Australian federal election, 2016

Australian federal election, 2016
2 July 2016

All 150 seats in the Australian House of Representatives
76 seats were needed for a majority
All 76 seats in the Australian Senate
Registered 15,671,551
Turnout 91.0%
  First party Second party
Leader Malcolm Turnbull Bill Shorten
Party Liberal/National coalition Labor
Leader since 14 September 2015 (2015-09-14) 13 October 2013 (2013-10-13)
Leader's seat Wentworth Maribyrnong
Last election 90 seats, 53.49% 55 seats, 46.51%
Seats won 76 seats 69 seats
Seat change Decrease14 Increase14
Popular vote 6,818,824 6,722,277
Percentage 42.04% 34.73%
Swing Decrease3.51 Increase1.35
TPP 50.36% 49.64%
TPP swing Decrease3.13 Increase3.13

  Third party Fourth party
Leader Richard Di Natale Nick Xenophon
Party Greens Xenophon Team
Leader since 6 May 2015 (2015-05-06) 1 June 2013 (2013-06-01)
Leader's seat Senator for Victoria Senator for South Australia
Last election 1 seat, 8.65% new party
Seats won 1 seat 1 seat
Seat change Steady Increase1
Popular vote 1,385,651 250,333
Percentage 10.23% 1.85%
Swing Increase1.58 Increase1.85

  Fifth party
Leader Bob Katter
Party Katter's Australian
Leader since 3 June 2011 (2011-06-03)
Leader's seat Kennedy
Last election 1 seat, 1.04%
Seats won 1 seat
Seat change Steady
Popular vote 72,879
Percentage 0.54%
Swing Decrease0.50

Prime Minister before election

Malcolm Turnbull
Liberal/National coalition

Subsequent Prime Minister

Malcolm Turnbull
Liberal/National coalition

The 2016 Australian federal election was a double dissolution election held on Saturday 2 July to elect all 226 members of the 45th Parliament of Australia, after an extended eight-week official campaign period. It was the first double dissolution election since the 1987 election and the first under a new voting system for the Senate that replaced group voting tickets with optional preferential voting.

Though federal election outcomes are traditionally called by political commentators on election night, even during the following day the outcome could not be predicted, with many close seats in doubt.[1][2][3][4][5] After a week of vote counting, still no party had won enough seats in the 150-seat House of Representatives to form a majority government.[6][7][8] Neither the incumbent Turnbull Government led by Prime Minister Malcolm Turnbull of the Liberal/National Coalition nor the Shorten Opposition led by Opposition Leader Bill Shorten of the Australian Labor Party were in a position to concede defeat or claim victory.[9][10] Many political commentators predicted a hung parliament such as occurred at the 2010 election.[8][11][12]

Turnbull repeatedly claimed prior to the election that a vote for a Labor, Green or Independent candidate was a vote for "the Labor/Green/Independent alliance",[13][14] and also refused to countenance a hung parliament.[15] However, during the uncertain week following the election, Turnbull negotiated with the crossbench and secured confidence and supply support from Bob Katter and from independents Andrew Wilkie and Cathy McGowan in the event of a hung parliament and resulting minority government.[16] During crossbench negotiations, Turnbull pledged additional staff and resources for crossbenchers, and stated "It is my commitment to work in every way possible to ensure that the crossbenchers have access to all of the information they need and all of the resources they need to be able to play the role they need in this parliament".[17] On 10 July, eight days after the election took place and following Turnbull's negotiations with the crossbench where he secured sufficient confidence and supply support, Shorten conceded defeat, acknowledging that the incumbent Coalition had enough seats to form either a minority or majority government. Turnbull claimed victory later that day.[18] In the closest federal majority result since the 1961 election, the ABC declared on 11 July that the incumbent Coalition would be able to form a one-seat majority government.[19] It was the first election result since federation where the opposition won more seats than the government in both of Australia's two most populous states, New South Wales and Victoria.[20]

In the 150-seat House of Representatives, the one-term incumbent Liberal/National Coalition government was re-elected with a reduced 76 seats, a one-seat majority. The Coalition's victory marked the first time since 2004 that a government had been reelected with an absolute majority in the House of Representatives. Resulting from the national two-party swing against the government, the Labor opposition picked up a significant number of previously government-held seats − totaling 69 seats. On the crossbench the Greens, the Nick Xenophon Team, Katter's Australian Party, and independents Wilkie and McGowan won a seat each. On 19 July the Australian Electoral Commission (AEC) announced a re-count for the Coalition-held but provisionally Labor-won Division of Herbert. At the start of the Herbert re-count, Labor led by eight votes.[21][22] The AEC announced on 31 July that Labor had won Herbert by 37 votes.[23][24][25]

The final outcome in the 76-seat Australian Senate took over four weeks to complete despite significant voting changes. Earlier in 2016, legislation changed the Senate voting system from a full-preference single transferable vote with group voting tickets to an optional-preferential single transferable vote.[26] The final Senate result was announced on 4 August: Liberal/National Coalition 30 seats (−3), Labor 26 seats (+1), Greens 9 seats (−1), One Nation 4 seats (+4) and Nick Xenophon Team 3 seats (+2). Former broadcaster and founder of the Justice Party Derryn Hinch, won a seat, while Jacqui Lambie, Liberal Democrat David Leyonhjelm and Family First's Bob Day retained their seats. The number of crossbenchers increased by two to a record 20. The Liberal/National Coalition will require at least nine additional votes to reach a Senate majority, an increase of three.[27][28][29] The Coalition and Australian Labor Party agreed that the longer six-year Senate terms would be allocated to the first six senators elected in each state, while the last six elected would serve a three-year term. This approach differs to the "recount" method, whereby the Senators who would have been elected in a normal half-Senate election are allocated a six-year term instead.[30]

