Austrian nobility

The Austrian nobility (German: österreichischer Adel) is a status group that was officially abolished in 1919 after the fall of Austria-Hungary. The nobles are still part of Austrian society today, but they no longer retain any specific privileges. Austria's system of nobility was very similar to Germany's (see German nobility), as both countries were previously part of the Holy Roman Empire (962-1806).

Any noble living in the Habsburg-ruled lands, and who owed their allegiance to the dynasty and therefore to the Emperor, was also considered part of the Austrian aristocracy. This applied to any member of the Bohemian, Hungarian, Polish, Croatian, and other nobilities in the Habsburg dominions. Attempting to differentiate between ethnicities can be difficult, especially for nobles during the eras of the Holy Roman Empire and the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy (1867-1918). A noble from Galicia, for instance, such as the Count Jordan-Rozwadowksi (see section "Noble titles" below under Graf/Gräfin (count/countess)), could call himself a Polish noble, but he also rightfully belonged to the Austrian nobility.

Two categories among the Austrian nobility may be distinguished: the historic nobility that lived in the territories of the Habsburg Empire and who owed allegiance to the head of that dynasty until 1918, and the post-1918 descendants of Austrian nobilityspecifically, those who retain Austrian citizenship, whose family originally come from Austria proper, South Tyrol, northern Italy and Burgenland, or who were ennobled at any point under Habsburg rule and identify themselves as belonging to that status group.


During the baroque era, the nobility started to move into the cities and built themselves lavish residences called Palais. The Palais Kinsky in Vienna, belonging to the princely Kinsky family, is one of the most outstanding pieces.

From 1453, the Archduke of Austria had the right to bestow titles and ranks upon non-nobles, as did the Archbishop of Salzburg, as Salzburg remained an independent territory. Besides the Holy Roman Emperor (an office which was almost uninterruptedly held by the Archduke (of the House of Habsburg) from 1438 to 1806), only a few territorial rulers within the Empire had this right. In an era of Absolutism, the nobility residing in the cities slowly turned itself into the court nobility (Hofadel). Service at the court became the primary goal of the nobility. This in turn initiated an interest in education and the interests of the court. Within the court, a close inner circle, called the 100 Familien (100 families), possessed enormous riches and lands. They also had great influence at the court and thus played an important role in politics and diplomacy.

After the end of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Habsburg rulers, who were Emperors of Austria from 1804 onwards, continued to elevate individuals to nobility until the end of the monarchy in 1918. Some of the noble families even obtained the right to be seated in the Herrenhaus (House of Lords), the upper house of the Reichsrat (Imperial Council). Nobles from previously sovereign states such as those in northern Italy (Venice, Mantua, Milan) were also recognized by the authorities and were allowed to keep their titles and rights.


On the former status of nobility in Burgenland, which was part of the Kingdom of Hungary until 1921, see Hungarian nobility.

Jewish nobles

A few very wealthy Jewish families were ennobled after the Toleranzedikt vom 1782 ("1782 Edict of Tolerance") decreed by Emperor Joseph II. Under this Edict, very wealthy Jewish bankers, and later entrepreneurs and industrialistssome of them court Jewscould also be ennobled for their services. Jews had been ennobled mostly with no title or lower-ranking titles, such as Freiherr (Baron) or Ritter (Knight). The few Jewish families elevated into the nobility were not required to forswear their faith, but some of these families converted to Christianity in order to become more accepted. Although elevation into the nobility meant recognition for civic contributions and services, and entailed a rise in social status, it did not alter the fact that Jews were, for the most part, still only "tolerated" at best. Jews could not freely choose the place and duration of their stay and had to regularly ask for permission from the authorities. This placed a huge burden on Jewish families; if the head of the family died, all his relatives had to leave the city. The right to purchase real estate was forbidden to Jews, even if they belonged to the nobility. This regulation stayed in place until 1860, when it was abolished by Emperor Franz Joseph I and Jewish citizens were given equal rights.[1][2][3] When the banker and protector of arts Raymund Karl Wetzlar von Plankenstern was created a Reichsfreiherr (Baron of the Empire) by Empress Maria Theresia, he converted to Catholicism while still young. His mansion in Vienna was a center of the fine arts and he was a close friend of Mozart, as his son Alexander was of Ludwig van Beethoven.

