Army National Guard

Army National Guard

Seal of the Army National Guard
Active As state-funded militia under various names: 1636–1903
As federal reserve forces called the Army National Guard: 1903–present
Country  United States
Size 350,200 (authorized end strength for Fiscal Year 2015)[1]
Part of United States Army
U.S. National Guard
Garrison/HQ Army National Guard Readiness Center, Arlington Hall
Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.
Nickname(s) ARNG, Army Guard, The Guard
Anniversaries 13 December 1636 (founding)
Director of the Army National Guard LTG Timothy J. Kadavy

The Army National Guard (ARNG), in conjunction with the Air National Guard, is a militia force and a federal military reserve force of the United States. They are simultaneously part of two different organizations, the National Guard of the Several States, Territories and the District of Columbia (also referred to as the Militia of the United States), and the National Guard of the United States. The Army National Guard is divided into subordinate units stationed in each of the 50 states, three territories, and the District of Columbia, and operates under their respective governors.[2]


The Army National Guard as currently authorized and organized operates under Title 10 of the United States Code when under federal control, and Title 32 of the United States Code and applicable state laws when under state control.

The Army National Guard may be called up for active duty by the state or territorial governors to help respond to domestic emergencies and disasters, such as those caused by hurricanes, floods, and earthquakes, as well as civil disorder.[2]

The District of Columbia Army National Guard is a federal militia, controlled by the President of the United States with authority delegated to the Secretary of Defense, and through him to the Secretary of the Army.[3]

Members or units of the Army National Guard may be ordered, temporarily or indefinitely, into the service of the United States.[4][5] If mobilized for federal service, the member or unit becomes part of the Army National Guard of the United States, which is a reserve component of the United States Army.[6][7][8] Individuals volunteering for active federal service may do so subject to the consent of their governors.[9] Governors generally cannot veto involuntary activations of individuals or units for federal service, either for training or national emergency.[10] (See Perpich v. Department of Defense.)

The President may also call up members and units of the Army National Guard, in its status as the militia of the several states, to repel invasion, suppress rebellion, or enforce federal laws.[11]

The Army National Guard of the United States is one of two organizations administered by the National Guard Bureau, the other being the Air National Guard of the United States. The Director of the Army National Guard is the head of the organization, and reports to the Chief of the National Guard Bureau.

Because the Army National Guard is both the militia of the several states and a federal reserve component of the Army, neither the Chief of the National Guard Bureau nor the Director of the Army National Guard "commands" it. This function is performed in each state or territory by the State Adjutant General, and in the District of Columbia by the Commanding General of the District of Columbia National Guard when a unit is in its militia status. The Chief of the National Guard Bureau and the Director of the Army National Guard serve as the channel of communications between the Department of the Army and the Army National Guard in each state and territory, and administer federal programs, policies, and resources for the National Guard.[12]

The Army National Guard's portion of the federal budget for Fiscal Year 2015 is approximately $14 billion, including appropriations for personnel pay and allowance, facilities maintenance, construction, equipment maintenance and other activities.[13]



First militia muster in what is now Continental United States, 16 September 1565, St. Augustine, Florida.

Though a militia was mustered in Spanish Florida in the 1500s,[14] the modern Army National Guard traces its origins to December 13, 1636, the day the Massachusetts Bay Colony's General Court passed an act calling for the creation of three regiments by organizing existing separate militia companies in the towns around Boston.[15] The creation of the militia regiments was caused by the perceived need to defend the Bay Colony against American Indians, as well as colonists and military members from other European countries who were operating in North America, including: the French in what is now Canada; the Spanish in what is now Florida, The Carolinas, and Georgia; and the Dutch in what was then New Netherland, which comprised what is now parts of New York, Connecticut, Rhode Island and Massachusetts.[16][17]

The General Court required that all able-bodied men between ages 16 and 60, except judges and clergy members, be considered members of the colony's militia, which was organized as the North, South, and East Regiments. Militia members were required to equip themselves, take part in regular training, and report to their units when called. (The lineage of the North, South and East Regiments is maintained in the 21st century by: 1st Squadron, 182nd Cavalry Regiment and 1st Battalion, 181st Infantry Regiment (North); 1st Battalion, 101st Field Artillery Regiment (South); and the 101st Engineer Battalion (East).)[18]

Early action

18th century depiction of militia at the 1637 battle known as the Great Swamp Fight.

The militia of the Bay Colony, combined with militias from Plymouth and Saybrook and Native American allies from the Narragansett and Mohegan tribes fought the Native Americans of Southern New England in the Pequot War (1634–1638). This war resulted in hundreds of deaths, hundreds of Native Americans sold into slavery or scattered throughout North America, and the destruction of the Pequots as a group.[19][20]

The militias of the Southern New England colonies fought Native Americans again in King Philip's War from 1675 to 1676. This conflict led to the decisive defeat of the Narragansets, further straining relationships between Native Americans and white Europeans, but enabling continued white settlement of New England.[21]

The American colonists maintained their militias in the late 1600s and 1700s, preferring the militia to a standing army as the result of English experience with a standing army when Oliver Cromwell established a military dictatorship during the First English Civil War.[22] In addition, the colonists had little interest in paying the taxes to maintain permanent garrisons of British troops.[23][24][25] The militias were also an early experiment in democracy, with company grade officers often elected by their men, and the higher officers appointed by colonial governors or legislatures. The colonies did not exert centralized control over the militias or coordinate their efforts. Training typically took place during musters each summer, with militia members reporting for inspection and undergoing several days of training in drill and ceremony.[26][27][28]

French and Indian War

Main article: French and Indian War
Death of Braddock at Battle of the Monongahela. 19th century engraving.

During the French and Indian War, militias from several British colonies took part in various actions, including:

Many leaders of both British and American forces during the American Revolution had military experience in the French and Indian War, including American militia veterans Washington, Israel Putnam,[34] Daniel Morgan,[35] Adam Stephen,[36] Daniel Boone,[37] Philip Schuyler,[38] John Stark,[39] and John Thomas.[40]

American Revolution

Statue representing John Parker. By Henry Hudson Kitson, 1900. The image of the Lexington minuteman has served as the heraldic crest of all Army Reserve units since 1923.
The minuteman with a plow, sculpted by Daniel Chester French and located in Concord, Massachusetts, is incorporated into the seal of the Army National Guard.

When tensions escalated between the British government and the American colonists in the 1760s and 1770s, many citizens began organizing, equipping and training private militia units, in order to have bodies of troops that were outside the control of the royal governors.[41]

Militia members served throughout the Revolution, often near their homes, and frequently for short periods. Militia units served in combat, as well as carrying out guard duty for prisoners, garrisoning of forts, and local patrols.[42][43]

On some occasions, militia members performed ineffectively, as at the Battle of Camden in North Carolina.[44] On other occasions they performed capably, including the Battles of Lexington and Concord,[45] Battle of Bunker Hill,[46] Battle of Bennington,[47] Battles of Saratoga,[48] and Battle of Cowpens.[49]

Perhaps the most important role played by the militia was off the battlefield, by affecting the course of the political debate. Militia with Patriot sympathies was well established, particularly in the Mid-Atlantic and New England colonies, causing the British Army to concentrate their forces into larger, more defensible garrisons. With the countryside in the hands of the Patriot militia, neutrals or Loyalists gradually either fled to British garrisons (and from there, often to Canada) or became more accepting of the Patriot goal of independence from Great Britain.[50][51][52]

Post Revolutionary War

During the period of the Articles of Confederation, the weak federal government reduced the Continental Army to a handful of officers and soldiers. The Articles of Confederation required each state to maintain a militia, and allowed the Confederation Congress to form a standing army only with the consent of nine of the thirteen states. Such consent was not forthcoming in an era when the population still harbored a distrust of a standing army, so Congress largely left the defense of the new nation to the state militias.[53]

Constitutional Convention

During the Constitutional Convention in 1787, Federalist delegates argued for a powerful federal government, including federal control of the militia. Federalists anticipated using the military to defend the country if it were attacked, and to enforce federal laws when required.[54]

Anti-Federalists advocated limited federal government, and wanted continued state control over the militias. Anti-Federalists based their arguments on three points. First, the militia could be available to the federal government to resist foreign invasions. Second, the militia served as a police force in each state, enabling it to maintain order and respect for the law. Third, once the new federal government replaced the one under the Articles of Confederation, the militia would be the last defense of the states in the event that a standing army raised by the federal government was employed against the states.[55]

The compromise agreed to by both sides satisfied Anti-Federalists because there was no standing Army, and the militias remained the responsibility of the states, especially the appointment of officers. It satisfied the Federalists because it provided that the militia could be federalized when circumstances required it.[56]

Militia Acts of 1792

Washington reviews regular Army and militia troops at Ft. Cumberland, Maryland before marching to suppress Whiskey Rebellion

The compromise between Federalists and Anti-federalists proved short-lived. In 1791 Arthur St. Clair suffered a major defeat in the Battle of the Wabash while fighting American Indians in the Northwest Territory. In response, Congress authorized the expansion of the Army, and allowed for the President to call up the state militias on his own authority if circumstances required it when Congress was not in session.[57]

The First Militia Act of 1792 allowed the President to call up the militias in the event of a foreign invasion, in response to attacks by American Indians, and when required for the enforcement of federal law.[58]

The Second Militia Act of 1792 formalized the organization and training requirements of the state militias. It mandated that the militia consisted of every "free able-bodied white male citizen" between ages 18 and 45, organized as members of a local unit. (A later change expanded eligibility to all men between 18 and 54, regardless of race.) Some occupations were exempt, including stagecoach drivers and ferry operators, who would be expected to support the militia by facilitating the transport of soldiers, supplies and equipment in the event of a mobilization. There were also religious exemptions for Quakers and other denominations that advocated nonviolence.[59][60]

Militia units were required to report for training twice a year, usually in early Summer (after Spring planting) and late Fall (after the Autumn harvest but before snow fell). Militia members were required to outfit themselves and report for training or mobilization with a musket or rifle, bayonet, flints, cartridge box, bullets or musket balls, haversack or knapsack, and powder horn and gunpowder.[61]

State legislatures were authorized to organize local units into divisions, regiments and subordinate commands, and federalized militia members were made subject to court martial proceedings for disobeying orders and other offenses.[62]

Part of this reorganization included removing state governors as commanders with military rank (Captain General), and the creation of the state Adjutant General. The Adjutant General reported directly to the governor and served as commander of the state militia.[63] States were slow to respond, and some did not begin appointing Adjutants General until after the War of 1812.

