Nursing in the United Kingdom
Nursing in the United Kingdom has a long history. The current form of nursing is often considered as beginning with Florence Nightingale who pioneered 'modern nursing'. Florence Nightingale initiated formal schools of nursing in the United Kingdom in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. The role and perception of nursing has dramatically changed from that of 'handmaiden' to the doctor to professionals in their own right. There are over 300,000 nurses in the United Kingdom and they work in a variety of settings; hospitals, health centres, nursing homes, hospices, communities, academia etc. with most nurses working for the National Health Service (NHS). Nurses work across all demographics and requirements of the public; Adults and Children and mental health. Nurses work in a range of specialties from the broad areas of medicine, surgery, theatres, investigative sciences such as imaging, neo-natal etc. Nurses also work in a large areas of sub-specialities such as respiratory, diabetes, neurology, infectious diseases, liver, research, cardiac etc. Nurses often work in multi-disciplinary teams but increasingly are found working independently.
To practise, all nurses in the United Kingdom must be registered with the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC).
The History of Nursing in the United Kingdom dates back to ancient times. Florence Nightingale is regarded as the founder of the modern nursing profession. Nursing and Nursing in the United Kingdom has changed dramatically from a small unregulated job to a large professional body with over 325,000 nurses working in the United Kingdom today.
Florence Nightingale is regarded as the founder of the modern nursing profession. There was no real hospital training school for nurses until one was established in Kaiserwerth, Germany, in 1846. There, Nightingale received the training that later enabled her to establish, at St Thomas' Hospital in London, the first school designed primarily to train nurses rather than to provide nursing service for the hospital.
In the Crimean War against Russia, Nightingale was appointed to oversee the introduction of female nurses into the military hospitals in Turkey, after criticisms in the British press. In November 1854, Nightingale arrived at the barrack hospital near Constantinople, with a party of 38 nurses. Initially the doctors did not want the nurses there and did not ask for their help, but within ten days fresh casualties arrived from the Battle of Inkermann and the nurses were fully stretched. When Nightingale returned from the Crimean War in August 1856, she hid herself away from the public's attention. For her contribution to Army statistics and comparative hospital statistics in 1860, Nightingale became the first woman to be elected a Fellow of the Statistical Society.
To practise lawfully as a registered nurse in the United Kingdom, the practitioner must hold a current and valid registration with the Nursing and Midwifery Council. The title "registered nurse" can only be granted to those holding such registration; this protected title is laid down in the Nurses, Midwives and Health Visitors Act 1997.
The Nursing and Midwifery Council
The core function of the NMC is to establish and improve standards of nursing and midwifery care to protect the public. Its key tasks are to:
- register all nurses and midwives and ensure that they are properly qualified and competent to work in the UK.
- set the standards of training and conduct that nurses and midwives need to deliver high quality healthcare consistently throughout their careers.
- set the standards for pre-registration nursing education
- ensure that nurses and midwives keep their skills and knowledge up to date and uphold the standards of their professional code.
- ensure that midwives are safe to practise by setting rules for their practice and supervision.
- use fair processes to investigate allegations made against nurses and midwives who may not have followed the code.
Membership of the council comprises 6 lay and 6 registrant members appointed by the Privy Council, including at least one member from each of the four UK countries. The registrant members consist of nurses and midwives. The lay members currently include people with diplomatic, legal and business backgrounds.
The NMC register is split into three main parts: Nurses, Midwives and Specialist Community Public Health Nurses (SCPHN). Within the registration it contains several "sub-parts" and qualifications e.g. sub part 1, sub part 2.
There are over 618,000 registered Nurses, Midwives and SCPHNs. Of these:
- Over 53% are Adult Nurses.
- Over 60% are under the age of 40.
- 11.9% of registrants are male (74,038).
- There are between 113 - 137 registered male midwives, representing 0.6% of practising midwives.
Revalidation is a new requirement for all NMC registered members to revalidate every three years in order to ensure their registration can be renewed. Revalidation will be introduced from April 2016. Revalidation replaces Prep.