Despite these difficulties, by 1821 there were at least eleven ennobled Jewish families living in Vienna alone: the Rothschild, Arnstein, Eskeles, Gomperz, Kuffner, Lieben, Auspitz, Schey von Koromla, Todesco, Wertheimstein, and Wiernes families. The elevation into the nobility of wealthy Jews also started the process of assimilation of Jewish families into the Austrian upper class.

Abolition of nobility in 1919

Following the Habsburgergesetz of 1919 ("Habsburg Law"), which legally dethroned, exiled and confiscated the properties of the Imperial House of Habsburg, the Adelsaufhebungsgesetz of 1919 ("Law on the Abolition of Nobility") abolished nobility as well as all noble privileges, titles and names in Austria. In other monarchies of Europe, Austrian noble families may use their noble titles as well as aristocratic particles such as von and zu in their names and they still retain noble status there. For example, the name of the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne became in Austria simply Karl Habsburg-Lothringen instead of Karl von Habsburg; in Belgium, however, he is known as Archduke Karl of Austria.

This may sometimes be confusing, as descendants of nobles are sometimes referred to with noble names abroad. Also, members of noble families often hold multiple citizenships, as was the case for Otto von Habsburg (eldest son of the last Emperor of Austria-Hungary and father of Karl Habsburg-Lothringen), who was also a citizen of Germany. The Austrian law does not apply to artistic, performer or stage names, where von is sometimes used, as in the case of conductor Herbert von Karajan or the musician Hubert von Goisern. However, stage names are never recognized for official purposes.

Members of the lower nobility especially (such as civil servants) found this radical step of abolition degrading and humiliating, since working towards and finally earning a noble title was a way for them and their families to rise within society. Members of the higher nobility were able to absorb the formal abolition more easily. They lost their titles and privileges, but kept their social manners, standing and riches. Federal President Michael Hainisch called the official abolition

...childish, because it did not hit those that it was supposed to hit. I once talked to the very fine and very intelligent Princess Fanny Starhemberg about this. "To us," she said, "the official abolition is quite irrelevant, because with or without the titles, we will always remain the Starhembergs."[4]

The law abolishing nobility and titles was never repealed, even during the period of Austrofascism (19341938). Following the Anschluss to Nazi Germany (1938–1945), this law remained on the books, although it was not enforced, allowing Austrian nobles to use titles freely again.

Although noble titles and the particles von and zu are no longer legal, some persons are still unofficially referred to by their titles. For example, Karl Schwarzenberg will occasionally still be referred to as Fürst zu Schwarzenberg (Prince zu Schwarzenberg) in the media; he holds Czech and Swiss citizenship, not Austrian.

Unlike the nobility in Bohemia (Czechoslovakia), Poland, Russia, or the former Prussian territories, the Austrian nobility never had its lands and riches confiscated in Austria (except the Imperial House of Habsburg, which had its properties legally confiscated by the Austrian republican government in 1919). Social measures were introduced by the republican government in order to create more equality amongst the citizens and finance public projects, which put a strain on the traditional land-holding gentry and aristocracy, resulting in the forced sale of many palaces and lands due to the expense of their upkeep. However, there was no measure by the government specifically to target nobility and take away their possessions.

Still, the nobility today are sometimes nonetheless treated slightly differently from other citizens. Austrian nobility still plays a large part in movies made after World War II (for example, Sissi and The Sound of Music), and is still featured regularly in the media and literature. The social events of nobles are still covered extensively in tabloids. Besides, the law is often broken on occasions when members of the nobility are addressed at various events: At the annual birthday celebration of Emperor Franz Joseph in Bad Ischl, for example, members of the former Imperial House of Habsburg are addressed as "Imperial and Royal Highness".

Apart from the prohibition of their titles, some former nobles still make up some of the richest families in Austria, such as the Esterházy, Mayr-Melnhof and Mautner-Markhof. Many members of the Austrian nobility today work in the traditional fields of diplomacy, politics, have business and financial interests, or are philanthropists or socialites.