By choosing the "order elected" method rather than the recount method, Labor and the Coalition each gained an additional six-year Senator at the expense of crossbenchers Derryn Hinch and The Greens.[31][32][33] The ALP and Coalition stated that the "order-elected" method was 'consistent with convention', but were criticised by the affected crossbenchers for not using the recount method, which they had both supported in two separate Senate resolutions in 1998 and 2010.[34][35][36]


House of Representatives

Government (76)
     Liberal (45)
     LNP (21)
     National (10)

Opposition (69)
     Labor (69)

Crossbench (5)
     Greens (1)
     Katter (1)
     Xenophon Team (1)
     Independent (2)
According to the 1−100 Gallagher Index, the disproportionality in the lower house is comparatively high at about 12.7 in 2016 − compared to 9.7 in 2013, 11.3 in 2010 and 10.3 in 2007.
House of Representatives (IRV) – Turnout 90.98% (CV) – Informal 5.05%[37]
Party Votes % Swing (pp) Seats Change (seats)
  Australian Labor Party 4,702,296 34.73 +1.35 69 +14
  Liberal/National Coalition          
  Liberal Party of Australia 3,882,905 28.67 −3.35 45 −13
  Liberal National Party (QLD) 1,153,736 8.52 −0.40 21 −1
  National Party of Australia 624,555 4.61 +0.32 10 +1
  Country Liberal Party (NT) 32,409 0.24 −0.08 0 −1
  Australian Greens 1,385,650 10.23 +1.58 1 ±0
  Nick Xenophon Team 250,333 1.85 +1.85 1 +1
  Katter's Australian Party 72,879 0.54 −0.50 1 ±0
  Palmer United Party 315 0.00 −5.49 0 −1
  Independents 380,712 2.81 +1.44 2 ±0
  Other 1,055,311 7.79 +3.28 0 ±0
  Total 13,541,101 150
Two-party-preferred vote
  Liberal/National Coalition 6,818,824 50.36 −3.13 76 −14
  Australian Labor Party 6,722,277 49.64 +3.13 69 +14

Independents: Andrew Wilkie (Denison), Cathy McGowan (Indi)

Popular vote
Two-party-preferred vote

Divisions changing hands

Members in italics did not re-contest their House of Representatives seats at this election.

Seat Pre-2016 Swing Post-2016
Party Member Margin Margin Member Party
Barton, NSW [1] Liberal Nickolas Varvaris −4.39 3.91 8.30 Linda Burney Labor
Bass, TAS Liberal Andrew Nikolic 4.04 10.13 6.09 Ross Hart Labor
Braddon, TAS Liberal Brett Whiteley 2.56 4.76 2.20 Justine Keay Labor
Burt, WA Liberal Seat created 6.09 13.20 7.11 Matt Keogh Labor
Chisholm, VIC Labor Anna Burke 1.60 2.84 1.24 Julia Banks Liberal
Cowan, WA Liberal Luke Simpkins 4.52 5.20 0.68 Anne Aly Labor
Dobell, NSW [1] Liberal Karen McNamara −0.18 4.63 4.81 Emma McBride Labor
Eden-Monaro, NSW Liberal Peter Hendy 2.91 5.84 2.93 Mike Kelly Labor
Fairfax, QLD Palmer United Clive Palmer 0.03 N/A 10.89 Ted O'Brien Liberal National
Herbert, QLD [2] Liberal National Ewen Jones 6.17 6.19 0.02 Cathy O'Toole Labor
Hindmarsh, SA   Liberal Matt Williams 1.89 2.47 0.58 Steve Georganas Labor  
Lindsay, NSW Liberal Fiona Scott 2.99 4.10 1.11 Emma Husar Labor
Longman, QLD   Liberal National Wyatt Roy 6.92 7.71 0.79 Susan Lamb Labor  
Lyons, TAS Liberal Eric Hutchinson 1.22 3.53 2.31 Brian Mitchell Labor
Macarthur, NSW Liberal Russell Matheson 3.39 11.72 8.33 Mike Freelander Labor
Macquarie, NSW   Liberal Louise Markus 4.48 6.67 2.19 Susan Templeman Labor  
Mayo, SA Liberal Jamie Briggs 12.51 N/A 4.97 Rebekha Sharkie Nick Xenophon Team
Murray, VIC Liberal Sharman Stone 20.87 N/A 5.13 Damian Drum National
Paterson, NSW [1] Liberal Bob Baldwin −0.27 10.47 10.74 Meryl Swanson Labor
Solomon, NT Country Liberal Natasha Griggs 1.40 7.40 6.00 Luke Gosling Labor


1 As a result of the 2015 boundary redistribution, the New South Wales Liberal-held seats of Barton, Dobell and Paterson became notionally marginal Labor seats.

