with the New Castle (top right), the Caracalla Spa (lower right), and the Friedrichsbad (lower left)
Baden-Baden's parish church (Stiftskirche)
The Kurhaus and Casino
Brenner's Park Hotel
The Russian Orthodox Church (Russische Kirche)
The Friedrichsbad, New Castle, and Abbey School (Klosterschule vom Heiligen Grab)
The Spa Shell, an open-air concert venue
Museum Frieder Burda
The Old Castle
Twin towns – Sister cities
Baden-Baden is twinned with:
Climate in this area has mild differences between highs and lows, and there is adequate precipitation year round. The Köppen Climate Classification subtype for this climate is "Cfb" (Marine West Coast Climate/Oceanic climate).
Baden-Baden in art
The 1975 film The Romantic Englishwoman was filmed on location in Baden-Baden, featuring the Brenner's Park Hotel particularly prominently. The 1997 Bollywood movie Dil To Pagal Hai was also shot in the town.
Sons and daughters of the town
- Ferdinand Maximilian of Baden-Baden (1625-1669), father of the "Türkenlouis" Louis William, Margrave of Baden-Baden
- Emil Kessler (1813-1867), entrepreneur, founder of the Maschinenfabrik Esslingen
- Max von Baden (1867-1929), the last heir of the Grand Duchy of Baden, and the last chancellor of the Empire
- Édouard Risler (1873-1929), French pianist
- Wilhelm Brückner (1884-1954), officer and chief adjutant of Adolf Hitler
- Alfred Kühn (1885-1968), zoologist and geneticist
- Frederick Lindemann, 1st Viscount Cherwell (1886-1957), British physicist
- Wolfgang Krull (1899-1971), mathematician
- Rudolf Höss (1900-1947), National Socialist, Obersturmbannführer and commandant of Auschwitz concentration camp
- Leopold Gutterer (1902-1996), Nazi functionaries and politicians, state secretary in the Reich Ministry of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda and vice president of the Reichskulturkammer
- Reinhold Schneider (1903-1958), writer
- Felix Gilbert (1905-1991), German-American historian
- Tony Marshall (born 1938), pop and opera singer
- Elmar Hörig (born 1949), radio and television presenter
- Robert HP Platz (born 1951), composer and conductor
- Marc Trillard (born 1955), French writer
- Sabine von Maydell (born 1955), actress and author
- Alexandra Kamp (born 1966), actress
- Marco Grimm (born 1972), football player
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|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Baden-Baden.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Baden-Baden.|
- Official site (German) (Spanish) (French) (Italian) (Japanese) (Russian) (Chinese)
- Kristallnacht in Baden-Baden, Germany on the Yad Vashem website
- Baden-Baden Wiki (German)
- "Art and Nightlife Have Baden-Baden Percolating Again", New York Times, July 9, 2006
- "Baden-Baden". The American Cyclopædia. 1879.