It was estimated that there were about 20,000 Austrian nobles in 2005. That year, an association was founded, the Vereinigung der Edelleute in Österreich (Association of Austrian Nobles, or V.E.Ö.), which sees itself as the successor of the Vereinigung katholischer Edelleute in Österreich (Catholic Association of Austrian Nobles, or V.E.Ö.), founded in 1922 but banned under the Nazis in 1938. Until recently, all of the various attempts at revival were blocked by Austrian authorities.

Noble titles

Austria's nobility was divided into three categories: the mediatized nobility (standesherrlicht), the higher nobility (hoher Adel), and the lower nobility (niederer Adel):

Non-ruling members of the imperial family

Non-ruling members of the imperial family held various titles:

Legitimate but morganatic descendants of the imperial family were excluded from the line of succession, but might sometimes receive lesser titles with noble rather than royal prerogatives, e.g.:

Titles of mediatized nobility

(English titles with German equivalents)

^1 A title with the prefix Reichs- indicates its being granted by a past Holy Roman Emperor, ranking above other titles of the same or higher nominal rank.

Titles of higher nobility

(English titles with German equivalents)

Titles of lower nobility

^2 In German, a distinction between baronesses exists, a Freifrau being a baroness by marriage and Freiin being a baroness by birth. The title of Ritter is equivalent to the British baronet (i.e., hereditary knight), and Edler means "noble".

Use of nobiliary particles, such as the prepositions "von", "zu", variations such as "vom", or combinations ("von und zu"), common until after World War I (non-German-speaking nobility preferred to use "de"), have also been banned.

Below is an incomplete list of Austrian noble families, listed by rank of title.[5] Note that some members of a family were sometimes given higher titles by the emperor because of merit. Titles, styles, and rights could only be conferred by the monarch. In some cases, they could even be revoked because of fall from favour.

Fürst/Fürstin (prince/princess)

The style of address was usually "Serene Highness" (Durchlaucht) or the lower style of "Princely Grace" (Fürstliche Gnaden). Although Herzog ("duke") was officially a higher title than Fürst, the former was rare in Austria, except among royalty and mediatized houses. The princely title was the most prestigious of the Austrian nobility, usually borne by heads of families whose cadets were generally counts/countesses, although in some mediatized princely families (Reichsfürsten) members were allowed to bear the same title as cadets of royalty: prince/princess (Prinz/Prinzessin) with the style of Serene Highness.

Preposition[lower-alpha 1] Original name Most called Notes
von Auersperg
Batthyány-Strattmann[6] junior members were counts
von Clary und Aldringen Clary-Aldringen[7] junior members were counts
von Collalto und San Salvatore[7] Collalto junior members were counts
von Colloredo-Mansfeld[8] Colloredo-Mansfeld junior members were counts; eldest son of the prince was titled Count of Mansfeld; see also House of Mansfeld
von Croÿ[8] Croÿ-(subline) also known as Croÿ-Dülmen, three branches exist. Heads of this family were dukes; also used the preposition de.
von Dietrichstein became extinct firstly in male line, recreated for husband of heiress; junior members of this family were counts von Dietrichstein & Proskau-Leslie (first family) then Dietrichstein-Mensdorff-Pouilly (second family)[8]
von Eggenberg[9] became extinct firstly in male line, Bohemian possessions passed to the nearest male relatives via marriage, the Schwarzenberg family, and Styrian possessions likewise to the Herberstein family.[10][11][12][13]
Esterházy von Galántha[14] Esterházy also comital; also used the preposition de
Festetics von Tolna[15] Festetics also comital; also used the preposition de
zu Fürstenberg[16] Fürstenberg members use titles outside of Austria; some use the preposition von
von Grassalkovics[17] Grassalkovics became extinct
von Hohenberg Hohenberg title of Fürst for all members; elevated to ducal status by primogeniture in 1917
zu Hohenlohe[18] Hohenlohe-(subline) this family had multiple branches
von Khevenhüller-Metsch[19] Khevenhüller-Metsch junior members were counts
Kinsky von Wchinitz und Tettau[20] Kinsky junior members were counts; also comital
von Koháry Saxe-Coburg-Gotha-Koháry also comital; became extinct firstly in male line, possessions passed to the Saxe-Coburg and Gotha branch of the family via marriage to the heiress of the last prince
von Lichnowsky Lichnowsky
von Lobkowicz[21] Lobkowicz
von und zu Liechtenstein[22] Liechtenstein sovereign since 1719
von Metternich-Winneburg[23] Metternich also used the preposition de
von Montenuovo Montenuovo see also House of Neipperg
zu Oettingen-Oettingen[24] this family had multiple branches (Oettingen, Wallerstein & Spielberg)
von Orsini und Rosenberg[25] Orsini-Rosenberg junior members were counts
von Rohan[26] Rohan head of this family was ducal; also used the preposition de
zu Sayn-Wittgenstein[27] Sayn-Wittgenstein-(subline) this family had multiple branches
von Schönburg[28] Schönburg-(subline) this family had multiple branches (Hartenstein & Waldenburg); also comital
von Starhemberg[29] Starhemberg junior members were counts
zu Schwarzenberg[30] Schwarzenberg Head of House is also Count of Sulz, Princely Landgrave in Klettgau and Duke of Krumlov
von Thun-Hohenstein Thun-Hohenstein[31] also comital
von und zu Trauttmansdorff-Weinsberg[32] Trauttmansdorff-Weinsberg also comital
von Waldburg[33] Waldburg-(subline) this family had multiple branches; junior members were counts
zu Windisch-Graetz[7] Windisch-Graetz also Windisch-Grätz