President George Washington used the authority of the Second Act in 1794 to call up the militia in response to the Whiskey Rebellion. He did so shortly before that provision of the Second Act was about to expire. Recognizing that the authority might be needed again in the future, Congress responded by passing the Militia Act of 1795, which made permanent the President's ability to call up the militia on his own authority if Congress was not in session.[64][65]

The use of the militia in the Whiskey Rebellion made clear that at that point, militias were not well organized, effectively trained, or capably led. Washington and other Federalists advocated the creation of a national military academy to standardize training and increase the number of citizens with military experience, and in 1802, the Army established the United States Military Academy at West Point.[66][67]

War of 1812

Artist depiction of Battle of New Orleans, including militia.
Main article: War of 1812

At the start of the War of 1812 the regular army totaled less than 12,000 soldiers. Congress authorized expanding the army to 35,000, but recruiting was only moderately successful because of poor pay and a lack of trained leaders.[68] In addition, war with England was less popular in some areas of the country than others, which made it difficult to convince men to enlist. For example, in Vermont residents saw little need to fight the British in the dominion of Canada, which was a profitable trading partner.[69]

Both regular and hastily organized militias took part in battles throughout the war, with mixed results. For example, the militia fled during the Battle of Bladensburg, giving rise to the description of the event as the "Bladensburg races."[70] On the other hand, less than three weeks later the Maryland militia won a strategic victory at the Battle of North Point.[71] Alexander Macomb also led a successful action at Plattsburgh, with his small force of regulars and militia defeating a British attempt to invade upstate New York from Canada.[72] In addition, Andrew Jackson employed militia effectively at the Battle of New Orleans.[73]

In some cases militia members objected to serving outside their home states, arguing that since they were responsible to their state governors and not the federal government, they were not required to serve in other states or take part in invasions.[74] Also, some state governors attempted to prevent their militias from being federalized, since they did not support the war.[75] (The 1827 decision in the case of Martin v. Mott determined that governors could not interfere with the president's authority to call upon the militia to execute federal law, suppress insurrection and repel invasion. Jacob Mott, a New York militia member, refused James Madison's order to mobilize and refused to pay the fine levied by a subsequent court-martial. Martin, a United States Marshal, then seized Mott's property. Mott sued to recover his property and won in state court. Martin then took the case to the United States Supreme Court and prevailed.)[76]

One result of the uneven performance of the militia, the lingering uncertainty over the willingness of militia troops to fight for causes that were unpopular locally, and the unresolved question of state versus federal control of the militia, was that the federal government was wary of attempting to federalize the militia during future conflicts.

Post War of 1812

Graves of militia members who died at Kellogg's Grove during the Black Hawk War.

In the wake of the War of 1812, the federal government attempted to standardize training and laws governing call up and mobilization for militia organizations throughout the United States.

These efforts to reenergize the militia lapsed as the result of the long period of relative peace that followed the War of 1812. (The Era of Good Feelings.) The number of occupations exempt from membership increased, and annual muster days became more picnic and parade than military formation. These factors, coupled with a lack of military leaders with training and experience, led to a gradual decline of the militia.[77]

Despite this decline, the militia was still called to action on occasion, including the Black Hawk War of 1832.[78]

Origin of the term "National Guard"

Lafayette and the Naming of the National Guard, New York City, 14 July 1825. National Guard Heritage Series painting by Ken Riley.

The first use of the term "National Guard" by American militia units dates from Lafayette's 1824–1825 tour of the United States. The 2nd Battalion of the 11th New York Artillery – which later became New York's famed 7th Regiment – was one the units that welcomed Lafayette to New York City, and it adopted the title "National Guard" in honor of Lafayette's service as commander of the Garde Nationale de Paris during the French Revolution. During a review of militia units Lafayette took note of the term, and as it grew in popularity it was adopted by many militia units in the years that followed.[79]

Mexican–American War

Artist rendition of Battle Chapultepec. Militia veteran and volunteer officer Truman B. Ransom died in attack while commanding his regiment.

In the United States in the mid-1840s, war with Mexico had the support of Southern Democrats and their allies in the north, who were anxious to annex Texas and gain states that would permit slavery, while Northern Whigs and anti-slavery Democrats generally opposed the war because they did not support the extension of slavery.[80] At the start of the war, the Army consisted of between 8,000 and 9,000 soldiers.[81] Enthusiasm for the war, primarily in the south, spurred renewed interest in the militia, and membership began to grow.

The regular Army did not consider militia members to be reliable, and the issue of whether militia units could be employed outside the United States had not been resolved. As a result, Congress expanded the Army by authorizing the creation of ten regiments and the recruiting of 50,000 "volunteers"—individuals who were not in the regular Army and were not militia members subject to state control.[82] In many cases, militia units volunteered for federal service en masse, and usually continued to be led by their militia officers.[83][84]

In the war, approximately 27,000 regular Army soldiers saw active service, as did an estimated 73,000 volunteers and militiamen.[81][85]

Mexican–American War participants who were militia veterans included: Franklin Pierce;[86] Jefferson Davis;[87] Truman B. Ransom;[88] Alexander Doniphan;[89] and Gideon Johnson Pillow.[90]

American Civil War

Alonzo Jackman, Vermont and New Hampshire drillmaster commanded militia on Vermont border after Confederate Raid on St. Albans.

Both the Union and the Confederacy made use of their militias during the American Civil War.

President Lincoln summoned 75,000 militia on 15 April 1861 to suppress the insurrection, a call which was limited by law to 90 days and which was rejected by several slaveholding states which had not seceded. In May 1861, Lincoln put out a call for more militia as well as volunteers who would be willing to serve for three years. The Union's July 1861 advance on Manassas, which resulted in defeat at the First Battle of Bull Run was due in large part to the fast-approaching expiration of the initial 90-day militia call-up—the Lincoln administration and Union Army leaders wanted to employ them before they mustered out. The resulting Union loss occurred at the hands of a Confederate force which was also principally composed of militia.[91][92][93][94]

The Union used a version of the Mexican–American War-era volunteer system to expand the size of the Union Army while avoiding the restrictions on how long the militia could be employed. Many militia units were enlisted en masse, and many individuals who enlisted or received commissions in the Union Army were militia veterans.[95]

State Adjutants General and the military staffs of the state governors in the Union were often responsible for equipping, training and transporting recruits and draftees to front line units.[96] In addition, militias often garrisoned forts, performed local defense and border security patrols, and guarded prisoners.[97] On several occasions, local militia became involved in larger battles, such as the Pennsylvania, New York and Rhode Island militia responding during the Gettysburg Campaign, and the militia of several southern states during Sherman's March to the Sea.[98][99]

The Confederate States Army also frequently enlisted militia unit members as a group, and many individuals who joined the CSA were militia veterans.[100] The Confederate states also used their militias for local duty in much the same way as the Union.[101]

Union veterans of the militia who had leadership roles during the war included George J. Stannard.[102] Chester A. Arthur, who served on the staff of the Governor of New York as Quartermaster with the rank of Brigadier General, played a key role in outfitting New York soldiers and transporting them to the front lines.[103]

Prominent Confederate militia veterans included Braxton Bragg,[104] who was a Colonel in the Louisiana Militia at the start of the war, and Sterling Price, who commanded the Missouri State Guard.[105]

Post American Civil War

The 6th Regiment, Maryland National Guard fights its way through the city during the Baltimore railroad strike of 1877. From Harper's Weekly.

In 1867, Congress suspended the right of each former Confederate state to organize its militia until it resumed normal functions as part of the United States,[106] and the U.S. Army enforced martial law during Reconstruction[107] and guarded polls during the presidential election of 1876.[108] In addition to enforcing federal law in the south, the Army was used to suppress labor unrest in the North, as during the Great Railroad Strike of 1877.[109] In response Congress passed the Posse Comitatus Act in 1878, which limited the president's ability to employ the military within the United States during peacetime without the consent of Congress.[110][111][112]

Governors could still employ the militia during labor strikes or civil disturbances, and concern over the militia's increased use for this function led states to revise their militia laws and reorganize their units in order to be better prepared to respond to such events.[113][114][115][116]

Expanded use of "National Guard"

In 1861 Connecticut was the first state to formally adopt the title "National Guard" for its militia, and the term became near universal following the Civil War.[117] By the time the National Defense Act of 1916 mandated the use of "National Guard" as the title for all organized militia, only Virginia had not already adopted it.[118]

Spanish–American War

Soldiers of 71st Infantry Regiment, New York National Guard, at Camp Wikoff, 1898.