- 450 practice hours, or 900 if renewing as both a nurse and midwife
- 35 hours of CPD including 20 hours of participatory learning
- Five pieces of practice-related feedback
- Five written reflective accounts
- Reflective discussion
- Health and character declaration
- Professional indemnity arrangement
Code of Conduct
A new NMC Code was introduced in March 2015, this replaced the 2008 NMC code. The NMC code presents the professional standards that nurses and midwives must uphold in order to be registered to practise in the UK.
Royal College of Nursing
Many nurses are members of the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) which has over 400,000 members: nurses, midwives, students and healthcare assistants. The RCN has a dual role as both a Royal College and a trade union. This dual role was the subject of debate in 2013, and there was a vote on dividing the RCN to form two organisations. 99.4% of voters did not want to divide.
Unite the Union, Unison and GMB
Royal College of Nursing is a membership and representative body.
The Queen's Nursing Institute (QNI) is a registered charity, which until the 1960s trained district nurses.
Guild of Nursing - A newly formed body that aims to represent Nurses.
The Florence Nightingale Foundation supports nurses and midwives with scholarships.
Burdett Trust for Nursing - An independent charitable trust named after Sir Henry Burdett KCB
The 6Cs began with the concept of 'Energise for Excellence for nurses, midwives and other care staff' which was begun by Jane Cummings and Katherine Fenton. Following the Francis report compassion within nursing was revisited and 'Compassion in Practice' became a key phrase which helped to introduce and formalise the idea of the 6Cs. The 6Cs were rolled out in December 2012.
Started by Dr Kate Granger after an experience in hospital where a member of staff did not introduce themselves, the 'hello my name is...' campaign became part of the 6Cs which encourages staff to introduce themselves by name.
Government Publications on Nursing
There have been a number of government publications on nursing in the United Kingdom.
Committee on Nursing chaired by Professor Asa Briggs (1972)
Following the pay disputes and nurses' strikes in the 1970s which included over 90,000 nurses, the Briggs Committee was established. It reported in 1972 and recommended a number of changes to professional education. The focus was mostly on education and training but also included professional regulation. The report was accepted in 1974.
Front Line Care (2010)
Front Line Care and the government's response were published in 2010. The Chair of the Commission was Ann Keen MP who trained as a nurse.
Shape of Caring Review (2015)
Nursing Publications and Databases
There are a number of nursing publications, journals, magazines and blogs published online and in print.
Nursing Times - online nursing magazine
Nursing Standard - online and printed magazine
In England, Health Education England (HEE) commission undergraduate and postgraduate education. HEE is an autonomous national body which works to "ensure that healthcare staff are recruited in the right numbers with the right values and behaviours to support the delivery of excellent healthcare and drive improvement". The number of commissioned places for nurses has varied year on year, as follows:
The nursing staff is split into two main groups:
- Non-registered staff – e.g. clinical support workers and healthcare assistants.
- Registered staff
National Health Service
The National Health Service is the provider of most healthcare in the United Kingdom, and employs the vast majority of UK nurses and midwives, who number 386,000 according to the Department of Health.
See also Nursing Shortages
In January 2016 the RCN stated that more than 10,000 nursing posts went unfilled in 2015. This represented a 3% increase year on year from 11% in 2013, 14% in 2014 and 17% in 2015 of all London nursing positions and 10% as an average nationwide. According to a BBC article the Department of Health said it did not recognise the figures. The National Audit Office estimated that there was a shortfall of 7% in the supply of nurses.
An Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development survey in December 2015 showed that 21.7% of NHS nurses were born abroad, compared with 26.9 in Ireland, 9.8% in Italy, 14% in Germany and 5.9% in France. The UK was the highest exporter of nurses, with more than 50,000 British nurses working in other OECD nations. The Migration Advisory Committee produced a report in 2016 in which they heavily criticised the Department of Health, Health Education England and NHS trusts for not recognising obvious warning signs over a number of years, and "reluctantly" agreed to keep nursing on the list of shortage occupations.
There are regular health campaigns within nursing in the united kingdom. These campaigns range from nationwide to ward based.
Nurse's health has been the subject of much discussion in reference to obesity and smoking. The effect of nursing on nurses physical and mental health has also been a subject of a number of research papers where the effect of shift work or working with chemicals such as in chemotherapy has been explored. In 2016 the government announced £600 million was to be spent on "tackling obesity and improving the well-being of its 1.3 million staff".