Graf/Gräfin (count/countess)

Mediatized counts were often entitled to the style of "Illustrious Highness" (Erlaucht). Ranking below them were the comital families of ancient lineage, wealth and influence who were recognized as such in Austria, but had not been Counts of the Empire (Reichsgrafen) prior to 1806; these counts bore the lower style of "High-born" (Hochgeboren).

Freiherr/Freifrau/Freiin (baron/baroness)

There was no official style, but "Gnädiger Herr" (Gracious Lord), "Gnädige Frau", or "Gnädiges Fräulein" (Gracious Lady) were common forms of address. Although strictly speaking the title was Freiherr, the usage of "Baron" in written and verbal communication was very common, even if incorrect. The title Freiin was also often replaced for "geborene (née) Baronin", which was strictly speaking also incorrect since a Baronin would have been married already.

  • Abele von Lilienberg
  • Adamovich (de Csepin)
  • (von) Arnstein
  • Apfaltern
  • (Arz von Straussenburg)
  • (von) Augustin
  • (von) Auspitz
  • (von) Bach
  • (von) Block
  • Bakonyi
  • (von) Baselli
  • (Berger-Waldenegg)
  • Berlakovich
  • (von) Bibra
  • (von Bienerth)
  • Blomberg
  • (von) Blumencron
  • Chledowski (von) Pfaffenhofen
  • (von Columbus)
  • (von) Cornaro
  • Cseszneky de Milvány
  • Di Pauli von Treuheim
  • (von) Drasche-Wartinberg
  • Eötvös de Vásárosnamény
  • (von) Eskeles
  • (von) Ferstl
  • Fraydt (von) Fraydenegg
  • (von Fries)
  • (von) Froelichsthal (or von Frölichsthal)
  • (von Gagern)
  • (von) Gomperz
  • (von Ghetaldi-Gondola)
  • (von) Haas
  • (von) Hagenauer
  • (von) Helfert
  • (von) Hess
  • (von Hofkirchen) extinct 1692
  • (von Isbary)
  • (Jörger von Tollet) extinct 1772
  • (Janowsky von Janowitz und Klenau)
  • (von Marguti)
  • (Kalchegger von Kalchberg)
  • (Kay von Bebenburg)
  • (Kiß von Ittebe)
  • (von) Kubinzky
  • (von) Klimburg
  • (von) Kuffner
  • (Laube von Laubenfels)
  • (von) Laudon
  • (von) Leitenberger
  • (Leonhardi)
  • (von) Lieben
  • (von) Ludwigstorff
  • (von) Lütgendorff
  • (von Manndorff zu Pfannhofen und Wissenau) Manndorff
  • Matz von Spiegelfeld
  • (Mayr von Melnhof) Mayr-Melnhof
  • (von) Mens(s)hengen
  • Milutinovich-Milovski
  • von und zu Munding auf Stazen
  • (Nadherny von Borutin)
  • (Nagy von Töbör-Ethe)
  • von Neszmery
  • Obenaus von Felsöház
  • O'CONNELL, MORITZ, Baron O'Connell
  • (von) Oppenheimer
  • ( Parish von Senftenberg)
  • (von) Pereira-Arnstein (cf. Pereira, Arnstein)
  • (von) Pfanzelter
  • Anton von Poljak (Croatia)
  • (von Prandau)
  • (von Pucher) (zu Meggenhausen Reichenberg Kadau und Zwölfaxing)
  • (von) Quiqueran-Beaujeu
  • Reitzes
  • (von) Reylander, normally used the title Baron
  • (von) Riefel
  • von Ripperda
  • (von) Rona
  • (von or de) Rothschild, normally used the title Baron
  • (von) Ringhoffer
  • (von) Scheer
  • (von) Schey
  • (von) Schneeburg
  • (von) Schneeburg zu Salthaus