In the Spanish–American War, the U.S. government again used the volunteer concept to expand the Army without directly addressing the question of when militia could be federalized. As had happened previously, there were militia units that volunteered and were enlisted en masse, as well as individual militia members who joined volunteer units. Examples of the units that volunteered as a group include the 69th New York Infantry and the 71st New York Infantry.[119][120]

The most famous organization of volunteers to fight in the war, the 1st U.S. Volunteer Cavalry, or "Rough Riders," was organized in part from the New Mexico and Arizona National Guards. Originally commanded by regular Army officer Leonard Wood with former New York National Guardsman Theodore Roosevelt as second in command, it came under Roosevelt's leadership when Wood was promoted to command of a brigade.[121][122]

The Dick Act

Charles Dick, sponsor of Militia Act of 1903.
Main article: Militia Act of 1903

The official founding of the modern Army National Guard is often credited to passage of the Militia Act of 1903, which established a pattern that would continue throughout the 20th century of providing increasing federal resources and wartime relevance for the militia in return for increasing federal control over their arming, organization and training. Also called the Dick Act, for sponsor Charles W. F. Dick, The 1903 law updated the Militia Act of 1792, though it left unresolved the key question of how to compel service of the militia outside the borders of the United States, which did not fall under the Constitutionally permitted uses of the militia "to execute the laws of the Union, suppress insurrection and repel invasions."[123]

This fundamental restriction on the use of the militia had been an unresolved dilemma for military planners since the War of 1812. This uncertainty led the federal government to bypass the state militias in favor of creating volunteer armies, as was done for the Mexican–American War, the Union Army of the American Civil War, and the U.S. forces raised for the Spanish–American War – though in each of these cases, the volunteer forces raised came largely from already existing militia companies. While the Dick Act did not compel the militia to serve overseas, the expectation was that the increase in federal funding and training would spur increased volunteerism by militia members in the event of a war.

The Dick Act provided that states which wished to receive federal funding for their militia units had to organize their units according to standards dictated by the regular Army, and that National Guard members would have to meet the same training, education and readiness standards as their regular Army counterparts. In exchange, the federal government provided states with funding and equipment to enable militia reorganization and modernization, as well as training by regular Army officers should a governor request it. The Dick Act required that all members of National Guard units attend 24 four-hour drill periods during the course of each year (which were not paid for by the federal government) as well as 5 days of training at summer encampments (for which the federal government provided pay at the same rate as for soldiers in the regular Army).[124][125][126]

The Dick Act also authorized creation of an office to oversee and coordinate the activities of the state militias. In response, the Army created the Militia Section within the Miscellaneous Division of the Adjutant General's office, staffed by Major James Parker and four clerks.[127] This office became the Division of Militia Affairs in 1908, and Erasmus M. Weaver, Jr. was named to head it.[128][129]

National Defense Act of 1916

Passed as part of the Preparedness Movement during and after the Villa expedition and before U.S. entry into World War I, the 1916 law named the state militias as the Army's primary reserve. The law also created a mechanism for involuntary mobilization of the National Guard for service outside the borders of the U.S. by stating that members of the militia would be drafted en masse into the Army in the event of an emergency, thus severing their tie to the states and the restrictions placed on usage of state militia. Officers and men were also required to swear an oath to serve both state and federal authorities. In addition, the law made mandatory the use of the term "National Guard" to describe the organized militia, and provided funding to pay members for attending drill. The act also increased the number of weekend or weeknight drills from 24 to 48 per year, and increased the annual training period from five days to 15. Federal funding of all aspects of the National Guard expanded dramatically as a result of this legislation, with the federal government taking over all arming, equipping and training expenses associated with the Guard, sharing only administrative and armory costs with the states. Prior to 1916, the states in aggregate spent more on the militia than the federal government. Since 1916, federal expenditures have far outpaced those of the states.[130][131][132]

The 1916 law also created the Reserve Officer Training Corps.[133]

The 1916 Act also reorganized the Division of Militia Affairs within the Army as the Militia Bureau, removing it from the General Staff and elevating it to a position directly under the Secretary of War. It also authorized the two members of the National Guard to serve on active duty as assistants to the Chief of the Militia Bureau, the first National Guardsmen to be authorized to serve as members of the Army staff.[134][135][136]

Co. A, 1st Arkansas Infantry, Deming, New Mexico, 1916.

Pancho Villa Expedition

Numerous National Guard units were activated for service on the Mexico–United States border during the Pancho Villa Expedition.[137] Many future leaders of both the National Guard and regular Army served in the National Guard during this event, including: John F. O'Ryan;[138] Albert H. Blanding;[139] Samuel Tankersley Williams;[140] John Howell Collier;[141] Milton Reckord;[142] and Ellard A. Walsh.[143]

World War I

369th Infantry, first New York regiment to parade on return home at end of World War I.

In the spring of 1917, the U.S. declared war on Germany and entered World War I, and the National Guard played a major role. Its units were federalized and organized into divisions by state, which made up 40% of American Expeditionary Forces combat strength. Three of the first five U.S. Army divisions in combat were National Guard divisions, and the division with the highest number of Medal of Honor recipients was the National Guard's 30th Division.[15] Six of the eight U.S. divisions rated "superior" or "excellent" by the German General Staff during the war were National Guard divisions.[144]

National Guard divisions in World War I included the: 26th; 27th; 28th; 29th; 30th; 31st; 32nd; 33rd; 34th; 35th; 36th; 37th; 38th; 39th; 40th; 41st; and 42nd. Most divisions initially came from one state or region, but the 42nd Division was made up of National Guard units not already assigned to other divisions, and included representation from 26 states and the District of Columbia.[145][146]

National Guard participants in World War I included: future President Harry S. Truman, who commanded Battery D, 129th Field Artillery, a unit of the 35th Infantry Division;[147] and William J. Donovan, who received the Medal of Honor as commander of the 42nd Division's 1st Battalion, 165th Infantry Regiment (the federalized designation of New York's 69th Infantry Regiment).[148]

African American National Guardsmen participated in World War I as they had in America's other conflicts. Three of the four regiments which made up the 93rd Division were National Guardsmen, including New York's 15th Infantry, which was federalized as the 369th Infantry Regiment. The 369th fought as part of the French 16th Division, and the entire regiment received the Croix de guerre, with 171 members receiving the Legion of Honor. In one of the most well known acts of heroism in the war, 369th soldiers Henry Johnson and Needham Roberts fought off a German patrol of at least 24 soldiers, for which Johnson received the Medal of Honor in 2015.[149]

National Defense Act of 1920

George Rickards, first National Guard officer to be Militia Bureau Chief.

Advocated by National Guard proponents including John McAuley Palmer,[150] the National Defense Act of 1920 mandated that the Chief of the National Guard Bureau would be a National Guard officer, and the first Guard officer to serve as Chief was George C. Rickards.[151] It also enabled National Guard officers to serve on the Army's general staff in positions other that at the Militia Bureau, reorganized the National Guard's divisions and subordinate commands, and provided federal funding for National Guard unit operating expenses.[150][152]

National Defense Act of 1933

The National Defense Act of 1933 provided that the National Guard is considered a component of the Army at all times. Beginning with this law, each National Guard member has two military statuses—a member of the National Guard of his or her state, or a member of the National Guard of the United States when ordered into active duty. This enhanced the 1916 Act's mobilization provisions, making it possible to deploy National Guard units and individual members directly for overseas service in the event of a war, without having to draft them first.[153][154]

The 1933 law also changed the name of the Militia Bureau to the National Guard Bureau.[155]

World War II

37th Infantry Division troops carry weapons and ammunition forward, 5 August 1943, New Georgia.

In August 1940, the National Guard was ordered to federal service for 12 months in anticipation of American entry into World War II. More than 400,000 National Guardsmen were called up as parts of divisions or in non-divisional units, immediately doubling the size of the U.S. Army. 18 Army divisions, 80 separate regiments, and 29 Army Air Force flying squadrons were mobilized from National Guard organizations beginning in September 1940.[156] After the United States officially entered the war in December 1941, one entirely new division (the Americal) and parts of several other Army divisions were organized with National Guard units.[157][158]

Because National Guard units had been mobilized for over a year in December 1941, they were among the first to enter combat in the following months. California's 251st Coast Artillery Regiment and Hawaii's 298th Infantry Regiment took part in the defense of Oahu on December 7, 1941, during the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor.[159] New Mexico's 200th Coast Artillery Regiment and two tank battalions made up of National Guard units from several states were part of the defense of the Philippines, with more than half of these men dying as prisoners of war of the Japanese.[160][161][162]

The 164th Infantry Regiment, from North Dakota, sent to reinforce the U.S. Marines on Guadalcanal in October 1942, was the first U.S. Army regiment to fight on the offensive in World War II.[163] On New Guinea, the 32nd and 41st Infantry Divisions became the first army divisions to engage and defeat the Japanese in late 1942 and early 1943.[164] In Europe, the 34th Infantry Division was one of the first two US infantry divisions to fight in the European Theater of Operations (ETO) when it landed in Algeria as part of Operation Torch.[165] The 29th Infantry Division of the Virginia, Maryland and District of Columbia National Guard was one of two assault divisions on Omaha Beach in Normandy during the D-Day landings on June 6, 1944.[166][167]

National Guard units participated in all combat theaters and took part in 34 separate campaigns and seven assault landings, sustaining 175,000 casualties (killed and wounded). 48 Presidential Unit Citations were awarded to National Guard units, and National Guard soldiers received 14 Medals of Honor, 50 Distinguished Service Crosses, 48 Distinguished Flying Crosses, and more than 500 Silver Stars.[168]

Despite the efforts of Regular Army leaders to replace National Guard division commanders with Regular Army officers, National Guard Major Generals Leonard F. Wing and Robert S. Beightler remained in command of their divisions, the 43rd and 37th, and Beightler was the only National Guard general to command his division for the entire duration of the war.[169][170]

National Guard infantry divisions which participated in the war included: 26th; 27th; 28th; 29th; 30th; 31st; 32nd; 33rd; 34th; 35th; 36th; 37th; 38th; 40th; 41st; 43rd; 44th; 45th and Americal.[171] National Guard regiments were also part of the 7th,[172] 8th,[173] 24th,[174] and 25th Infantry Divisions.[175]

Post World War II

Platoon of Company A, 124th Infantry Regiment, 48th Division (Florida), 1948.