2 A re-count commenced on 19 July in the Queensland division of Herbert. Prior to the re-count, Labor was provisionally ahead of its LNP candidate by eight votes.[21][22] On 31 July the Australian Electoral Commission announced Labor had won Herbert by 37 votes.[24][25] The LNP was considering a legal challenge to the result.[38][23]


The final Senate result was announced on 4 August. The incumbent Liberal/National Coalition government won 30 seats, a net loss of three − the Coalition lost four Senators, one each from New South Wales, Queensland, Western Australia and South Australia, but gained a Senator in Victoria. The Labor opposition won 26 seats, a gain of one − a Senator in Western Australia. The number of crossbenchers increased by two to a record 20. The Liberal/National Coalition will require at least nine additional votes to reach a Senate majority, an increase of three.[27][28][29]

Government (30)
     Liberal (21)
     LNP (5)
     National (3)
     CLP (1)

Opposition (26)
     Labor (26)

Crossbench (20)
     Greens (9)
     One Nation (4)
     Xenophon Team (3)
     Family First (1)
     Liberal Democrat (1)
     Lambie (1)
     Hinch (1)
Senate (STV OPV) – Turnout 91.90% (CV) – Informal 3.94%[39][40]
Party Votes % Swing Seats won Change
  Australian Labor Party 4,123,084 29.79 +0.16 26 +1
  Liberal/National Coalition          
  Liberal/National joint ticket 2,769,426 20.01 −1.32 10 ±0
  Liberal Party of Australia 1,066,579 7.71 +0.77 14 −2
  Liberal National Party (QLD) 960,467 6.94 −1.16 5 −1
  Country Liberal Party (NT) 37,156 0.27 −0.05 1 ±0
  The Nationals (WA) 34,618 0.25 −0.06 0 ±0
  Australian Greens 1,197,657 8.65 −0.58 9 −1
  Pauline Hanson's One Nation 593,013 4.29 +3.76 4 +4
  Nick Xenophon Team 456,369 3.30 +1.37 3 +2
  Liberal Democratic Party 298,915 2.16 −1.59 1 ±0
  Derryn Hinch's Justice Party 266,607 1.93 +1.93 1 +1
  Family First Party 191,112 1.38 +0.26 1 ±0
  Democratic Labour Party 94,510 0.68 −0.18 0 −1
  Jacqui Lambie Network 69,074 0.50 +0.50 1 +1
  Australian Motoring Enthusiast Party 53,232 0.38 −0.12 0 −1
  Palmer United Party 26,210 0.19 −5.42 0 −3
  Other 1,600,871 11.57 +1.25 0 ±0
  Total 13,838,900 76
States and Territories
Party NSW Vic Qld WA SA Tas ACT NT Total
  Liberal/National Coalition 5 5 5 5 4 4 1 1 30
  Australian Labor Party 4 4 4 4 3 5 1 1 26
  Australian Greens 1 2 1 2 1 2 9
  Pauline Hanson's One Nation 1 2 1 4
  Nick Xenophon Team 3 3
  Derryn Hinch's Justice Party 1 1
  Jacqui Lambie Network 1 1
  Liberal Democratic Party 1 1
  Family First Party 1 1
Total 12 12 12 12 12 12 2 2 76


At the close of nominations on 9 June 2016, there were 1,625 candidates in total – 994 for the House of Representatives and 631 for the Senate. The number of Senate candidates was the highest ever at an Australian election, increased from 529 in 2013.[41]

Opinion polls

Aggregate data of voting intention from all opinion polling since the last election. A moving average is shown in a solid line.

Marginal seat pendulum

Based on the 2013 post-election pendulum for the Australian federal election, this Mackerras pendulum was updated to include new notional margin estimates due to redistributions in New South Wales, Western Australia and the Australian Capital Territory. The net effect of the redistributions reduced the Liberal/National Coalition from 90 to a notional 88 seats and increased Labor from 55 to a notional 57 seats.[42][43]

While every federal election after 1961 has been won by those that also won the majority of federal seats in New South Wales, unusually nearly half of all marginal government seats are in New South Wales at this election, of which nearly half are in Western Sydney and the other half in rural and regional areas, and with no more than a few seats each in every other state.

Assuming a theoretical uniform swing, for the Labor opposition to get to 76 seats and majority government would require Labor with 50.5 percent of the two-party vote from a 4.0-point two-party swing or greater, while for the incumbent Coalition to lose majority government would require the Coalition with 50.2 percent of the two-party vote from a 3.3-point two-party swing or greater.[44]