Non-registered staff carry out a number of roles, often working in direct patient care (often on wards), performing tasks such as personal care (washing and dressing), social care (feeding, communicating to patients and generally spending time with them) and more specialised tasks such as recording observations or vital signs (such as temperature, pulse and respiratory rate, or TPR) or measuring and assessing blood pressure, urinalysis, blood glucose monitoring, pressure sores (see Waterlow score) and carrying out procedures such as catheterisation and cannulation).
Some unregistered staff can work in other roles, for example as phlebotomists (taking blood samples), ECG technicians (recording electrocardiograms) or smoking cessation therapists, a scheme currently being employed in a number of general practitioner surgeries. Others can expand their ward-based role to include these tasks and others. There are few areas of nursing practice that cannot be legally performed by suitably trained non-registered staff, although they cannot fully replace them, as they legally must be supervised (either directly or indirectly) by a fully qualified registered nurse.
Non-registered staff have various job titles such as "clinical support worker", "care assistant", "nursing assistant" and "healthcare assistant" (HCA). Typically they are on pay band 2 or 3, although senior healthcare assistants can be on band 4.
Following the spending review of November 2015, where NHS student bursaries were to be removed, Ben Gummer MP introduced the role of Nursing Associates, who would work alongside healthcare support workers and fully qualified nurses focusing on patient care.
Traditionally, on completion of training, nurses would be employed on a hospital ward, and work as staff nurses. The ward hierarchy consists of:
- Staff Nurses – the first grade of qualified nursing staff. These nurses are responsible for a set group of patients (e.g. administering medications, assessing, venepuncture, wound care and other clinical duties). Under Agenda for Change they attract a Band 5 salary.
- Senior staff nurses – these nurses carry out many of the same tasks, but are more senior and more experienced than the staff nurses. Many NHS Trusts do not have Senior Staff Nurses as the role is seen to be superfluous.
- Junior/Deputy Sister; Charge Nurse; Deputy Ward Manager – responsible for the day-to-day running of the ward, and may also carry specific responsibilities for the overall running of the ward (e.g. rostering) in accordance with the wishes of the ward manager. These nurses are assigned band 6. In some NHS Trusts, these will be known as Sisters/Charge Nurses.
- Ward Manager – this nurse is responsible for running a ward or unit, and usually has budgetary control. He/she will employ staff, and be responsible for all the local management (e.g. rostering, approving pay claims, purchasing equipment, delegation duties or tasks). These nurses are band 7.
- Senior Sister; Charge Nurse; Senior Ward Manager – if there is a need to employ several nurses at a ward manager level (e.g. in A&E), then one of them often acts as the senior ward manager. These nurses attract a banding anywhere between 7 and 8c.
There are also positions which exist above the ward level:
- Clinical Nurse Manager/ Nurse Lead – A nurse who is responsible for an entire directorate/department (i.e. Surgical, Medical Diagnostic & Imaging etc.) or at least more than one ward, is often referred to as a clinical nurse manager. Depending on both the inclination of the NHS Trust and themselves, they may be more or less involved in actual clinical nursing or management on a clinical level. These nurses attract band 8a (or occasionally 8b/8c) under Agenda for Change.
- Modern Matrons – developed in response to some patients' perception of the detachment of nursing from its vocational history, the modern matron is responsible for overseeing all nursing within a department or directorate. Modern matrons are employed on bands 8a-c. See Matron for more details of this role and its historical roots. Modern matrons were poorly received by the majority of nursing staff and their imposition was not called for by any professional group within the health service.
The status in the hierarchy of specialist nurses is variable, as each specialist nurse has a slightly different role within their respective NHS organisation. They are generally experienced nurses, however, and are employed at least on band 6.
The NHS employs a huge variety of specialist nurses. These nurses have many years of experience in their field, in addition to extra education and training (see below). They split into several major groups:
- nurse practitioners – These nurses carry out care at an advanced practice level. They often perform roles similar to those of doctors. They commonly work in primary care (e.g. GP surgeries) or A&E departments, although they are increasingly being seen in other areas of practice.
- Specialist Community Public Health Nurses – Traditionally known as District Nurses and Health Visitors, this group of practitioners now includes many school nurses and Occupational Health Nurses.