The National Security Act of 1947 created the position of Secretary of Defense and the United States Department of Defense. In addition it replaced the Secretary of War with the Secretary of the Army. It also removed the Army Secretary and Secretary of the Navy from the cabinet and placed their departments within the Department of Defense.[176]

The 1947 Act also created the United States Air Force as a military service separate from the United States Army, of which it had been part since before World War I.[177]

As a result of the Air Force's creation, the Air National Guard was formed.[178][179] Under the control of the governors during peacetime, the Air Guard was organized along the same lines as the Army National Guard, as both a militia existing in each of the states, and as a federal reserve component of the US Air Force. The fielding of the Air National Guard also caused the creation of two new positions within the National Guard Bureau, the Director of the Army National Guard and Director of the Air National Guard, who each reported to the Chief of the National Guard Bureau.[180][181]

The post-World War II reorganization of the National Guard was an emphasis on the creation of numerous Infantry and Armor divisions, oriented on a Cold War scenario that presumed large numbers of soldiers and tanks would be needed to stop an invasion of Western Europe by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.[182] (See Legacy units and formations.)

Korean War

Rick Reeves rendition of 40th Division soldiers in Korea, 1952.

President Harry S. Truman mobilized the National Guard for the Korean War. Four infantry divisions were activated—the 28th; 40th; 43rd; and 45th. The 40th and 45th served in Korea, while the 28th and 43rd deployed to West Germany as part of the Cold War deterrent to an invasion by the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.[183]

By the end of the war, approximately 700 Army National Guard units had been mobilized, as had thousands of individual volunteers and soldiers involuntarily called to active duty because they had critical skills. Approximately 139,000 Army Guardsmen served during this conflict.[184]

Post Korean War

In 1958 Army and Defense Department leaders decided to realign National Guard and Army Reserve divisions under the Pentomic structure.[185] A controversy arose when the regular Army attempted to reduce the number of planned National Guard divisions to 21, which was resolved when Secretary of Defense Neil H. McElroy decided on 27 for the Army National Guard.[186] By September 1959 the Army National Guard had reorganized into twenty-one infantry and six armored divisions.[187] Non-divisional regimental combat teams were replaced with separate combined arms brigades; Hawaii, Puerto Rico, and Arizona organized the 29th, 92nd and 258th Infantry Brigades.[188]

In the 1962-63 Reorganization Objective Army Division reorganization, the 34th, 35th, 43rd, and 51st Infantry Divisions, multi-state National Guard formations, dropped out of the force.[189] They were replaced in part by the 67th (Nebraska and Iowa), 69th (Kansas and Missouri), 86th (Vermont and Connecticut), and 53rd (Florida and South Carolina) Infantry Brigades. Each brigade fielded five maneuver battalions or squadrons. The following year, to increase flexibility, the 53rd and 86th Infantry Brigades were converted to armor (53rd and 86th Armored Brigades), and the 67th Infantry Brigade was reorganized as mechanized infantry. The 53rd and 67th retained their five maneuver battalions, but the 86th lost one.[190]

Vietnam War

126th Supply & Service Company (Illinois), Vietnam.

During the Vietnam War the Administration of President Lyndon B. Johnson decided upon a draft to enhance active duty troop strength rather than calling on large numbers of the National Guard and Reserves.[191] As a result, membership in a reserve component, including the Army National Guard, became a way to avoid combat service in an unpopular war.[192][193] Amid accusations of favoritism in enlistment and "easy" service when compared to duty in Vietnam, the reputation of the Army National Guard declined even as enlistments increased.[194]

Despite the decision not to call up the National Guard in full force, some units were activated, and individual National Guard members volunteered to be mobilized. Among the Army National Guard units mobilized during the Vietnam War were Artillery battalions from Kentucky and New Hampshire, and an Engineer company from Vermont. Company D (Long Range Patrol) 151st Infantry Regiment, Indiana Army National Guard, was the only National Guard Infantry unit to serve in Vietnam.[195] Overall, between 12,000 and 13,000 Army National Guard members were activated for the Vietnam War, either as individual volunteers or in units.[196]

The National Guard was also activated to quell numerous civil disturbances, including anti-Vietnam War protests and urban riots.[197][198][199] The most notable of these was the May, 1970 event at Kent State University, at which four students were killed and nine wounded by members of the Ohio Army National Guard.[200][201][202]

During the Vietnam War era the National Guard maintained its role as an organization available to governors for disaster relief.[203][204]

Post Vietnam War

Creighton Abrams proposed "Abrams Doctrine."

The Army's experience with not having fully used the National Guard during the Vietnam War led to the creation of the 1973 Total Force Policy. With the Vietnam War draft having been ended in favor of an all volunteer military, the Total Force Policy required all active and reserve military organizations to be treated as a single integrated force. Following the experience of fighting in Vietnam without widespread popular support, the TFP was designed to involve the American public in military actions by mobilizing the National Guard from its thousands of locations throughout the United States.[205]

In 1974 the "Abrams Doctrine" further expanded the TFP. Creighton Abrams, who had become commander of Military Assistance Command, Vietnam in 1968, became Chief of Staff of the United States Army in 1972. Having seen the effects of President Johnson's decision to use the draft rather than calling on the National Guard and Reserve in large numbers, Abrams stated that the U.S. should never again go to war without calling up the Guard and Reserve.[206]

Late 20th century

For much of the final decades of the twentieth century, National Guard personnel typically served "One weekend a month, two weeks a year", with a portion working for the Guard in a full-time capacity as members of the Active Guard Reserve (AGR) or as dual status federal technicians. (Dual status technicians are traditional National Guard members who are federal civilian employees during the regular work week, and work in uniform.)

As part of the Reagan Era defense build up, the National Guard began to transform from a strategic reserve to an operational one. This included modernization of equipment and weapons, more intensive training during drill and annual training periods, and increased overseas training opportunities.[207][208][209][210]

2–142nd Field Artillery (Arkansas), Desert Storm, 1991.

In the late 1980s several state governors unsuccessfully challenged the authority of the President to federalize the National Guard in their states without their consent. Governor Rudy Perpich and others objected to the National Guard being deployed to Central America during the political debate over whether the United States should be involved in the attempted overthrow of the Sandanista government of Nicaragua.[211][212]

In the first major test of the Total Force Policy, several Army National Guard units were activated for the 1991 Gulf War, mostly combat support and combat service support organizations. Though there was controversy over the Army's decision not to deploy the "roundout brigades" of three divisions (the 48th Infantry Brigade, 155th Armored Brigade, and 256th Infantry Brigade) once they completed their mobilization training,[213] other Army National Guard units were activated, served in Southwest Asia, and performed well. Approximately 60,000 Army Guard soldiers were activated for the Gulf War, including the 142nd Field Artillery Brigade and 196th Field Artillery Brigade.[214]

The National Guard also continued to carry out its role to aid in civil disturbance control, including responding to the 1992 Los Angeles riots.[215] In addition, it took on an increased role in U.S. illegal drug interdiction efforts.[216] In 1993, the National Guard established the Multijurisdictional Counterdrug Task Force Training program to help train federal, state, and local law enforcement officials in counterdrug efforts. Since its creation, the MCTFT has trainined more than one million registered students through live and distance learning courses.[217]

The National Guard also maintained its role as a state force available to respond to natural disasters, as with 1992's Hurricane Andrew.[218]

In the late 1990s, the Army National Guard was increasingly relied upon for overseas missions, including deployments in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia and Kosovo for stabilization and peacekeeping missions following the Bosnian War and Kosovo War.[219][220][221]

21st century

214th MP Co. (Alabama), Iraq, 2011.
Main article: War on Terror

The role of the National Guard expanded following the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. As part of the Global War on Terrorism, National Guard units and individual National Guard members performed sustained active duty during Operations Noble Eagle, Enduring Freedom and Iraqi Freedom, both as part of scheduled mobilizations and as individual volunteers.[222][223][224] As of 2013, the Army National Guard represents 40% of the US Army's total combat capability.[225]

In addition to deployments for the Global War on Terrorism, National Guard members continued in their roles of disaster relief and providing support to law enforcement when required. These responses included Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and with additional troops sent in 2006,[226][227][228] Hurricane Irene in 2011,[229] and Hurricane Sandy[230] and Hurricane Isaac[231] in 2012.

In January, 2013 President Barack Obama signed into law House Bill 1339, which designated Salem, Massachusetts as the official birthplace of the National Guard.[232]

The Army National Guard continued to carry out a variety of missions in 2014, both in the United States and overseas, including activities to combat an Ebola epidemic in Africa in late 2014.[233]

In 2015 the Army National Guard conducted a variety of activities, including the deployment of soldiers to the Guantanamo Bay detention camp for security operations,[234] and soldiers serving in Afghanistan as part of Operation Resolute Support.[235]

In April and May 2015 members of the Army National Guard were called to respond to demonstrations in Baltimore, Maryland which took place to protest the Death of Freddie Gray.[236][237]

Members of the Army National Guard in Texas and nearby states responded in late May and early June to spring floods caused by higher than normal rainfall.[238][239] Also in 2015, Army National Guard members responded to wildfires in several states, including North Dakota,[240] Minnesota,[241] and Alaska,[242]

Presidents who served in the Army National Guard

Of the 44 individuals to serve as President of the United States as of 2015, 33 had military experience. Of those 33, 21 served in the militia or Army National Guard.