Members in italics retired at the election
Marginal Coalition seats
Petrie (Qld) Luke Howarth LNP 0.5
Capricornia (Qld) Michelle Landry LNP 0.8
O'Connor (WA) Rick Wilson LIB 0.9 [a]
Lyons (Tas) Eric Hutchinson LIB 1.2
Solomon (NT) Natasha Griggs CLP 1.4
Hindmarsh (SA) Matt Williams LIB 1.9
Braddon (Tas) Brett Whiteley LIB 2.6
Banks (NSW) David Coleman LIB 2.8
Eden-Monaro (NSW) Peter Hendy LIB 2.9
Lindsay (NSW) Fiona Scott LIB 3.0
Page (NSW) Kevin Hogan NAT 3.1
Robertson (NSW) Lucy Wicks LIB 3.1
Deakin (Vic) Michael Sukkar LIB 3.2
Macarthur (NSW) Russell Matheson LIB 3.3
^^^ Government loses majority on a uniform swing ^^^
Reid (NSW) Craig Laundy LIB 3.3
Bonner (Qld) Ross Vasta LNP 3.7
Gilmore (NSW) Ann Sudmalis LIB 3.8
Corangamite (Vic) Sarah Henderson LIB 3.9
Durack (WA) Melissa Price LIB 3.9 [a]
La Trobe (Vic) Jason Wood LIB 4.0
Bass (Tas) Andrew Nikolic LIB 4.0
^^^ Opposition wins majority on a uniform swing ^^^
Brisbane (Qld) Teresa Gambaro LNP 4.3
Forde (Qld) Bert van Manen LNP 4.4
Cowan (WA) Luke Simpkins LIB 4.5
Macquarie (NSW) Louise Markus LIB 4.5
Dunkley (Vic) Bruce Billson LIB 5.6
Leichhardt (Qld) Warren Entsch LNP 5.7
Marginal Labor seats
Dobell (NSW) Karen McNamara [b] ALP 0.2
McEwen (Vic) Rob Mitchell ALP 0.2
Paterson (NSW) Bob Baldwin [b] ALP 0.3
Lingiari (NT) Warren Snowdon ALP 0.9
Bendigo (Vic) Lisa Chesters ALP 1.3
Lilley (Qld) Wayne Swan ALP 1.3
Parramatta (NSW) Julie Owens ALP 1.3
Chisholm (Vic) Anna Burke ALP 1.6
Moreton (Qld) Graham Perrett ALP 1.6
Richmond (NSW) Justine Elliot ALP 1.6
Bruce (Vic) Alan Griffin ALP 1.8
Perth (WA) Alannah MacTiernan ALP 2.2
Kingsford Smith (NSW) Matt Thistlethwaite ALP 2.7
Greenway (NSW) Michelle Rowland ALP 3.0
Griffith (Qld) Terri Butler ALP 3.0
Jagajaga (Vic) Jenny Macklin ALP 3.1
Wakefield (SA) Nick Champion ALP 3.4
Melbourne Ports (Vic) Michael Danby ALP 3.6
Brand (WA) Gary Gray ALP 3.7
Oxley (Qld) Bernie Ripoll ALP 3.8
Adelaide (SA) Kate Ellis ALP 3.9
Isaacs (Vic) Mark Dreyfus ALP 3.9
Barton (NSW) Nickolas Varvaris [b] ALP 4.4
McMahon (NSW) Chris Bowen ALP 4.6
Rankin (Qld) Jim Chalmers ALP 4.8
Ballarat (Vic) Catherine King ALP 4.9
Franklin (Tas) Julie Collins ALP 5.1
Makin (SA) Tony Zappia ALP 5.1
Blair (Qld) Shayne Neumann ALP 5.3
Fremantle (WA) Melissa Parke ALP 5.4
Hunter (NSW) [c] Joel Fitzgibbon ALP 5.7

a Though the seats of O'Connor and Durack are marginal Liberal seats, margins are based on the two-candidate preferred result against the National Party of Western Australia rather than the two-party preferred result against Labor, on which all other marginal seats are based. O'Connor and Durack are not included for Labor majority calculation but are included for Coalition loss of majority calculation.

b Though the seats of Dobell, Paterson and Barton were Liberal wins at the previous election, redistributions changed them to notionally marginal Labor seats.[42]

c Pat Conroy is the current MP for the Division of Charlton which is being renamed the Division of Hunter at the next election.

Electoral system

Elections in Australia use a full-preferential system in one vote, one value single-member seats for the 150-member House of Representatives (lower house) and in time for this election changed from full-preferential group voting tickets to an optional-preferential single transferable vote system of proportional representation in the 76-member Senate (upper house). Voting is compulsory, by Westminster convention, but subject to constitutional constraints. The decision as to the type of election and its date is for the Prime Minister, who advises the Governor-General to set the process in motion by dissolving the lower or both houses and issuing writs for election.

Election date

Section 13 of the constitution requires that in half-Senate elections the election of state senators must take place within one year before the places become vacant. Since the normal terms of half the senators would have ended on 30 June 2017, the writs for a half-Senate election could not be issued earlier than 1 July 2016, and the earliest possible date for a simultaneous House/half-Senate election would have been 6 August 2016.[45] There is no constitutional requirement for simultaneous elections for the Senate and the House of Representatives, and there are precedents for separate elections; however, governments and the electorate have long preferred that elections for the two Houses take place simultaneously.

A House-only election can be called at any time during a parliamentary term. Whether held simultaneously with a Senate election or separately, an election for the House of Representatives was required to have been held on or before 14 January 2017,[45] which is calculated under provisions of the constitution and the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918 (CEA). Section 28 of the Constitution of Australia provides that the term of a House expires three years from the first sitting of the House, unless it is dissolved earlier. The previous federal election was held on 7 September 2013. The 44th Parliament of Australia opened on 12 November 2013[46] and its term would have expired on 11 November 2016.[47] Writs for an election can be issued up to ten days after a dissolution or expiry of the House.[48] Up to 27 days can be allowed for nominations,[49] and the actual election can be set for a maximum of 31 days after close of nominations,[50] resulting in the latest possible House of Representatives election date of Saturday, 14 January 2017.