  • Schmeltzern (von) Wildmannsek (See Die Gothaischen Genalogischen Taschenbucher des Adels)
  • (Schey von Koromla)
  • (Sebottendorf von der Ronse)
  • (von) Seiller
  • (von) Silber
  • (von) Sina
  • (von Skrbensky)
  • (von Schnehen)
  • (von) Schmeltzern
  • (von) Smeltzern zu Wildemannsek
  • (von) Smeltzern Wildemannsek
  • (von) Spaun
  • (von) Staudach zu Freyenthurn und Ehrenegg
  • (von) Sterzinger
  • (von) Stipsicz de Ternova
  • (zu) Stübing
  • Sypniewski, Ritter von Odrowaz (1480)
  • Thavonat-Thavon
  • von Trautenegg
  • Thyssen-Bornemisza de Kászon
  • (von) Todesco
  • (von) Turkovich
  • Wadenstierna
  • (Jäger von) Waldau
  • (von) Waechter
  • Wetzler von Plankenstern
  • (Wagner von Wehrborn)
  • (von Widmann)
  • (von) Wiernes
  • (von) Wildmannsek, Schmeltzern
  • (von Weigelsperg)
  • (von) Wertheim, normally used the title "Baron"
  • (von) Wertheimstein
  • (von) Westenholz
  • (Zeidler-Daublebsky von Sterneck)
  • (von Zopf)

Ritter (knight)

There was no official style, but "Gnädiger Herr" was a common form of address. The title was for males only; no female version existed. Female members of a family with the title Ritter however were often addressed as "Edle von", which was incorrect unless the family already carried the Edler honour before being raised to the Ritter class.

  • Bloch (von Brodnegg), ennobled in 1915
  • (von Brasseur)
  • (von) Ephrussi
  • (von) Epstein
  • (von) Doderer
  • (Friedmann, Ritter von) Prawy
  • (von) Ghega
  • von Graben von Stein
  • (von Grumpenberger)
  • (von) Gutmann
  • (von Hauslab)
  • (Hanisch von Greifenthal, Ritter von Reyl)
  • (Kamauff)
  • (von) Karajan
  • (von) Klinkosch
  • (Korybut de Ostoja)
  • (von Kriegelstein), carried the title Reichsritter as well as Edler von Sternfeld
  • (La Rénotiere, Ritter von Kriegsfeld)
  • (von Klaudy)
  • (von Kriehuber)
  • Lakhner von Lakhnern
  • Launsky (von Tieffenthal)
  • (von) Leeb
  • (von) Mallmann
  • (von) Wildemannsek, Schmeltzern
  • (von) Maurer (also Mauerer)
  • (Mautner von Markhof) Mautner-Markhof
  • (von) Merkl
  • (von Miller zu Aichholz) Miller-Aichholz
  • (von) Mulwerth
  • (von)
  • (von) Nadherny, Czech: Nádherný
  • (von Nahujowski)
  • (von Neumann)
  • (von Odrowaz) Polish: Odrowąż
  • (von) Pellendorf
  • (von Premerstein)
  • (Raus von Rausenbach) Also princely: Príncipe Raus, Duque de Rausenbach (Mexico, 1822)
  • (von Rumpler)
  • (von Schmelzing und Wernstein)
  • (de) Schneider de Zajol (Zajoli Schneider/Zajoli Snajder)
  • (Schönwies von) Schönowsky
  • (von Schwarz)
  • (Skrebeciowicz de Sielecki, or von Sielecki) Sielecki
  • (Stermich von Valcrociata or von Kreuzenthal) de Stermich di Valcrociata: also carries the title of Edler von Valrociata or von Kreuzenthal
  • (von Sypniewski)
  • (von) Trapp
  • (von) Trautenegg
  • de Weryha-Wysoczański
  • (von) Winiwarter
  • (von) Wessely, later Freiherr