(Note: President George W. Bush served in the National Guard in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and he was the first Air National Guard member to attain the presidency.)[288]

Prominent members

Colonial era

American Revolution

Artist depiction of Ethan Allen seizing Fort Ticonderoga at start of American Revolution.

War of 1812


1832 muster roll of Abraham Lincoln's militia company.

American Civil War

Late 1800s

Early 1900s

World War I

Harry S. Truman as member of Missouri National Guard.



John Vessey, Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman, began career in 1939 as member of Minnesota National Guard's 34th Infantry Division

World War II

Late 1940s



Michael C. Thompson, Oklahoma Public Safety Commissioner and Army National Guard Colonel, began military career in 1980s.



Tammy Duckworth, Illinois Army National Guard helicopter pilot, lost her legs in the Iraq War and was later elected to the U.S. Congress.




Directors of the Army National Guard

National Guard Bureau organizational chart depicting command and reporting relationships.
Army National Guard staff organizational chart
Raymond H. Fleming, first Director, Army National Guard.
Timothy J. Kadavy is the current Director of the Army National Guard

Upon the creation of the United States Air Force in 1948, which included the Air National Guard, the National Guard Bureau was organized into two divisions, Army and Air, each headed by a Major General who reported to the Chief of the National Guard Bureau. Each Director's position was later upgraded to a Lieutenant General's assignment. The Army National Guard is also authorized a Deputy Director. Originally a Brigadier General, the post was later upgraded to Major General. Individuals who served as Director or Deputy Director and subsequently served as NGB Chief include: Fleming; McGowan; Greenlief; Weber; Temple; Rees (acting); and Grass.

The Director of the Army National Guard oversees a staff which aids in planning and day-to-day organization and management. In addition to a chief of staff, the Director's staff includes several special staff members, including a chaplain and protocol and awards specialists. It also includes a primary staff, which is organized as directorates, divisions, and branches. The directorates of the Army National Guard staff are arranged along the lines of a typical American military staff: G-1 for personnel; G-2 for intelligence; G-3 for plans, operations and training; G-4 for logistics; G-5 for strategic plans, policy and communications; G-6 for communications; and G-8 for budgets and financial management.

The following is a list of the Directors of the Army National Guard since the creation of the position:

Deputy Directors of the Army National Guard

Judd H. Lyons, Deputy Director, Army National Guard, 2013–2015.

The individuals who have served as Deputy Director since 1970 are:

Army National Guard units and formations

Deployable Army units are organized as Table of Organization and Equipment (TOE) or Modified Table of Organization (MTOE) organizations. Non-deployable units, such as a state's Joint Force Headquarters or Regional Training Institute are administered as Table of Distribution and Allowance (TDA) units.[398]

In 2016, the Army and the Army National Guard began a training and readiness initiative that aligned some Army brigades with National Guard division headquarters, and some National Guard brigades with Army division headquarters. Among others, this program included the National Guard's 86th Infantry Brigade Combat Team becoming affiliated with the Army's 10th Mountain Division[399] and the National Guard's 1st Battalion, 143rd Infantry Regiment affiliating with the Army's 173rd Airborne Brigade Combat Team.[400] In addition, 3rd Brigade Combat Team, 10th Mountain Division began an affiliation with the National Guard's 36th Infantry Division.[401]

In addition to many deployable units which are non-divisional, the Army National Guard's deployable units include eight Infantry divisions.[402] These divisions, their subordinate brigades or brigades with which the divisions have a training oversight relationship, and the states represented by the largest units include:[403]

28th Division
29th Division
34th Division
35th Division
36th Division
38th Division
40th Division
42nd Division

Army National Guard by state

Myles Deering, State Adjutant General of Oklahoma, 2009-2014.

The Army and Air National Guard in each state are headed by the State Adjutant General. The Adjutant General (TAG) is the de facto commander of a state's military forces, and reports to the state governor.[404]

Legacy units and formations

Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of 47th Infantry Division, inactivated 1991.
Shoulder Sleeve Insignia of 50th Armored Division, inactivated 1993.

Several units have been affected by Army National Guard reorganizations. Some have been renamed or inactivated. Some have had subordinate units reallocated to other commands. A partial list of inactivated major units includes:


  1. "Department of the Army, Fiscal Year (FY) 2016 Budget Estimates: National Guard Personnel" (PDF). Army National Guard. 1 February 2015. Retrieved 30 June 2015. The Army National Guard end strength decreases from 350,200 FY 2015 to 342,000 FY 2016
  2. 1 2 Military Reserves Federal Call Up Authority
  3. National Archives and Records Administration, Executive Order 11485—Supervision and control of the National Guard of the District of Columbia, 1 October 1969
  4. 10 USC 12211. Officers: Army National Guard of the United States
  5. 10 USC 12107. Army National Guard of United States; Air National Guard of the United States: enlistment in
  6. 32 USC 101. Definitions (NATIONAL GUARD)
  7. 10 USC 12401. Army and Air National Guard of the United States: status
  8. 10 USC 10105. Army National Guard of the United States: composition
  9. North Atlantic Treaty organization, Fact Sheet, National Reserve Forces Status: United States of America, 2006, page 1
  10. National Guard Bureau, Today in Guard History (June), 11 June 1990, 2013
  11. 10 USC 12406. National Guard in Federal service: call
  12. Cornell University, legal Information Institute, 10 USC § 10503 – Functions of National Guard Bureau: Charter, accessed 20 June 2013
  13. National Defense Budget Estimates for FY 2015 (PDF). Washington, DC: Office of the Under Sectretary of Defense(Comptroller). 1 April 2014.
  14. Thomas Kielbasa, National Guard News, Florida Celebrates 445th Anniversary of 'First Muster', 16 September 2010
  15. 1 2 About the National Guard, The National Guard Website
  16. Thomas L. Purvis, Almanacs of American Life: Colonial America to 1763, 1999, page 41
  17. George Madison Bodge, Soldiers in King Philip's War, 1906, page 471
  18. Michael D. Doubler, The National Guard and Reserve: A Reference Handbook , 2008, page 161
  19. Faren R. Siminoff, Crossing the Sound: The Rise of Atlantic American Communities in Eastern Long Island, 2004, page 63
  20. Alfred A. Cave, The Pequot War, 1996, page 11
  21. Stanley Sandler, editor, Ground Warfare: An International Encyclopedia, H-Q, 2002, pages 464–465
  22. Tucker, Spencer (2009). U.S. Leadership in Wartime: Clashes, Controversy, and Compromise. 1. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. pp. 8–9. ISBN 978-1-59884-173-2.
  23. James A. Wood, Militia Myths: Ideas of the Canadian Citizen Soldier, 1896–1921, 2010, page 5
  24. A. Ward Burian, George Washington's Legacy of Leadership, 2007, page 120
  25. Peter M. Karsten, The Military in America, 1986, page 59
  26. Barry M. Stentiford, The Richardson Light Guard of Wakefield, Massachusetts, 2013, page 18
  27. René Chartrand, Colonial American Troops, 1610–1774, Volume 2, 2002, page 23
  28. Spencer C. Tucker, The Encyclopedia of North American Indian Wars, 1607–1890, 2011, page 498
  29. John Ferling, The Ascent of George Washington: The Hidden Political Genius of an American Icon, 2010, page 18
  30. William A. Crozier, editor, Virginia Colonial Militia, 1651–1776, 1905, page 36
  31. William Dunlap, Adriaen van der Donck, History of the New Netherlands, province of New York, and state of New York, 1839, page 385
  32. James B. Whisker, American Colonial Militia: The New England Militia, 1606–1785, 1997, page 124
  33. British, The Battle of Quebec, 1759, 2013
  34. Spencer C. Tucker. Almanac of American Military History, 2012, page 220
  35. Melissa Walker, The Battles of Kings Mountain and Cowpens: The American Revolution in the Southern Backcountry, 2012, page 93
  36. Justin Clement, Philadelphia 1777: Taking the Capital, 2007, page 17
  37. K. Randell Jones, In The Footsteps Of Daniel Boone, 2005, entry for Whitetop Mountain
  38. Peter R. Eisenstadt, Laura-Eve Moss, editors, The Encyclopedia Of New York State, 2005, pages 1372–1374
  39. Richard Winship Stewart, American Military History, Volume I, 2005, page 41
  40. Hal T. Shelton, Ruben Garcia, General Richard Montgomery and the American Revolution: From Redcoat to Rebel, 1996, page 69
  41. Lynn Hunt, Thomas R. Martin, Barbara H. Rosenwein, Bonnie G. Smith, The Making of the West: A Concise History, Volume II: Peoples and Cultures, 2010, page 593
  42. Edward Ayres, Jamestown-Yorktown Foundation, The Role of the Militia During the Revolutionary War, accessed 12 June 2013
  43. Michael D. Doubler, The National Guard and Reserve: A Reference Handbook, 2008, page 48
  44. Roger Chickering, Stig Förster, editors, War in an Age of Revolution, 1775–1815, 2010, pages 161–162
  45. Dale Anderson, Lexington and Concord: 19 April 1775, 2004, page 22
  46. George D. Bennett, editor, The United States Army: Issues, Background and Bibliography, 2002, page 1
  47. Joseph C. Morton, The American Revolution, 2003, page 56
  48. Joseph J. Ellis, His Excellency: George Washington, 2004
  49. Ian R. Barnes, The Historical Atlas of the American Revolution, 2000, page 112
  50. Bulliet, Crossley, Headrick, Hirsch, Johnson, Northrup, editors, The Earth and its Peoples A Global History, Volume II, 2008, page 645
  51. Robert Bothwell, A Traveller's History of Canada, 2001, page 31
  52. Stanley J. Underdal, editor, Military History of the American Revolution: The Proceedings of the Sixth Military History Symposium, U.S. Air Force Academy, 2002, page 93
  53. Keith L. Dougherty, Collective Action Under the Articles of Confederation, 2006, page 31
  54. Gordon S. Wood, Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789–1815, 2009, page 111
  55. Jack P. Greene, J. R. Pole, editors, A Companion to the American Revolution, 2008, pages 385–386
  56. Christopher Patrick Gibson, Securing the State: Reforming the National Security Decisionmaking Process, 2008, page 90
  57. Spencer C. Tucker, Almanac of American Military History, 2012, page 412
  58. Robert W. Coakley, The Role of Federal Military Forces in Domestic Disorders, 1789–1878, 1996, pages 19–20
  59. Carl Benn, Daniel Marston, Fred Anderson, Liberty Or Death: Wars That Forged a Nation, 2006, pages 187–188
  60. South Carolina Historical Society, South Carolina Historical Magazine, Volumes 68–69, 1967, page 27
  61. Carl Edward Skeen, 1816: America Rising, 2003, page 135
  62. South Carolina State Legislature, The Militia System of South Carolina, 1838, pages 35 to 40
  63. Michael D. Doubler, The National Guard and Reserve: A Reference Handbook, 2008, page 21
  64. James C. Bradford, editor, A Companion to American Military History, Volume 1, 2010, page 477
  65. Stephen C. Neff, Justice in Blue and Gray: A Legal History of the Civil War, 2010, page 52
  66. Paul T. Hellmann, Historical Gazetteer of the United States, 2013, page 800
  67. Spencer C. Tucker, Almanac of American Military History, 2012, page 440
  68. David Stephen Heidler, Jeanne T. Heidler, The War of 1812, 2002, page 45
  69. David Stephen Heidler, Jeanne T. Heidler, editors, Encyclopedia of the War of 1812, 2004, pages 534–535
  70. Jeremy Black, War in the Modern World Since 1815, 2003, page 116
  71. Michael D. Doubler, The National Guard and Reserve: A Reference Handbook, 2008, page 186
  72. John Livingston, Biographical sketches of distinguished Americans now living, 1853, page 24
  73. Richard Winship Stewart, American Military History, Volume I, 2005, page 159
  74. Diane Smolinski, Henry Smolinski, Battles of the War of 1812, 2003, page 13
  75. David Stephen Heidler, Jeanne T. Heidler, editors, Encyclopedia of the War of 1812, 2004, page 349
  76. Kermit L. Hall, James W. Ely, Joel B. Grossman , editors, The Oxford Companion to the Supreme Court of the United States, 2005, page 615
  77. Carl Edward Skeen, Citizen Soldiers in the War of 1812, 1999, page 178
  78. James Lewis, Ph.D., Northern Illinois University, Abraham Lincoln Historical Digitization Project, The Black Hawk War of 1832 Archived 6 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine., 2000
  79. Potter's American Monthly, The Seventh Regiment, National Guard, Volume 3, October 1874, pages 467–468
  80. Peter P. Hinks, John R. McKivigan, R. Owen Williams, editors, Encyclopedia of Antislavery and Abolition: J-Z, 2007, page 471
  81. 1 2 Public Broadcasting System, The U.S.-Mexican War: A Call to Arms, 2006
  82. Spencer C. Tucker, The Encyclopedia of the Mexican–American War, 2012, page 548
  83. Arnold L. Punaro, Commission on the National Guard and Reserves: Transforming the National Guard and Reserves Into a 21st Century Operational Force, 2008, page 386
  84. John C. Pinheiro, Manifest Ambition: James K. Polk and Civil–Military Relations During the Mexican War, 2007, page 38
  85. Fumio Matsuo, Democracy with a Gun: America and the Policy of Force, 2010, page 205
  86. Marsh, Capen and Lyon, The New Hampshire Register and Farmer's Almanac, 1834, page 76
  87. William J. Cooper, Jefferson Davis, American, 2000, pages 133–134
  88. Vermont General Assembly, Journal of the Vermont House of Representatives, 1839, Appendix, page iv
  89. Roger D. Launius, Alexander William Doniphan: Portrait of a Missouri Moderate, 1997, page 11
  90. Kevin Dougherty, Civil War Leadership and Mexican War Experience, 2007, page 148
  91. Andrew Cunningham McLaughlin, Albert Bushnell Hart, editors, Cyclopedia of American Government, Volume 2, 1914, page 440
  92. John George Nicolay, A Short Life of Abraham Lincoln, Volume 1, 2008, pages 272–273
  93. William Corby, Memoirs of Chaplain Life, 1893, pages 17–18
  94. Bill Fawcett, How to Lose the Civil War: Military Mistakes of the War Between the States, 2011, page 19
  95. Duane E. Shaffer, Men of Granite: New Hampshire's Soldiers in the Civil War, 2008, page 20
  96. Howard Coffin, Nine Months to Gettysburg, 2011, Chapter 2
  97. Michael D. Doubler, John W. Listman, Jr., The National Guard: An Illustrated History of America's Citizen Soldiers, 2007, page 40
  98. Doubler and Listman, Jr., page 41
  99. Greenwood Press, The Greenwood Library of American War Reporting: The Civil War, North and South, 2005, page 244
  100. Harlan H. Hinkle, Grayback Mountaineers: The Confederate Face Of Western Virginia, 2003, page 46
  101. Michael D. Doubler, The National Guard and Reserve: A Reference Handbook, 2008, page 51
  102. Paul G. Zeller, The Second Vermont Volunteer Infantry Regiment, 1861–1865, 2009, page 8
  103. Emma Rogers, Chester A. Arthur: Man and President, 1921, pages 7–8
  104. Clayton Rand, Sons of the South, 1961, page 119
  105. Randy R. McGuire, St. Louis Arsenal: Armory of the West, 2001, page 94