A double dissolution cannot take place within six months before the date of the expiry of the House of Representatives.[lower-alpha 1] That meant that a double dissolution could not be granted after 11 May 2016. Allowing for the same stages indicated above, the last possible date for a double dissolution election was 16 July 2016.[45]

On 2 November 2015, Prime Minister Turnbull stated: "I would say around September–October [2016] is when you should expect the next election to be."[51] However, in December 2015, ABC News reported that some "senior Liberal MPs" had been seeking an election as early as March 2016.[52] An election held at this time would have required a separate half-Senate election to be held in late 2016 or early 2017.[53]

On 21 March 2016, Turnbull announced that the parliament would be recalled for both houses to sit on 18 April to consider for a third time the bills to reinstate the Australian Building and Construction Commission (ABCC). Turnbull also said that if the Senate failed to pass the bill, then there would be a double dissolution of parliament and an election would be held on 2 July. The delivery of the federal budget was also brought forward from 10 May to 3 May.[54] On 18 April, the Senate once again rejected the bills to reinstate the ABCC. On 8 May Malcolm Turnbull attended Government House to advise the Governor-General to issue the writs for a double dissolution on 9 May. This confirmed the date of the election; 2 July 2016.[55]

Double dissolution triggers

By 18 April 2016 there were four bills that met the requirements of Section 57 of the constitution for a double dissolution.[56]

Second rejection by
the Senate
18 June 2014 Clean Energy Finance Corporation (Abolition) Bill 2013 [No. 2]
17 August 2015 Fair Work (Registered Organisations) Amendment Bill 2014 [No. 2]
18 April 2016 Building and Construction Industry (Consequential and Transitional Provisions) Bill 2013 [No. 2]
18 April 2016 Building and Construction Industry (Improving Productivity) Bill 2013 [No. 2]
Malcolm Turnbull visits Sir Peter Cosgrove on 8 May 2016 to request a double dissolution

On 19 April the Prime Minister confirmed that, following the 2016 federal budget set for 3 May, he would advise the Governor-General to call a double dissolution election on Saturday 2 July. Any or all of these four bills could have been cited in his advice. On Sunday 8 May 2016, Turnbull visited Government House and formally advised Governor-General Sir Peter Cosgrove to dissolve both Houses of Parliament and issue the writs for a double dissolution election to be held on 2 July 2016. The advice was based on Parliament's inability to pass the following three bills:[57]

The Governor-General accepted the advice and dissolved both houses of the Parliament the following day, 9 May 2016.

Constitutional and legal provisions

The constitutional and legal provisions which impacted on the choice of election dates include:[58]

Election timeline

On 8 May 2016, the office of the Governor-General released documents relating to the calling of the election. The documents set out a timeline of key dates for the election.[57]


The Coalition won the 2013 federal election with 90 of the 150 seats in the House of Representatives, on a swing of 17 seats or 3.6 points on a two-party basis, defeating the six-year Labor government. Labor held 55 seats, and crossbenchers held the remaining five.[62] The Abbott government was sworn in to office on 18 September 2013.[63]

Kevin Rudd resigned as Labor's leader following the defeat of the party. Chris Bowen became the interim leader in the approach to a leadership election. Two candidates, Anthony Albanese and Bill Shorten, declared their candidacy; Shorten was declared the winner on 13 October 2013.[64][65]

As a result of lost ballot papers, on 18 February 2014 the High Court of Australia, sitting as the Court of Disputed Returns, ordered a new half-Senate election for Western Australia, which was held on 5 April 2014.[66][67]

Senator John Madigan resigned from the Democratic Labour Party and became an independent Senator in September 2014, citing long-term internal party tensions.[68]

On 24 November 2014, Tasmanian Senator Jacqui Lambie resigned from the Palmer United Party[69] and on 13 March 2015, Queensland Senator Glenn Lazarus also announced his resignation from the Palmer United Party;[70] both then sat as independents.

On 14 September 2015, the incumbent Prime Minister, Tony Abbott, was challenged for the leadership of the Liberal Party and thus the prime ministership by Malcolm Turnbull, the Minister for Communications. Turnbull won the vote 54–44 and on 15 September was sworn in as prime minister, starting the Turnbull government. On 11 February 2016 Warren Truss, the Deputy Prime Minister, announced his decision to retire from politics at the 2016 federal election and immediately stood aside as Leader of the Nationals. Barnaby Joyce was elected as Leader and was sworn as the Deputy Prime Minister, and Fiona Nash was elected as Deputy Leader of the Nationals.[71][72][73] Truss also resigned from the Turnbull Ministry.[74]

Ian Macfarlane attempted to defect from the Liberal to the National party room with accompanying demands for additional Nationals cabinet representation, and the Mal Brough–James Ashby diary controversy deepened in the last week of the campaign.[75][76] Along with the unexpected by-election swing and Turnbull's significantly lessened personal ratings in the concurrent December Newspoll, some News Limited journalists claimed that Turnbull's honeymoon was over.[77][78][79][80][81]

The Nick Xenophon Team (NXT) listed many candidates throughout Australia,[82] with ABC psephologist Antony Green indicating NXT had a "strong chance of winning lower house seats and three or four Senate seats".[83]

Liberal Senator Michael Ronaldson announced on 18 December 2015 that he would leave parliament before the next election, after moving from the outer ministry in the Abbott government to the backbench in the Turnbull government. He resigned on 28 February 2016, and the casual vacancy was filled by James Paterson on 9 March 2016.[84]

Labor Senator Joe Bullock announced on 1 March 2016 that he would be resigning from the Senate after the autumn sittings of parliament, citing—among other reasons—his opposition to same-sex marriage being at odds with the Labor Party's platform to bind its members in a supporting vote after 2019.[85] Bullock tendered his resignation to Senate President Stephen Parry on 13 April 2016.[86][87] The casual vacancy was filled by Pat Dodson on 28 April 2016.[88]

Palmer United Party leader Clive Palmer announced on 4 May 2016 that he would not recontest his seat of Fairfax at the election.[89] On 23 May he also ruled out running for a Senate seat.[90]

In the lower house seat of Brisbane, both Liberal-National and Labor candidates were openly gay; a first in Australian federal political history.[91]


