An auto-antonym (sometimes spelled autantonym), or contronym (also spelled contranym), is a word with multiple meanings, one of which is defined as the reverse of one of its other meanings. This phenomenon is called enantiosemy, enantionymy or antilogy.
An auto-antonym is alternatively called an antagonym, Janus word (after the Roman god), enantiodrome, self-antonym, antilogy, or addad (Arabic, singular didd).
The terms "autantonym" and "contronym" were coined by Joseph T. Shipley in 1960 and Jack Herring in 1962, respectively. Some pairs of contronyms are true homographs, i.e., distinct words with different etymology which happen to have the same form. For instance cleave "separate" is from Old English clēofan, while cleave "adhere" is from Old English clifian, which was pronounced differently. This is related to false friends, but false friends do not necessarily contradict.
Other contronyms are a form of polysemy, but where a single word acquires different and ultimately opposite senses. For example, sanction — "permit" or "penalize"; bolt (originally from crossbows) — "leave quickly" or "fix"; fast — "moving rapidly" or "unmoving". Many English examples result from nouns being verbed into distinct senses "add <noun> to" and "remove <noun> from"; e.g. dust, seed, stone.
Some contronyms result from differences in national varieties of English. For example, to table a bill means "to put it up for debate" in British English, while it means "to remove it from debate" in American English (where British English would have "shelve").
Often, one sense is more obscure or archaic, increasing the danger of misinterpretation when it does occur; for instance, the King James Bible often uses "let" in the sense of "forbid", a meaning which is now obsolete, except in the legal phrase "without let or hindrance" and in ball games such as tennis, squash, table tennis, and racquetball.
An apocryphal story relates how Charles II (or sometimes Queen Anne) described St Paul's Cathedral (using contemporaneous English) as "awful, pompous, and artificial," with the meaning (rendered in modern English) of "awe-inspiring, majestic, and ingeniously designed."
In other languages
Auto-antonyms also exist in other languages. For example, in Latin sacer has the double meaning "sacred, holy" and "accursed, infamous", Spanish huésped may mean either "host" or "guest"; the same is true for the Italian and French cognates, ospite and hôte respectively (all three deriving from the Latin hospes). The Romanian verb a închiria means "to rent" as well as "to let". Hindi: कल and Urdu: کل (kal [kəl]) may mean either "yesterday" or "tomorrow" (disambiguated by the verb in the sentence). The Swahili verb kutoa means both "to remove" and "to add". In his Limited Views: Eassays on Ideas and Letters, Qian Zhongshu gave some examples of Chinese auto-antonyms, like "廢" meaning both "to abolish" and "to establish". He named this kind of phenomenon "reverse symbolism"（反象以徵).
Sometimes an apparent opposition of senses comes from presuming the point of view of a different language. In Hawaiian, for example, aloha is translated both as “hello” and as “goodbye”, but the essential meaning of the word is “love”, whether used as a greeting or farewell. The Italian greeting ciao is translated as "hello" or "goodbye" depending on the context; however, the original meaning was “(I'm your) slave”. Latin altus can be translated "high" or "deep" in English, but in Latin had the single meaning "large in the vertical dimension". The difference in English between "high" and "deep" is determined by the speaker's awareness of their relationship to some perceived norm. A mountain is "high" because it is well above sea level, and the ocean is "deep" because it plunges well below it. Both, however, were altus in Latin.
This concept is superficially similar to a few examples in Italian, such as describing accumulated snow as being "high", alta, rather than "deep", but this is because it is considered to be heaped above the reference level of the ground, rather than a throwback to Latin. The adjective, profondo is used instead to describe the idea of depth below a given reference level, so the sea is profondo, along with the vast majority of examples in which "deep" would be used in English. In Italian, alto mare means not "deep sea" but "high sea", with the same meaning as in English of "open water beyond territorial limits". The tide, marea, also follows the same pattern as English, being either "high" or "low", depending on whether it is above or below the mean. However, Italian, French and Spanish all use their own equivalents of "high" to describe cooking pots, frying pans and saucepans which in English would be called "deep". In English, "tall", as a synonym of "high", would only be used to describe a pot when its height is considerably greater than its diameter, and drinking glasses with such proportions are also referred to as "tall" rather than "deep".
- "Abysmal" 1: immensely great: Profound , 2: immensely low or wretched
- "Alight" can mean to get on, or get off
- "Apropos" can mean with very appropriate or unrelated (as an adverb)
- "Cleave" can mean "to cling" or "to split apart."
- "Clip" can mean "attach" or "cut off"
- "Dust" can mean to remove dust (cleaning a house) or to add dust (e.g. to dust a cake with powdered sugar).
- "Fast" as an adverb can mean "without moving; fixed in place", as in "holding fast" (also as in "steadfast"), or it can mean "moving quickly."
- "Help" can mean "to assist", or in the phrase "can't help (doing / but do)" it means "prevent (myself from)."
- "Hew" can mean "to chop" or (in North America) "to adhere".
- "Impregnable" can mean "invulnerable" and also (vulnerable) to impregnation.
- "Inflammable" technically means "capable of burning" but is commonly misunderstood to mean "unburnable".
- "Let" can mean "allow" or "prevent" (Hamlet says, "I'll make a ghost of him that lets me.")
- "Liegeman" can mean a feudal superior, or inferior.
- "Literally" can mean of a literal or exactly true nature, or it can be used to emphasize figurative qualities.
- "Nonplussed" can mean "baffled" or "perplexed", but in North America can also mean "not disconcerted" or "unperturbed".
- "Off" can mean "activated" / "beginning to make a noise" (e.g. "The alarm went off") or "deactivated" / "ceasing operation" (e.g. "The alarm turned off by itself").
- "Refrain" can mean either non-action or the repetition of an action (e.g. in musical notation).
- "Restive" can mean "having difficulty staying still" ("restless") or "reluctant to move."
- "To screen" can mean "to show" or "to conceal."
|For a list of words relating to Auto-antonyms, see the English contranyms category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Strunk and White (1979). The Elements of Style. New York: MacMillan. p. 47.
- "AutoAntonyms - The Same, And Different". people.sc.fsu.edu. Retrieved 2016-09-22.
- Pages 11 and 77 in Language Contact and Lexical Enrichment in Israeli Hebrew, by Ghil'ad Zuckermann, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003, where "enantiosemy" is mentioned along with "auto-opposite".
- Liberman, Anatoly (25 September 2013). "Etymology gleanings for September 2013". Oxford Etymologist. Oxford University Press. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
The coexistence of two opposite meanings in a word is called enantiosemy, and the examples are rather numerous.
- "Nym Words > Autoantonyms". www.fun-with-words.com. Retrieved 2016-09-22.
- "'Addad' : a study of homo-polysemous opposites in Arabic". Retrieved 2 August 2011.
- Gall, Nick. "Antagonyms". Retrieved 2 August 2011.
- O’Toole, Garson (31 October 2012). "St Paul's Cathedral Is Amusing, Awful, and Artificial". Quote Investigator. Retrieved 22 January 2015.
- "14 Words That Are Their Own Opposites". Retrieved 2016-09-22.
- Coleman, Dana. "According to the dictionary, "literally" now also means "figuratively"". Vox.com. Retrieved 2016-10-20.
- Sheidlower, Jesse (1 November 2005). "The Word We Love To Hate". Slate.
- Leithauser, Brad (14 October 2013). "Unusable Words". The New Yorker.
- Schulz, Kathryn (7 April 2015). What Part of "No, Totally" Don't You Understand?. The New Yorker.
|Look up Appendix:English contranyms or Appendix:Glossary of auto-antonyms in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Look up autoantonym in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|