  106. Michael T. Geary, Sweet Land of Security, 2007, page 57
  107. Jeffrey A. Weber, Johan Eliasson, editors, Handbook of Military Administration, 2007, page 224
  108. Peter B. Kraska, editor, Militarizing the American Criminal Justice System, 2001, page 31
  109. Clayton D. Laurie, Ronald H. Cole, The Role of Federal Military Forces in Domestic Disorders, 1877–1945, 1997, page 29
  110. Seth Lipsky, The Citizen's Constitution: An Annotated Guide, 2011, page 150
  111. James B. Jacobs, Socio-Legal Foundations of Civil-Military Relations, 1986, page 61
  112. Jethro Koller Lieberman, A Practical Companion to the Constitution, 1999, page 360
  113. Robin Archer, Why Is There No Labor Party in the United States?, 2010, page 122
  114. Scott Reynolds Nelson, A Nation of Deadbeats: An Uncommon History of America's Financial Disasters, 2013, page 179
  115. Aaron Brenner, Benjamin Day, Immanuel Ness, The Encyclopedia of Strikes in American History, 2011, page 486
  116. Louis S. Warren, Buffalo Bill's America, 2007, page 267
  117. Michael D. Doubler, The National Guard and Reserve: A Reference Handbook, 2008, page 51
  118. Bruce Jacobs, National Guard magazine, "The National Guard: By Any Other Name?", September 1980, page 48
  119. New York Adjutant General, New York in the Spanish–American War 1898, 1900, Volume 3, page 1
  120. New York State Military Museum, 71st Regiment Infantry, New York Volunteers, Spanish–American War, 2011
  121. Michael Dale Doubler, John W. Listman, Jr, The National Guard: An Illustrated History of Americas Citizen-soldiers, 2007, page 48
  122. Theodore Roosevelt, The Rough Riders, 1899, page 291
  123. Janice E. McKenney, The organizational history of field artillery 1775–2003, 2007, page 105
  124. Jerold E. Brown, Historical Dictionary of the United States Army, 2001, page 146
  125. Jeffrey Lehman, Shirelle Phelps, West's encyclopedia of American Law, Volume 7, 2005, page 178
  126. Allan R. Millett, Peter Maslowski, For the Common Defense, 2012
  127. Baltimore Sun, Division of Militia Begins: New Army Department In Charge Of Major James Parker, 3 February 1903
  128. Boston Globe, Now a Full Colonel: Lieut Col E. M. Weaver, Given Advancement; Well Known in Massachusetts and Chief of Militia Affairs, 5 December 1909
  129. Jim Greenhill, Armed Forces Press Service, National Defense Authorization Act Empowers National Guard, 2 February 2008
  130. Barry M. Stentiford, The American Home Guard: The State Militia in the Twentieth Century, 2002, pages 19–20
  131. Jerold E. Brown, Historical Dictionary of the U.S. Army, 2001, page 40
  132. Jerry Cooper, The Rise of the National Guard: The Evolution of the American Militia, 1865–1920, 2002, page 171-172
  133. History Channel, 3 June 1916, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson signs National Defense Act, 2013
  134. Institute for Government Research, The Development of National Administrative Organization in the United States, 1923, page 253
  135. Jim Little, Fathers of the Greatest Generation, 2012, page 18
  136. New York Times, Militiamen Draft a New Army Bill, 27 February 1916
  137. Mitchell Yockelson, The United States Armed Forces and the Mexican Punitive Expedition, Prologue Magazine, National Archives and Records Administration, Fall 1997
  138., Major General John F. O'Ryan, accessed 20 June 2013
  139. Florida Department of Military Affairs, Biography, Albert H. Blanding, accessed 20 June 2013
  140. Ronald H. Spector, Advice and Support: The Early Years, 1941–1960, 2009, page 275
  141. Army and Navy Journal, Incorporated, Armed Forces Journal International, Volume 85, Issues 27–52, page 1307, 1948
  142. Michael D. Doubler, The National Guard, 2007, page 72
  143. Georgina Pell Curtis, Benedict Elder, editors, The American Catholic Who's Who, Volumes 7, 1947, page 449
  144. Van Lee, Vin Rouge, Vin Blanc, Beaucoup Vin, the American Expeditionary Force in WWI, 2004, page 9
  145. New River Notes, Grayson County Virginia, Heritage Foundation Inc., Order of Battle – American Forces – World War I, accessed 17 June 2013
  146. Rainbow Division Veterans Memorial Foundation, Home page, 2013
  147. Army Historical Foundation, National Museum of the United States Army, Captain Harry S. Truman, Missouri Army National Guard, 2013
  148. Central Intelligence Agency, William J. Donovan and the National Security, 1993
  149. Pruitt, Sarah (2 June 2015). "WWI Hero Henry Johnson Finally Receives Medal of Honor". The History Channel. A and E Networks.
  150. 1 2 Michael D. Doubler, The National Guard and Reserve: A Reference Handbook, 2008, page 152
  151. Grenville Clark, editor, National Service magazine, January, 1921, page 148
  152. John Kennedy Ohl, Minuteman: The Military Career of General Robert S. Beightler, 2001, page 47
  153. Jeffrey A. Jacobs, The Future of the Citizen-Soldier Force: Issues and Answers, 1994, pages 39–40
  154. Wisconsin Secretary of State, Wisconsin Blue Book, 1993, page 483
  155. Michael D. Doubler, The National Guard and Reserve: A Reference Handbook, 2008, page 58
  156. John B. Wilson, Center of Military History, United States Army, Maneuver and Firepower: The Evolution of Divisions and Separate Brigades, 1998, page 153
  157. Michael D. Doubler, The National Guard and Reserve: A Reference Handbook, 2008, page 60
  158. Curtis P. Donnell, Associated Press, Lewiston Morning Tribune, Americal Division Unique Among Combat Units, 31 December 1945
  159. Bill McWilliams, Sunday in Hell: Pearl Harbor, Minute by Minute, 2011, page 146
  160. Lewiston Daily Sun, Manila Bay Forts, 22 April 1942
  161. United Press International, Pittsburgh Press, 1876 From New Mexico Were in Philippines, 21 February 1944
  162. Associated Press, Toledo Blade, Head of Infamous Camp Given Life, 21 November 1947
  163. Karen Herzog, Bismarck Tribune, Book on the 164th unveiled Monday, 4 April 2010
  164. Youngstown Vindicator, Japs Lose Third Transport at Lae, 8 January 1943
  165. James M. McCaffrey, Going for Broke: Japanese American Soldiers in the War against Nazi Germany, 2013
  166. New York Times, Maj. Gen. Charles Gerhardt, 81, Commanded 29th Infantry at D-Day, 11 October 1976
  167. Lawrence Journal-World, 161 Divisions of Nazis Destroyed, 12 July 1945
  168. National Guard Educational Foundation, Brief History of Army National Guard Mobilizations, 2011
  169. Ohio Historical Society, The Pacific: General Beightler and the Buckeye Division, 17 May 2010
  170. Rutland Herald, In the fall of 1945, Maj. Gen. Leonard Wing Came Marching Home, 24 November 2005
  171. John B. Wilson, Center of Military History, United States Army, Maneuver and Firepower: The Evolution of Divisions and Separate Brigades, 1998, page 157
  172. Bruce Gardner, Barbara Stahura, Seventh Infantry Division: 1917–1992, 1992, page 55
  173. John B. Wilson, Armies, Corps, Divisions, and Separate Brigades, 1999, page 670
  174. James A. Sawicki, Infantry Regiments of the US Army, 1981, page 432
  175. Glen Williford, Racing the Sunrise, 2010
  176. Jerold E. Brown, Historical Dictionary of the United States Army, 2001, page 333
  177. Richard I. Wolf, Office of Air Force History, The United States Air Force: Basic Documents on Roles and Missions, 1987, page 61
  178. Sydney Morning Herald, National Air Guard: New U.S. Reserve, 6 May 1946
  179. The Southeast Missourian, New Air Reserve Draws AAF Vets, 20 August 1946
  180. W.A.R. Robertson, The Air National Guard, Flying Magazine, August 1948, page 18
  181. Americana Corporation, Yearbook of the Encyclopedia Americana, 1949, page xxvi
  182. Hanson W. Baldwin, New York Times, NATION'S ARMED FORCES FACING WIDE EXPANSION, 27 June 1948
  183. Paul M. Edwards, Korean War Almanac, 2006, page 86
  184. New Jersey National Guard, Fact sheet, Korean War, page 1, accessed 13 June 2013
  185. "Pentomic Idea Taken by NG". Terre Haute Tribune. Terre Haute, IN. February 22, 1959. p. 32. (subscription required (help)).
  186. "Defense Appropriation for 1959". CQ Press. Washington, DC: Congressional Quarterly. 1958. Guard Reduction Dropped: Army Chief of Staff Gen. Maxwell D. Taylor announced Sept. 30 that efforts to reduce the manpower of the Army National Guard had been abandoned. Taylor said all 27 divisions would be continued in existence, each with five battle groups. Taylor said President Eisenhower and Secretary of Defense Neil H. McElroy had approved plans setting guard strength at 400,000 men and reorganizing the 27 divisions on a "pentomic basis" similar to that of the regular Army.
  187. Department of Defense Appropriations for 1961. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office. U.S. House Appropriations Committee. 1960. p. 388.
  188. McKenney, Janice E. (2007). Organizational History of Field Artillery, 1775-2003. Washington, DC: United States Army Center of Military History. p. 254.
  189. John B. Wilson, Center of Military History, United States Army, Maneuver and Firepower: The Evolution of Divisions and Separate Brigades, 1998, pages 312, 314
  190. John B. Wilson, Center of Military History, United States Army, Maneuver and Firepower: The Evolution of Divisions and Separate Brigades, 1998, pages 312, 314
  191. New York Times, No Reserve Call: Additional Troops Will Be Sent as Needed, President Says, 29 July 1965
  192. Associated Press, Oxnard Press-Courier, Queries Answered on Draft Changes, 14 March 1967
  193. United Press International, Lexington Dispatch, Guard Units Told to Shun Draft Dodgers, 1 December 1967
  194. Associated Press, Toledo Blade, Reserve, Guard Drill Crackdown Set, 2 May 1966
  195. John Listman, National Guard Educational Foundation, Indiana Rangers in Vietnam, accessed 25 July 2013
  196. National Guard Educational Foundation, Army National Guard Units Mobilized in Vietnam War, 2011
  197. Sarasota Journal, National Guard Keeps Shaky Peace in Rochester, 27 July 1964
  198. St. Petersburg Times, National Guard Division Mobilized: Los Angeles Riots Out of Control, 14 August 1965
  199. Austin Scott, Associated Press, Lewiston Sun, Guard Occupies Miami Riot Area After Two Slain, 9 August 1968
  200. The Age, Suddenly, They Turned and Fired, 6 May 1970
  201. St. Petersburg Times, Guard Disputes report on Kent, 25 July 1970
  202. Milwaukee Journal, Grand Jury Clears Guard, Indicts 25 in Kent Case, 16 October 1970
  203. New York Times, Ohio Flood Waters Recede, 26 May 1968
  204. Spokane Daily Chronicle, 13 New Fires Erupt, 23 August 1967