In the 44th Parliament, there were three by-elections. Rudd resigned from Parliament on 22 November 2013, triggering the 2014 Griffith by-election, which was held on 8 February, with Terri Butler retaining the seat for Labor.[92]

On 21 July 2015, Liberal Don Randall died, triggering the 2015 Canning by-election, which was held on 19 September. Andrew Hastie retained the seat for the Liberal Party, having to rely on preferences after suffering a substantial swing to the Labor candidate.[93]

Joe Hockey was not retained as Treasurer in the Turnbull Ministry, and announced his resignation from Parliament shortly afterwards, triggering the 2015 North Sydney by-election which was held on 5 December. The seat was retained for the Liberal Party by Trent Zimmerman. Zimmerman won with 48.2% of the primary vote after a larger-than-predicted 12.8-point swing against the Turnbull Coalition government. This was only the second time in North Sydney since federation that the successful Liberal candidate failed to obtain a majority of the primary vote and had to rely on preferences. Zimmerman faced a double-digit primary vote swing − more than triple that of the 2015 Canning by-election − despite the absence of a Labor candidate. Labor has never been successful in the safe Liberal seat. The Liberal two-candidate vote of 60.2% against independent Stephen Ruff compares with the previous election vote of 65.9% against Labor.[94] The reduction of 5.7 points cannot be considered a "two-party/candidate preferred swing" − when a major party is absent, preference flows to both major parties do not take place, resulting in asymmetric preference flows.[95][96]

Redistributions and name changes

In November 2014 the Australian Electoral Commission announced that a redistribution of electoral boundaries in New South Wales and Western Australia would be undertaken before the next election. A determination of the states' membership entitlements under the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918 meant that Western Australia's entitlement increased from 15 to 16 seats, and New South Wales' decreased from 48 to 47 seats. A redistribution also occurred in the Australian Capital Territory, as seven years had elapsed since the last time the ACT's boundaries were reviewed.[97] On 16 November 2015, the AEC announced that a redistribution of electoral boundaries in Tasmania would be deferred until after the election, as the Electoral Act provides that a redistribution shall not commence where there is less than a year until the expiry of the House of Representatives (i.e., 11 November 2016).[98]

In October 2015 the AEC announced plans to abolish the seat of Hunter. Electors in the north of Hunter would have joined New England, while the roughly 40% remainder would have become part of Paterson, where the Liberal margin would have been reduced from a fairly safe 9.8 points to an extremely marginal 0.5 point as a result. Hunter was first contested at the inaugural 1901 federal election; the AEC's naming guidelines require it to make "every effort" to preserve the names of the original federal divisions.[99] The Commission proposed renaming Charlton to Hunter, and in honour of deceased Prime Minister Gough Whitlam, renaming Throsby to Whitlam.[100][101]

The final proposal, however, saw Charlton abolished, with Hunter moving slightly eastward to take in much of Charlton's territory.[102] Additionally, Paterson was made more compact and pushed well to the south, taking in some heavily Labor territory that had previously been in Hunter and Newcastle. This had the effect of erasing the Liberals' majority in Paterson; Labor now had a notional majority of 0.5 percent.[103]

The new seat created in Western Australia was the Division of Burt, named after the Burt family, and centred on the south-east areas of metropolitan Perth.[104]

The Division of Fraser in the ACT was renamed Division of Fenner, to honour the late scientist Professor Frank Fenner. The AEC announced that the name Fraser will be used for a future division in Victoria, named in honour of Malcolm Fraser, a former Prime Minister.[105]

Senate voting changes

Following the previous election, the Abbott Government announced it would investigate changing the electoral system for the Senate. On 22 February 2016, the Turnbull Government announced several proposed changes.[106] In the Senate, the changes had the support of the Liberal/National Coalition, the Australian Greens, and Nick Xenophon.[107] The legislation passed both houses of the Parliament of Australia on 18 March 2016 after the Senate sat all night debating the bill.[108]

The changes abolished group voting tickets (GVTs) and introduced optional preferential voting, along with party logos on the ballot paper. The ballot paper continues to have a box for each party above a heavy line, with each party's candidates in a column below that party's box below the solid line. Previously, a voter could either mark a single box above the line, which triggered the party's group voting ticket (a pre-assigned sequence of preferences), or place a number in every box below the line to assign their own preferences. As a result of the changes, voters may assign their preferences for parties above the line (numbering as many boxes as they wish), or individual candidates below the line, and are not required to fill all of the boxes. Both above and below the line voting are now optional preferential voting. For above the line, voters will be instructed to write at least their first six preferences; however, a "savings provision" will still count the ballot if less than six were given. As a result, fewer votes are expected to be classed as informal; however, more ballots will "exhaust" as a result (i.e. some votes are not counted towards electing any candidate). For below the line, voters will be required to number at least their first 12 preferences. Voters will be free to continue numbering as many preferences as they like beyond the minimum number specified. Another savings provision will allow ballot papers with at least 6 below the line preferences to be formal, catering for people who confuse the above and below the line instructions.

Antony Green, a psephologist for the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, wrote several publications on various aspects of the proposed Senate changes.[109][110][111][112][113][114] As with every double dissolution election the entire Senate is re-elected (12 seats per state rather than the usual half Senate election of six seats per state). Consequently, the number of votes required to earn a seat (the "quota") is halved. Due to the abolition of GVTs, it is no longer possible to create "calculators" that assess, with reasonable accuracy, the eventual senate election outcome. Therefore, according to Antony Green, "my working guide is that if a party has more than 0.5 of a quota, it will be in the race for one of the final seats." His calculation of the percentage of primary-vote required for the first six full- and half-quotas at this election is as follows:[115]

Quotas % Vote Quotas % Vote
0.5 3.8 1 7.7
1.5 11.5 2 15.4
2.5 19.2 3 23.1
3.5 26.9 4 30.8
4.5 34.6 5 38.5
5.5 42.3 6 46.2

Newspaper endorsements

In its pre-election editorial endorsements, the press overwhelmingly backed the Coalition over Labor – only the Sunday edition of the Melbourne Age plumped for the Opposition.