- Clinical Nurse Specialists – Those undertaking these roles commonly provide clinical leadership and education for the Staff Nurses working in their department, and will also have special skills and knowledge which ward nurses can draw upon.
- Nurse Consultants – These nurses are similar in many ways to the clinical nurse specialist, but at a higher level. These practitioners are responsible for clinical education and training of those in their department, and many also have active research and publication activities.
- Lecturer-Practitioners – These nurses work both in the NHS and in universities. They typically work for 2–3 days per week in each setting. In university, they may train pre-registration student nurses (see below), and often teach on specialist courses for post-registration nurses (e.g. a Lecturer-practitioner in critical care may teach a master's degree course in critical care nursing). Lecturer-Practitioners are now more often referred to by the more common job title of Practice Education Facilitators (shortened by student nurses to PEFs).
- Lecturers – These nurses are not employed by the NHS. Instead they work full-time in universities, both teaching and performing research. Typically lecturers in nursing are qualified to a minimum of a master's degree and some are also qualified to PhD level. Some senior lecturers also attain the title of Professor. This title is more often the School/Department Dean e.g. Dean/Vice Dean School of Health & Social Care.
- Managers - Many nurses who have worked in clinical settings for a long time choose to leave clinical nursing and join the ranks of the NHS and independent care sector management. This used to be seen as a natural career progression for those who had reached ward management positions; however with the advent of specialist nursing roles (see above), this has become a less attractive option. Nonetheless, many nurses fill positions in the senior management structure of NHS organisations and independent healthcare organisations, some even as board members or directors. Others choose to stay a little closer to their clinical roots by becoming regional managers, service managers, clinical nurse managers or Modern Matrons.
Nursing Assessment Tools
Initial Assessments and Observations
NEWS - National Early Warning Score
General Assessment Tools
Non-registered staff education
There is no mandatory training for most people undertaking non-registered staff roles such as a Healthcare Assistant. But the majority of NHS employers have developed "in-house" training for these members of staff, including both induction programmes and ongoing education to achieve a recognised qualification. Some collaborate with local further education colleges to provide theoretical input, and may award a recognised qualification. It is becoming more common for NHS employers to ask for some type of health or social care qualification for potential recruits: for example, an SVQ/NVQ or HNC/HND with various qualification names including health care, social care and health & social care.
Many trusts and health boards create opportunities for these staff members to become qualified nurses. This is known as secondment (whereby the trust/health board continues to pay them for the duration of their training, and often guarantees employment as qualified nurses following the completion of their training).
To become a registered nurse one must complete a nursing degree programme recognised by the Nursing and Midwifery Council from an approved provider i.e. universities offering these courses.
A nursing course is a 50/50 split of learning in university (lectures and examinations) and in practice (supervised patient care within a hospital or community setting). Nursing courses usually take three years and are 4,600 hours in length, which is split 50%/50% between theory and clinical placements as set out as a requirement of the NMC. Graduate courses are provided and are two years in length. Graduate courses often require prior learning and relevant healthcare experience; this can be referred to as APEL (Accreditation of Prior and Experiential Learning).
There are four different branches of nursing offered at university level (not including midwifery):
- Adult nursing
- Child nursing
- Mental health nursing
- Learning disabilities nursing
State Enrolled Nurses (SENs) were formally recognised in the 1940s, and training took place in hospitals. Nursing education remained closely linked to the hospital where nurses were placed and often lived.
Project 2000; The Nursing degree
Project 2000 began in the early 1990s and was designed to move nursing education from hospitals into universities. Prior to Project 2000, nurse education was the responsibility of hospitals and was not based in universities; many nurses who qualified prior to these reforms do not hold an academic award.
From September 2013, all nurse training programmes must be at degree level, with no option to study instead for a diploma.
Midwifery training is similar in length and structure, but is sufficiently different that it is not considered a branch of nursing. There are shortened (18-month) programmes to allow nurses already qualified in the adult branch to hold dual registration as a nurse and a midwife. Shortened courses lasting two years also exist for graduates of other disciplines to train as nurses. This is achieved by more intense study and a shortening of the common foundation programme.
