Avro Athena

Avro Athena T.1
Role Trainer
Manufacturer Avro
First flight 12 June 1948
Introduction 1950
Primary user Royal Air Force
Number built 22 (including prototypes)

The Avro 701 Athena was a British advanced trainer aircraft built by Avro in the late 1940s. It was designed to replace the North American Harvard in the Royal Air Force, but was bought only in small numbers, the competing Boulton Paul Balliol being preferred.

Design and development

The Athena was designed to meet the requirements of Air Ministry Specification T.7/45 for a three-seat advanced trainer powered by a turboprop engine for the RAF. The Athena was an all-metal low-winged monoplane, with a side-by-side cockpit. The Air Ministry rethought its requirements in 1947 and replaced the original specification with Specification T.14/47, which specified the use of a Rolls-Royce Merlin 35 piston engine, large stocks of which were held in store.[1]

Despite the change in specification, the first three prototypes were of the turboprop-powered Athena T.1, the first of which, powered by an Armstrong Siddeley Mamba engine, flew on 12 June 1948 at Woodford Aerodrome.[2] The Merlin-powered Athena T.2 first flew on 1 August 1948,[3] and was evaluated against the similar Boulton Paul Balliol.

A small production run of 15 Athenas was ordered for the RAF, but the Balliol was preferred, and no further Athenas were ordered.

Operational history

The 15 production Athenas were used by the RAF from 1950 [4] for armament training at the RAF Flying College at RAF Manby.[5] A single aircraft was loaned back to Avro and given the civil registration G-ALWA for a demonstration tour of India. No sales resulted and it was returned to the RAF.[2]


Athena T.1
Turboprop-powered prototype. One 1,010 hp (750 kW) Armstrong Siddeley Mamba 1 engine. Two built.
Athena T.1A
Single prototype powered by 1,400 hp (1,040 kW) Rolls-Royce Dart 1 engine. Second prototype to fly.
Athena T.2
Trainer to Spec. T.14/47 powered by 1,280 hp (950 kW) Rolls-Royce Merlin 35. Four prototypes plus 15 production.


 United Kingdom

Accidents and incidents

Two of the 22 aircraft were lost in flying accidents:

Specifications (Athena T.2)

Data from Avro Aircraft since 1908.[7]

General characteristics



See also

Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists



  1. Jackson 1990, p. 431.
  2. 1 2 Jackson 1990, p. 432.
  3. Thetford, Owen. Aircraft of the Royal Air Force 1918-57, 1st edition London: Putnam, 1957.
  4. "Milestones of Flight, 1950". Archived October 2, 2006, at the Wayback Machine. RAF Museum. Retrieved: 27 May 2007.
  5. Taylor, M.J.H., ed. Jane's Encyclopedia of Aviation. London: Jane's Publishing Company, 1989. ISBN 1-85170-324-1.
  6. "British flight test fatal accidents: 1946-1970."| Test Flying Memorial Project. Retrieved: 24 October 2009.
  7. Jackson 1990, pp. 433–434.
  8. Although the original specification was for a three-seat aircraft, when delivered to the RAF, the third seat was deleted.


  • Jackson, A.J. Avro Aircraft since 1908, 2nd edition. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1990. ISBN 0-85177-834-8.

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