Sunday editions

Newspaper Endorsement
The Sun-Herald Coalition[116]
Sunday Telegraph Coalition[117]
Sunday Herald Sun Coalition[118]
Sunday Mail (Brisbane) Coalition[119]
Sunday Mail (Adelaide) Coalition[120]
Sunday Times Coalition[121]
Sunday Age Labor[122]

Among the Sunday papers, Turnbull was preferred by Sydney's Sun-Herald and Sunday Telegraph, Melbourne's Sunday Herald Sun, the Sunday Mail in Brisbane, the Sunday Times in Perth and the Sunday Mail in Adelaide. Labor won the endorsement of only the Sunday Age in Melbourne. The Sunday Tasmanian and Sunday Territorian did not publish endorsements prior to this election.

Labor's close ties to the union movement were of concern to many papers, even to the supportive Sunday Age, which described the issue as "vexed" and unresolved.[122] Others went further, fearful that Shorten would not "free Labor from the union shackles that too often oppose sensible reforms," in the words of the Sun-Herald.[116] "Mr Shorten still remains more union boss than potential prime minister," concluded the Sunday Telegraph.[117] Shorten, the Sunday Herald Sun concurred, "is not a man to stand up to militant unions."[118]

On the economy, there was general concern about the sustainability of Labor's approach to public spending. "Even an economic illiterate could see [Shorten's] 10-year economic "plan" was forged in fantasy land," opined the Sunday Times, "On this dangerous policy alone, Labor should not be given the opportunity to govern."[121] The Sunday Age, however, took the view that increased taxation, and with it increased spending on education, should take priority: "a smarter society will be more productive."[122] Though the Sun-Herald was supportive of some Labor policies, it said Shorten had failed to make "a compelling case that Australia needs a new government." Invoking the instability of Australian politics since 2010, the paper was unenthusiastic about electing "our sixth prime minister in six years." Turnbull, the Sun-Herald concluded, deserved "a chance to establish his own mandate."[116]

The need for political stability was emphasised by the Perth Sunday Times and Adelaide Sunday Mail: at that time both states faced an uncertain future due to recent downturns in mining, steelmaking and shipbuilding. The expectation that any Labor government would govern in minority gave the Mail pause. Australia, it wrote, "needs stability ... this country has suffered enough through balance-of-power ... politicians". Both backed the Coalition as the best alternative to, in the Times' words, "steer us through these turbulent times."[121][120]

The Brisbane Sunday Mail summed up the general view among the papers of Turnbull: "yet to fulfil his promise as Prime Minister."[119] Though the Sunday Telegraph agreed his government had been "timid", it concluded "We are fortunate to have as Prime Minister a man of integrity, decency and undoubted intellect."[117]

National dailies

The Australian Financial Review endorsed the Coalition two days before polling day, in particular its plans to balance the federal budget, and boost economic growth by cutting company tax. Although the editorial viewed Turnbull's performance in office as "too timid", it concluded that "there is no alternative" but to support his re-election. The newspaper acknowledged Shorten's effectiveness as a campaigner, but it was scathing of the Opposition Leader's platform and tactics. His "resort to crass populism and the outdated politics of class comes from a once-reforming centre-left party which has refused to free itself from ... trade union and factional control," the editorial ran. "Mr Shorten's populist pitch echoes some of the global political phenomenon represented by Brexit and Donald Trump by exciting a squabble over shares of a declining income pie."[123]

The Australian endorsed the Coalition the following day, highlighting the Government's budget discipline. Turnbull's "stolid pitch on frugality ... provided the contrast against which the Labor opposition could be judged," the editorial ran. Though it rated the Coalition's economic plan as "adequate at best," The Australian contrasted this with "an unthinkable Labor alternative that, even after the overblown GFC stimulus of the RuddGillardRudd years, would respond to current challenges by spending more, taxing more and taking the nation deeper into debt."[124]

Metropolitan dailies

Newspaper Endorsement
Adelaide Advertiser Coalition[125]
Australian Financial Review Coalition[123]
Canberra Times Coalition[125]
Courier Mail Coalition[125]
Daily Telegraph Coalition[125]
Geelong Advertiser Coalition[125]
Herald Sun Coalition[125]
NT News Coalition[125]
Sydney Morning Herald Coalition[125]
The Age Coalition[125]
The Australian Coalition[125]
The West Australian Coalition[125]

The metropolitan dailies backed the Coalition without exception. Turnbull's personal qualities and platform appealed more to the editors than his short record in office. The Age spoke for many in concluding that "Mr Turnbull deserves the chance to deliver".[126] The Daily Telegraph praised the Prime Minister's "consistency ... He has stuck fast on addressing Australia's debt and deficit problems."[127] Newspapers particularly highlighted, in the words of the West Australian, the Coalition's "better understanding of what is needed to run the economy and rein in debt."[128] The Sydney Morning Herald welcomed the Coalition's curbs on superannuation tax breaks and offered qualified support for company tax cuts ("Businesses, small and large, create jobs.")[129] The Age endorsed the super changes and company tax cut, but was critical of the Coalition's "shamefully harsh" border protection policies and planned same-sex marriage plebiscite.[126] The Canberra Times gave the Coalition "credit for recognising the necessity for cuts in public-sector spending" and reforming super.[130] The Courier-Mail backed Turnbull's 'jobs and growth' agenda as "a more coherent prescription in an era that demands experience, stability and certainty."[131]

The Courier-Mail, Canberra Times, Age and Adelaide Advertiser acknowledged Shorten's strengths on the campaign trail. The Advertiser spoke of a "revitalised performance from Bill Shorten ... The Opposition is now in with a fighting chance."[132] The Age welcomed its plans on negative gearing and capital gains tax; the Herald backed the case for Labor's higher increases in education funding.