The rank of Edler carried no official style, but "Gnädiger Herr" or "Gnädige Frau" were common forms of address.

  • Beer von Schlatt auf Kürnburg
  • (von) Eibenstein
  • (Fedrigoni von Etschthal)
  • (von Günner)
  • (Hanisch von Greifenthal)
  • Hofmann von Hofmannsthal
  • (von) Holzmeister
  • (von) Khol
  • (von Korbuss)
  • (Milutinowits von Gottesheim)
  • (von) Mises
  • (von Montalmar)
  • (von Nespern)
  • (Schallber von Schalberg)
  • (von Schuppler)
  • (Sepp von Seppenburg)
  • (von Sternfeld), also carried the title Reichsritter von Kriegelstein
  • (von) Sypniewski, also carried the title "Baron Sypniewski"
  • (von Tanzi)
  • Tarbuk von Sensenhorst
  • (von) Thurneyssen
  • (von) Webenau
  • (von) Weingartner
  • Welzl von Wellenheim


This title belonged to the patricians of the free city of Werl, in Germany, who had the hereditary (erb-) right to exploit the nearby salt mines (salz). Thus this title was not granted in Austria, but merely recognized there.

Untitled noble families or status unknown

  • (Anthony von Siegenfeld)
  • (von) Adlgasser
  • (Balog von Manko Bück)
  • (von) Benda
  • (von Berke)
  • Bielka-Karlstreu
  • (von Brenner)
  • (von or de) Chledowski
  • (von) Doblhoff
  • (Dobner von Dobenau)
  • (von) Eidlitz
  • (von) Einem
  • (von Ernst)
  • (Fenrich) Fenrich-Ochsenreitter
  • (von Fischer)
  • (Fischer von See)
  • (Froschmayr von Scheiblenhof)
  • (von Fürstenmühl)
  • (von) Gaupp
  • (von) Gauster-Filek
  • (Gelb von Siegesstern)
  • (von) Gera
  • (von Göhausen)
  • (von Greschke)
  • (Grognet d'Orleans)
  • (von Hellenau)
  • (von) Holbein
  • (von) Hornbostel
  • Jakabffy (von Nemeshetes und Zaguzsen)
  • (von Keren)
  • (Korper von Marienwert)
  • (von Lambort)
  • (von) Lennkh
  • (Levasori della Motta)
  • (Lippich von Lindburg)
  • (von) Lónyay (Hungarian Count Elémer Lónyay married Archduchess Stephanie, widow of Crown Prince Rudolf, and was elevated to prince (Fürst))
  • (von Löwenthal-Linau)
  • (von)
  • Müller-Hartburg
  • (von) Neumann
  • (von) Ofenheim
  • (von Pechmann)
  • (von) Prausnitz
  • (von Praxenthaler)
  • (von Preradovic), Croatian: Preradović
  • (von) Radak
  • (von Remenyik), Hungarian: Reményik
  • (von) Rigel
  • (von) Rottal
  • (von) Saar
  • (de) Saeger (since 1731)
  • (de Schaller)
  • Schiff (von Suvero)
  • (von) Scholten
  • (Schönburg-de Laserna)
  • Schumacher (von Marienfrid)
  • (von) Strachwitz (the German Franz Graf (Count) Strachwitz von Groß-Zauche und Camminetz gained Austrian citizenship without having to eliminate his title or the "von")
  • (von Stremnitzberg)
  • (Suchy von Weißenfeld)
  • (Toscano dell Banner)
  • von Tothfalussy
  • (Tuschner von Hirschberg)
  • (von Ürmenyi), Hungarian: Ürményi
  • (von Zepharovich, Zepharovich)
  • (von) Zumbusch
  • (Zeßner-Spitzenberg)