NHS Student Bursary
Student nurses currently receive a bursary from the government to support them during their nurse training. Diploma students in England receive a non-means-tested bursary of around £6,000 – £8,000 per year (with additional allowances for students with dependant children), whereas degree students have their bursary means tested (and often receive considerably less). Degree students are, however, eligible for a proportion of the government's student loan, unlike diploma students. But in Scotland and Wales, all student nurses (regardless of which course they are undertaking) receive the same bursary in line with the English diploma course. All student nurses in Wales study, initially, for a degree, but may chose to remain at Level 2 for their third year, thereby achieving a diploma rather than a degree.
It was announced in the Chancellor's Spending Review of November 2015 that from 2017 the NHS bursary would be removed for all future nursing, midwifery and allied health professionals.
After the point of initial registration, there is an expectation that all qualified nurses will continue to update their skills and knowledge. The Nursing and Midwifery Council insists on a minimum of 35 hours of education every three years, as part of its post-registration education and practice (PREP) requirements.
There are also opportunities for many nurses to gain additional clinical skills after qualification. Cannulation, venepuncture, intravenous drug therapy and male catheterisation are the most common, although there are many others (such as Advanced Life Support) which some nurses will undertake.
Many nurses who qualified with a diploma can choose to upgrade their qualification to a degree by studying part-time. Many nurses prefer this option to gaining a degree initially, as there is often an opportunity to study in a specialist field as a part of this upgrading. In England, it is also much more financially lucrative, as diploma students get the full bursary during their initial training, and employers often pay for the degree course as well as the nurse's salary. However, from September 2013 onwards all students can only study at degree level, while diplomas are gradually being phased out permanently.
To become specialist nurses (such as nurse consultants, nurse practitioners, etc.) or nurse educators, some nurses undertake further training above bachelor's degree level. Master's degrees exist in various healthcare related topics, and some nurses choose to study for PhDs or other higher academic awards. District nurses and health visitors are also considered specialist nurses, and to become such they must undertake specialist training (often in the form of a top-up degree (see above) or post graduate diploma).
All newly qualified district nurses and health visitors are trained to prescribe from the Nurse Prescribers' Formulary, a list of medications and dressings typically useful to those carrying out these roles. Many of these (and other) nurses will also undertake training in independent and supplementary prescribing, which allowed them (as of 1 May 2006) to prescribe almost any drug in the British National Formulary. This was the cause of a great deal of debate in both medical and nursing circles. However, as of 2012 there were over 25,000 Nurse Prescribers. Nurse Prescribing had become a mainstream role within nursing, accepted by not only healthcare professionals but also patients. After a historic change in legislation (which came into force in England on 23 April 2012) nurse prescribers may now prescribe exactly the same medicines as Doctors (including Controlled Drugs). A common set of prescribing competencies was published in May 2012 by the National Prescribing Centre for all prescribing professionals.
NHS Student protests #BursaryorBust
In the November 2015 spending review, George Osborne stated that he would remove the NHS Student Bursary from 2017. This prompted Danielle Tiplady to organise a political demonstration with other healthcare students at King's College London outside the Department of Health in December 2015 which was attended by several hundred supporters. Kat Webb also decided to start a petition on the government's e-petition site, which received over 150,000 signatures
The student bursary debate has been raised in parliament at Prime Minister's Questions, and is the subject of the 'Early Day Motion (EDM) 1081 - THE NHS BURSARY', which was sponsored by Wes Streeting MP.
December 2015 - Department of Health
January 2016 - Downing Street March
Over 7000 NHS students and supporters marched on Downing Street in January 2016. The protest was attended by Shadow Health Minister Heidi Alexander MP, Wes Streeting MP, Natalie Bennett, Sian Berry, representatives of Unison, Unite the Union and Royal College of Midwives. The hashtag #bursaryorbust was the top trending Twitter.
February 2016 - Placement walkout
In February, NHS students walked out of placement in solidarity with the Junior Doctors strike.
For the full article see also (Nursing Research)
Nursing research is research that provides evidence used to support nursing practices. Nursing, as an evidence-based area of practice, has been developing since the time of Florence Nightingale to the present day, when many nurses now work as researchers based in universities as well as in the health care setting.
Nursing Industrial Action
Whilst nurses are not known for striking or taking industrial action, there have been many occasions when nurses have gone on strike, often over pay and conditions. The Royal College of Nursing had a no-strike policy for 79 years until 1995, when the policy was dropped due to pay disputes at the time.