However, for almost every paper, this was outweighed by the party's service of union interests and its unsustainable profligacy. "There is no sign at all that Mr Shorten will force Labor to remove the disproportionate influence of unions and their money on his party," the Herald wrote, regretting that despite the reforming instincts of Shadow Treasurer Chris Bowen, as a whole "Labor baulks at progress that affects the public service and unions." For the NT News, "the party's policy positions are incoherent. The sheer breadth of spending promises show Labor is not ready for government." The Herald Sun agreed that in Labor's "DNA is an inclination to spend ... That Australia must learn to live within its means is a lesson Labor still fails to grasp."[133] The Herald chided Shorten for the dishonesty of his Medicare scare campaign ("his judgement was found wanting") as did the Courier-Mail ("hysteria"). The Daily Telegraph also highlighted Labor's record on border protection – 50,000 illegal maritime arrivals and perhaps 1,000 deaths at sea – and noted the widespread desire of many Labor candidates and the Greens to "attempt this deadly experiment again."

Local issues and candidates also played a role in the endorsements. Expecting a Coalition victory, the NT News argued that Solomon Country Liberal MP Natasha Griggs should be returned on the grounds that Darwin was better off having a Government member as its representative.[134] Victoria's Herald Sun highlighted the Country Fire Authority dispute – "a window into the relationship between Labor and the union movement" and "a game changer in how many Victorians will vote."[133] The Hobart Mercury concluded that although the nation would be "best served" by a Coalition government, Denison independent MP Andrew Wilkie and Franklin Labor MP Julie Collins deserved to be re-elected as well.[135] The Advertiser welcomed Turnbull's decision to build 12 new submarines in South Australia.[132] The West Australian reminded voters to separate their judgement of Turnbull from their judgment of the less popular Liberal state government.[128]

Campaign events

David Feeney's $2.3 million house in Northcote not declared on his parliamentary register of interests

Campaign advertising

Labor, campaign advertising began in February, with the Government airing taxpayer-funded commercials for its Innovation and Science Agenda that echoed Turnbull's catchphrase "exciting time". The ads were criticised by the Opposition, which referred the matter to the Auditor-General for investigation.[154]

The first negative shots in the campaign's television advertising war were fired in April, as the Government worked to obtain its second trigger for a double dissolution.

In addition to the major political parties, other organisations aired their own issue ads. These included the Australian Council of Trade Unions, the Royal Australian College of General Practitioners, Master Builders Australia and the Australia Institute.[161][157]

In Australian federal elections, a "blackout" of campaign ads on radio and television applies from midnight on the Wednesday before polling day. On the eve of the blackout in 2016, commercial television stations, media analysts and some politicians called for this rule to be reviewed in the light of declining audience share for traditional broadcasters, and the growing role of the internet in campaigning.[162]

Retiring MPs and senators

MPs and Senators retiring (by party)
Party MPs Senators
  Labor 9 3
  Liberal 7 1
  Liberal National 5
  National 1
  Palmer United 1
Total 23 4


State Senator Retirement announced
 New South Wales   Bill Heffernan 19 February 2016[163]
 Northern Territory   Nova Peris 24 May 2016[164]
 Queensland   Joe Ludwig 9 March 2015[165]
  Jan McLucas 5 April 2015[166]


State MP DivisionRetirement announced
 New South Wales   Bob Baldwin Paterson 16 April 2016[167]
  Bronwyn Bishop Mackellar 4 May 2016[168]
  John Cobb Calare 27 February 2016[169]
  Laurie Ferguson Werriwa 12 August 2014[170]
  Jill Hall Shortland 28 February 2016[171]
  Philip Ruddock Berowra 8 February 2016[172]
 Queensland   Mal Brough Fisher 26 February 2016[173]
  Teresa Gambaro Brisbane 9 March 2016[174]
  Ian Macfarlane Groom 15 February 2016[175]
  Clive Palmer Fairfax 4 May 2016[176]
  Bernie Ripoll Oxley 14 April 2015[177]
  Bruce Scott Maranoa 3 August 2015[178]
  Warren Truss Wide Bay 11 February 2016[71][72][73]
 South Australia   Andrew Southcott Boothby 4 September 2015[179]
 Victoria   Bruce Billson Dunkley 24 November 2015[180]
  Anna Burke Chisholm 16 December 2015[181]
  Alan Griffin Bruce 10 February 2015[182]
  Andrew Robb Goldstein 10 February 2016[183]
  Sharman Stone Murray 26 March 2016[184]
  Kelvin Thomson Wills 10 November 2015[185]
 Western Australia   Gary Gray Brand 16 February 2016[186]
  Alannah MacTiernan Perth 12 February 2016[187]
  Melissa Parke Fremantle 22 January 2016[188]

See also


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