  1. Where this section is blank, it is possible that the preposition is unknown or did not exist.


  1. pg. 103, Dieter Klein, Martin Kupf, Robert Schediwy (Ed.) Stadtbildverluste Wien - Ein Rückblick auf fünf Jahrzehnte. LIT Verlag, Vienna 2005. ISBN 3-8258-7754-X.
  2. "Chapter Seven: Administering the Jews", of the book "The Politics of Cultural Retreat: Imperial Bureaucracy in Austrian Galicia, 1772-1867", of author Iryna Vushko
  3. "Jewish High Society In Old Regime Berlin", of author Deborah Hertz
  4. "... ein kindisches Beginnen, schon deshalb, weil man gar nicht diejenigen traf, die man hatte treffen wollen. Ich sprach einmal mit der ebenso feinen wie klugen Fürstin Fanny Starhemberg über diesen Punkt. 'Uns', sagte sie, 'macht die Aufhebung des Adels nichts, wir bleiben mit oder ohne den Titel immer die Starhembergs."
  5. Source: Der Gotha
  6. Almanach de Gotha. Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  7. 1 2 3 Almanach českých šlechtických rodů 2001, Praha 2001
  8. 1 2 3 Almanach českých šlechtických rodů 2005, Praha 2005
  9. Marek, Miroslav (2007-06-29). "von Eggenberg". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  10. Schloss Eggenberg. By Barbara Kaiser. Graz: Christian Brandstätter Verlag, 2006. p. 204. ISBN 3-902510-80-3 (English Edition) or ISBN 3-902510-96-X (German Edition)
  11. Die Fürsten und Freiherren zu Eggenberg und ihre Vorfahren. By Walther Ernest Heydendorff. Graz: Verlag Styria, 1965. pp. 187-8.
  12. Hans Ulrich Fürst von Eggenberg: Freund und Erster Minister Kaiser Ferdinand II.. By Hans von Zwiedineck-Südenhorst. Vienna: Wilhelm Braumüller K. K. Hof- und Universitätsbuchhändler, 1880. p. 123.
  13. Ein Staat in Alt-Österreich: Besitzungen der Eggenberger. By Franz Kammerhofer. Graz: Franz Kammerhofer, 1998. p. 172. ISBN 3-9500808-1-3
  14. Marek, Miroslav (2007-06-06). "Esterházy 1". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  15. Marek, Miroslav. "Festetics de Tolna 3". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  16. Marek, Miroslav. "Fьrstenberg 3". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  17. Marek, Miroslav (2004-09-21). "Grassalkovich de Gyarak". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  18. Marek, Miroslav. "Hohenlohe 7". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  19. Marek, Miroslav (2008-06-27). "Khevenhüller 1". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  20. Marek, Miroslav (2009-06-20). "Kinsky 1". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  21. Marek, Miroslav (2008-08-15). "Lobkowicz 10". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  22. Marek, Miroslav (2008-04-11). "Liechtenstein 2". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  23. Marek, Miroslav. "Metternich 3". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  24. Marek, Miroslav (2007-10-25). "Oettingen 2". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  25. Marek, Miroslav. "Princes of the Holy Roman Empire". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  26. Marek, Miroslav. "Rohan 5". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  27. Marek, Miroslav. "Sponheim 18". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  28. Marek, Miroslav (2004-08-04). "Schцnburg 4". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  29. Marek, Miroslav (2007-03-30). "Starhemberg 3". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  30. Marek, Miroslav. "Schwarzenberg 3". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  31. Marek, Miroslav. "Thun 7". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  32. Marek, Miroslav. "Trauttmansdorff 2". Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  33. Marek, Miroslav. "waldburg/waldburg4.html". Genealogy EU. Retrieved August 2012. Check date values in: |access-date= (help)
  34. Royal Licences for the Use of Foreign Titles
  35. The Nobilities of Europe - Google Books


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