In 1939 rallied together as it was reported in the Daily Mirror that many nurses were leaving the role and were enduring financial hardship.
In 1948, following the establishment of the NHS, nurses realised that their pay had decreased, which led to strike action.
In 1962 many nurses marched to Trafalgar Square as part of pay disputes under the banner of "Empty Purses Mean Less Nurses".
In 1970 many nurses protested at pay and conditions.
In 1973 it was reported that over 7,000 nurses marched in Sheffield.
In 1974 several protests took place by nurses over pay and conditions.
In 1976 many nurses took part in a low pay strike.
In 1982 there was a National Health Service day of action with 120,000 workers marching at various locations around the country including many nurses.
In 1988 Nurses went on strike in 1988 over pay and proposed changes to the NHS.
In 2011 Unison nurses protested and marched over pay.
In 2014 Midwives and some nurses went on strike over pay.
In 2016 nursing students marched to Downing Street to protest over the removal of the NHS student bursary. The protest was attended by Shadow Health Minister Heidi Alexander MP, Wes Streeting MP, Representatives of Unison, Unite the Union and Royal College of Midwives.
Until October 2004, all nurses in the NHS were employed on a scale known as clinical grading (see below). Agenda for Change was developed by the NHS in response to criticisms that the old scale reflected length of service more than knowledge, responsibility and skills.
Also known as the Whitley system. This placed nurses (and some other hospital staff) on "grades" between A and I (with A being the most junior, and I the most senior).
Unregistered staff were employed on grades A and B (occasionally grade C). Second level nurses were employed on various grades (usually between C and E), with first level nurses taking up grades D-I.
Agenda for Change
This system puts registered staff on bands 5–8, unregistered staff such as Healthcare Assistants take up bands 2–4. Band 9 posts are for the most senior members of NHS management. Each band contains a number of pay points.
The idea of this system is "equal pay for work of equal value". There was a perceived discrepancy, under clinical grading, between ones grade (and therefore pay) and the work which one actually did, which Agenda for Change aimed to fix. Most NHS staff are now on the AfC system which took quite a long time to implement across the UK. A small percentage of staff went through an appeal procedure as they disagreed with the band that they have been placed on.
In 2015-16 the minimum starting salary for a registered nurse will be £21,692 in England, Wales while in Scotland it will be £21,818. As of 4 June 2015 Northern Ireland have yet to announce their pay rates for 2015-16.
NHS Pay Review Body (NHSPRB)
The NHS Pay Review Body is an independent body that makes recommendations to the government on the pay of nurses and NHS staff. The government then makes the final decision
In 2016 the government announced that nurses would receive a 1% pay rise which would take effect from 1 April 2016. The RCN Chief Executive Janet Davies stated that "The fact remains that pay awards for NHS staff have been severely constrained since 2010”.
In 2015 the RCN stated that Nurses had suffered a drop in pay equivalent to 9.8% in real terms since 2008.
Agency Nurse Pay Cap
In 2015 the government announced that there would be a gradual introduction of pay caps for agency nurses working under NHS England. Starting in November 2015, further caps came in February 2016 with the final cuts introduced in April 2015. The aim of the cap was to save £1bn over three years. The implications of the pay cap means that trusts will not be able to pay staff who work for an agency including doctors and nurses, more than 55% more for a shift than a permanent member of staff. Jeremy Hunt in his capacity as the Health Secretary said it would stop agencies "ripping off the NHS".
In response a petition started on the government website which received over 10,000 responses.
The NHS pension is the main pension offered to NHS staff. There have been three distinct changes made to the NHS pension. The type of pension someone is enrolled onto is referred to by the year that it was introduced or changed 1995, 2008 & 2015.
Nursing in Culture
Mrs Gamp - Sarah or Sairey Gamp is a nurse in the novel Martin Chuzzlewit by Charles Dickens, first published as a serial in 1843–1844. Mrs. Gamp, as she is usually referred to, is dissolute, sloppy and generally drunk. She became a notorious stereotype of untrained and incompetent nurses of the early Victorian era, before the reforms of campaigners like Florence Nightingale. The caricature was popular with the British public.
Carry on Films - Carry on Nurse/ Carry on Matron, The Carry On franchise primarily consists of a sequence of 31 low-budget British comedy motion pictures (1958–92), four Christmas specials, a television series of thirteen episodes, and three West End and provincial stage plays. The films' humour was in the British comic tradition of the music hall and bawdy seaside postcards.
Casualty - A BBC series
24hrs in A&E - A British medical documentary set initially in King's College Hospital. In the 7th series, the setting was St George's Hospital. 91 cameras filmed round the clock for 28 days, 24 hours a day in A&E (Accident and Emergency) it offers unprecedented access to one of Britain's busiest A&E departments.
Getting On - Getting On is a satirical British sitcom based on a geriatric ward in an NHS hospital. It is written by its core cast, Jo Brand, Vicki Pepperdine, and Joanna Scanlan. Several episodes were directed by Peter Capaldi. It first aired in July 2009, for three episodes.
- History of Nursing
- History of Nursing in the United Kingdom
- National Health Service
- Nursing and Midwifery Council
- Royal College of Nursing
- State Enrolled Nurse
- Men in Nursing
- History of Nursing in the United States
- History of Philippine nurses in the United States
- Nursing in Australia
- Nursing in Canada
- Nursing in Germany
- Nursing in Hong Kong
- Nursing in India
- Nursing in Islam
- Nursing in Japan
- Nursing in Kenya
- Nursing in Pakistan
- Nursing in the Philippines
- Nursing in Taiwan
- Nursing in the United States
- Elizabeth Goodrick, and Trish Reay. "Florence Nightingale endures: Legitimizing a new professional role identity." Journal of Management Studies (2010) 47#1 pp: 55-84.
- Nurses, Midwives and Health Visitors Act 1997
- Nursing and Midwifery Order 2001
- "Registration and qualification codes". www.nmc.org.uk. Retrieved 2016-02-03.
- "Welcome to revalidation | The Nursing and Midwifery Council". revalidation.nmc.org.uk. Retrieved 2016-02-03.
- "The Code for nurses and midwives". www.nmc.org.uk. Retrieved 2016-02-03.
- "Health sector". www.unitetheunion.org. Retrieved 2016-02-08.
- "Health care | UNISON in your workplace | UNISON". UNISON. Retrieved 2016-02-08.
- Limited, Netrix. "GMB - Experts in the World of Work". www.gmb.org.uk. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "The Queen's Nursing Institute - Community nursing charity patient care". www.qni.org.uk. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- Foundation, Florence Nightingale. "Florence Nightingale Foundation". www.florence-nightingale-foundation.org.uk. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- http://www.getme.co.uk, Getme Limited -. "Cavell Nurses' Trust | Cavell Nurses' Trust". www.cavellnursestrust.org. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "Exclusive: '6Cs' nursing values to be rolled out to all NHS staff". Nursing Times. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
- England, NHS. "NHS England » Bringing Energise for Excellence within Compassion in Practice: Introducing 6Cs Live!". www.england.nhs.uk. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
- "NHS England to rollout '6Cs' nursing values to all health service staff". Nursing Times. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
- "#hellomynameis - NHS Employers". www.nhsemployers.org. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
- "Terminally ill doctor Kate Granger's 'my name is' campaign wins support". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
- Archives, The National. "The Discovery Service". discovery.nationalarchives.gov.uk. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
- "The Government's response to the recommendations in front line care - Publications - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
- "Shape of caring review". Health Education England.
- "How To Keep Your Cool Around Non-Compliant Patients". Scrubs Magazine. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "//PRN". //prnmagazine//. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "Workforce planning". Health Education England. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- Workforce Plan. "Workforce Plan" (PDF). Health Education England. Retrieved 2016-02-06.
- "Why are there so few men in nursing?". Nursing Times. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "More men than ever work as hospital nurses". Mail Online. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- Swain, Harriet (2014-05-19). "How do we recruit boys into female-dominated professions?". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- Taunt, Richard (30 March 2016). "We must be brave and tackle the workforce tiger". Health Service Journal. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- "One in three UK doctors born abroad, international research shows.". Daily Telegraph. 28 December 2015. Retrieved 28 December 2015.
- "'Desire to save money' caused NHS nursing shortage says damning report". Health Service Journal. 24 March 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2016.
- Safety, Sign up to. "Sign up to Safety". www.england.nhs.uk. Retrieved 2016-03-08.
- "Home - NHS Change Day". NHS Change Day. Retrieved 2016-03-08.
- "Antibiotic Guardian". Antibiotic Guardian. Retrieved 2016-03-08.
- Choices, NHS. "Antibiotic awareness - The NHS in England - NHS Choices". www.nhs.uk. Retrieved 2016-03-08.
- "NHS should have 'targets' to reduce staff obesity". Nursing Times. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "Nurses need to be fitter, to fight for the future of the NHS". The Guardian. 2014-08-01. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- Miller, Sally K.; Alpert, Patricia T.; Cross, Chad L. (2008-05-01). "Overweight and obesity in nurses, advanced practice nurses, and nurse educators". Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners. 20 (5): 259–265. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7599.2008.00319.x. ISSN 1041-2972. PMID 18460166.
- "Nurses' miscarriages linked to chemicals at work". Reuters. 2012-01-13. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "Miscarriage risk 'increased' by working night shifts". Nursing Times. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "NHS England boss announces money incentives to boost staff health". Mail Online. Retrieved 2016-03-11.
- "Nursing associate role offers new route into nursing - News stories - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 2016-02-03.
- "King's College London - APEL claim form for PGDip applicants". www.kcl.ac.uk. Retrieved 2016-10-07.
- "Spending Review: Grants for student nurses are being scrapped". Retrieved 2016-10-07.
- NHS Careers . Entry requirements for nursing. Available: http://www.nhscareers.nhs.uk/details/default.aspx?id=1944.
- Wilson, J., Bunnel, T. (2007) A review of the merits of the nurse practitioner role. Nursing Standard Vol. 21(18) pp. 35–40
- Campbell, Denis; Travis, Alan; Adams, Richard; Brown, Mark; Booth, Robert; Carrington, Damian (25 November 2015). "Public service winners and losers in spending review". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-10-07.
- Tiplady, Danielle; Humm, Charlotte (15 December 2015). "For us student nurses, bursaries are a lifeline. We will fight against their cuts". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-10-07.
- "Nursing bursary debate prompted by student Kat Webb's petition". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "Early day motion 1081 - THE NHS BURSARY". UK Parliament. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "Student nurses and midwives protest over grants cut". BBC News. 2016-01-09. Retrieved 2016-10-07.
- "Thousands of student nurses and midwives protest scrapping bursaries". Mail Online. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- Brown, Mike. "How you can join protest against plans to scrap NHS bursary". gazettelive. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "It's #BursaryOrBust for our nurses - join the march this Saturday". openDemocracy. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "Student nurses and midwives protest over grants cut". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "Student nurses and midwives march against move to ditch bursaries". Mail Online. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "UNISON - the union on Twitter". Twitter. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "Bursary removal walkout will 'show student nurses hold NHS together'". Nursing Times. Retrieved 2016-02-09.
- "RCN votes to drop no-strike policy". Herald Scotland. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- Tiplady, Danielle; Humm, Charlotte (2015-12-15). "For us student nurses, bursaries are a lifeline. We will fight against their cuts". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "Nurses To Osborne: It's Bursary Or Bust". www.yorkshiretimes.co.uk. Retrieved 2016-03-06.
- "Support for you: Pay and conditions: Pay rates 2015-16". Royal College of Nursing. Retrieved 4 June 2015.
- "Government accused of 'lying' over pay as NHS staff strike". The Independent. Retrieved 2016-03-08.
- "NHS staff to receive 1% pay rise - News stories - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 2016-03-08.
- "RCN responds to 1% pay award for NHS nursing staff". The Royal College of Nursing. Retrieved 2016-03-08.
- "AfC is sexist on pay, says lawyer". Nursing Times. Retrieved 2016-02-03.
- "Nurses suffer 9.6pc real terms pay cut since 2008 according to new research". The Royal College of Nursing. Retrieved 2016-02-03.
- "NHS England cap on agency payments comes into effect". BBC News. Retrieved 2016-02-15.
- "NHS Pensions NHS Business Services Authority". www.nhsbsa.nhs.uk. Retrieved 2016-02-03.