  205. Richard Winship Stewart, editor, American Military History: The United States Army in a Global Era, 1917–2003, 2005, pages 376–377
  206. John T. Correll, Origins of the Total Force, Air Force Magazine, February, 2011
  207. Associated Press, Waycross Journal-Herald, Georgia Guard Given Modern Battle Tanks, 29 July 1982
  208. Milwaukee Journal, Aspin Proposes Changes to Strengthen Reserves, 1 March 1984
  209. United Press International, The Bryan Times, National Guard Has Outmoded Equipment, 23 March 1985
  210. Norman Black, Associated Press, Lakeland Ledger, Regular Army Still Not Quite Ready to Accept New Guard as its Equal, 16 October 1988
  211. Paul Glickman, Christian Science Monitor, President's New Control Over National Guard is Challenged, 9 February 1987
  212. David Evans, Chicago Tribune, Supreme Court Confirms U.S. Control Over Guard, 12 June 1990
  213. Associated Press, Reading Eagle, Mobilizing Delays Assailed, 8 March 1991
  214. Frank Jordan, On Guard magazine, Army Guard Does Well in Total Force Test, page 6, December, 1991
  215. Sarasota Herald-Tribune, Violence in L.A. Rages On: Looters Roam the Streets; Guard Deployed, 1 May 1992
  216. Miami Herald, Drug Interdicton Center Opened in Puerto Rico, 16 July 1992
  217. "Multijurisdictional Counter-Drug Task Force". United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Retrieved 28 April 2015.
  218. James Barron, New York Times, Hurricane Andrew; Thousands Homeless in Florida Storm, 26 August 1992
  219. Washington Post, Celebration Awaits National Guard Unit's Return From Bosnia, 23 April 1998
  220. Kansas City Star, Kosovo Conflict Calls on Reserves: Kansans Among First Activated, 28 April 1999
  221. Bowling Green Daily News, Join the Army National Guard and Change the World, 27 June 1999
  222. Bob Haskell, American Forces Press Service, Guard Flexes Muscle in the War Against Terrorism, 27 March 2003
  223. Samantha L. Quigley, American Forces Press Service, National Guard Plays Big Role in War on Terrorism, 8 October 2004
  224. DoD Deployment Health Clinical Center, Operation Noble Eagle – World Trade Center, accessed 17 June 2013
  225. Brittany Brown (18 Oct 2013). "Infographic Highlights the Top 10 Insights on the U.S. Army in Transition". US Army. Retrieved 23 Oct 2013.
  226. "After Katrina: 184 Infantry Soldiers to the Rescue" (PDF). The Spectrum, October 2005.
  227. National Guard Bureau, Hurricane Katrina: National Guard's Finest Hour, 28 August 2006
  228. Associated Press, Fox News, Louisiana Gov. Blanco Orders National Guard to Patrol New Orleans Upon Mayor's Request, 20 June 2006
  229. John Orrell, Armed Forces News Service, National Guard responds to Hurricane Irene, 26 August 2011
  230. Jim Greenhill, National Guard Bureau National Guard relieves suffering after Hurricane Sandy, 4 November 2012
  231. Paul Purpura, The Times-Picayune, Hurricane Isaac Brings Thousands of National Guard Troops to the Region, 28 August 2012
  232. The White House, Office of the Press Secretary, Statement by the Press Secretary on Bills Signed on 10 January 2013, 10 January 2013
  233. Army News Service (18 November 2014). "Guard, Reserve Soldiers to Mobilize for Ebola Relief".
  234. Carol, Comegno (31 March 2015). "NJ Guard Unit to Deploy to Cuba". Cherry Hill Courier-Post. Cherry Hill, NJ.
  235. "Kentucky National Guard unit to deploy to Afghanistan". WLKY-TV. Louisville, KY. 1 May 2015.
  236. Associated Press (28 May 2015). "National Guard Takes Up Positions Alongside Police After Baltimore Riots". WJLA-TV. Baltimore, MD.
  237. Schehl, Matthew L., Medill News Service (1 May 2015). "Guard Operations Center Advises Troops in Baltimore". Army Times. Springfield, VA.
  238. Nigrelle, Martha (28 May 2015). "National Guard Responds to Floods in Texas, Oklahoma". Department of Defense News. Arlington, VA.
  239. "Up to 200 National Guard Members Ready to Help with Flood Response". KTBS-TV. Shreveport, Louisiana. 5 June 2015.
  240. Prokopyk, Bill (14 April 2015). "National Guard Helicopters Fight North Dakota Wildfire". Department of Defense News. Arlington, VA.
  241. "Minnesota DNR and National Guard combat wildfires". Minnesota Department of Natural Resources. St. Paul, MN. 28 May 2015.
  242. Olmstead, Candis (23 June 2015). "Army National Guard Black Hawk Crews Help Fight Alaska Fires". U.S. Army News. Arlington, VA.
  243. Mark Lardas, George Washington: Leadership; Strategy; Conflict, 2011
  244. Aaron Bancroft, The Life of George Washington, 1855, page 39
  245. Fawn McKay Brodie, Thomas Jefferson: An Intimate History, 1974, page 112
  246. Ralph Louis Ketcham, James Madison: A Biography, page 64
  247. Michael Teitelbaum, James Monroe, 2002, page 14
  248. Carl Cavanagh Hodge, Cathal J. Nolan, US Presidents and Foreign Policy, 2007, page 45
  249. H.W. Brands, Andrew Jackson: His Life and Times, 2006, page 90
  250. Samuel Putnam Waldo, Memoirs of Andrew Jackson, 1819, pages 41–42
  251. Spencer Tucker, James R. Arnold, Roberta Wiener, Paul G. Pierpaoli, John C. Fredrikse, editors, The Encyclopedia Of the War Of 1812, 2012, page 331
  252. James Hall, A Memoir of the Public Services of William Henry Harrison of Ohio, 1836, page 310
  253. Stuart L. Butler, Defending the Old Dominion: Virginia and Its Militia in the War of 1812, 2012, page 282
  254. Louise A. Mayo, President James K. Polk: The Dark Horse President, 2006, age 14
  255. United States Army, Soldiers, 1980, page 4
  256. Barbara Bennett Peterson, Sarah Childress Polk, First Lady of Tennessee and Washington, 2002, page 5
  257. John Seigenthaler, James K. Polk: The American Presidents Series: The 11th President, 1845–1849, 2004, page 34
  258. Roger Sherman Skinner, editor, The New-York State Register for 1830–1831, 1830, page 361
  259. Buffalo Historical Society, Publications, Volume 10, 1907, page xxxii
  260. John Farmer, G. Parker Lyon, editors, The New-Hampshire Annual Register, and United States Calendar, 1832, page 53
  261. Ralph E. Eshelman, A Travel Guide to the War of 1812 in the Chesapeake, 2011, page 114
  262. Philip Shriver Klein, President James Buchanan: A Biography, 1962, page 18
  263. Illinois Adjutant General's Office, Record of the Services of Illinois Soldiers in the Black Hawk War, 1831–32 and in the Mexican War, 1846–48, 1882, pages 100, 176, 183
  264. Hans L. Trefousse, Andrew Johnson: A Biography, 1997, page 14
  265. James Knox Polk, author, Wayne Cutler, Herbert Weaver, editors, Correspondence of James K. Polk, Volume 7, 1989, page 439
  266. Kate Havelin, Andrew Johnson, 2004, page 21
  267. Gary L. Donhardt, In the Shadow of the Great Rebellion: The Life of Andrew Johnson, Seventeenth President of the United States, (1808–1875), 2007, page 6
  268. Clifton R. Hall, Andrew Johnson: Military Governor of Tennessee, 1916, page 19
  269. James S. Brisbin, The Campaign Lives of Ulysses S Grant and Schuyler Colfax, 1868, pages 58–59
  270. Ulysses Simpson Grant, The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant: April–September 1861, 1967, page 29
  271. William Farina, Ulysses S. Grant, 1861–1864: His Rise from Obscurity to Military Greatness, 2007, page 22
  272. William Dean Howells, Sketch of the Life and Character of Rutherford B. Hayes, 1876, page 29
  273. Hardesty's Historical and Geographical Encyclopedia, Military and Personal Sketches of Ohio's Rank and File from Sandusky County in the War of the Rebellion, 1885, republished on the Rutherford B. Hayes Presidential Center web site
  274. John Clark Ridpath, The Life and Work of James A. Garfield, 1881, pages 91–92
  275. James T. Wall, Wall Street and the Fruited Plain: Money, Expansion, and Politics in the Gilded Age, 2008, page 82
  276. Emma Rogers, Chester A. Arthur: Man and President, 1921, page 7–9
  277. Lew Wallace, Murat Halstead, Life and Public Services of Hon. Benjamin Harrison, 1892, pages 178–181
  278. Newburgh Daily Journal, "Death of General Harrison", 14 March 1901
  279. Muncie Free Press, Daniels adds President Benjamin Harrison to Hoosier Heritage Portrait Collection, 20 March 2009
  280. Eric Foner, Reconstruction: America's Unfinished Revolution, 1863–1877, 2002, page 584
  281. John W. Tyler, The Life of William McKinley, 1901, page 37
  282. Kevin Phillips, William McKinley: The American Presidents Series: The 25th President, 1897–1901, 2003, page 23
  283. William Montgomery Clemens, The Ancestry of Theodore Roosevelt, 1914, page 11
  284. Bill Bleyer, Long Island Newsday, "Roosevelt's Medal of Honor Coming to LI", 21 February 2001
  285. Gabriele Arnold, Harry S. Truman – His Foreign Policy, 2006, page 4
  286. Michael J. Devine, Harry S. Truman, the State of Israel, and the Quest for Peace in the Middle East, 2009, page 93
  287. Harry S. Truman, Bess Wallace Truman, Dear Bess: The Letters from Harry to Bess Truman, 1910–1959, 1998, page 306
  288. Clarke Rountree, George W. Bush: A Biography, 2010, pages xviii–xix
  289. Massachusetts Historical Society, Bunker Hill Exhibit, Biography, Israel Putnam, 2003
  290. John J. Duffy, Samuel B. Hand, Ralph H. Orth, The Vermont Encyclopedia, 2003, page 252
  291. Siggurdsson, The American Legion's Burn Pit Blog, Plymouth Colonists Elect Myles Standish Commander of Militia, 18 February 2011
  292. New Hampshire Department of Transportation, General John Stark Scenic Byway Council, New Hampshire's Most Famous Revolutionary War Hero, 2008
  293. William B. Kessel, Robert Wooster, editors, Encyclopedia Of Native American Wars And Warfare, 2005, page 327
  294., A Brief Biography of Col. Seth Warner, 2004
  295. Robert K. Wright, Jr., Morris J. MacGregor, Jr., U.S. Army Center of Military History, Soldier-Statesmen of the Constitution: George Washington, 1987, pages 61–63
  296. Willard Sterne Randall,, The First American Victory: Ethan Allen Takes Fort Ticonderoga, 2 November 2007
  297. Kukla, J. Patrick Henry (1736–1799). (2013, 29 January). In Encyclopedia Virginia. Retrieved from
  298. Jennie Cohen,, 11 Things You May Not Know About Paul Revere, 16 April 2013
  299. National Guard Bureau, Today in Guard History (June), 1 June 1868, 2013
  300. Western Maryland Regional Library, War of 1812, Sharpsburg Militia, accessed June 19, 2013
  301., Major General Samuel Smith Monument on Federal Hill, 2 March 2009
  302. Williams College Archives and Special Collections, Stephen Van Rensselaer III (1764–1839), 2013
  303. Jeremy Roberts, Abraham Lincoln, 2004, pages 22–23
  304. Coffin & Roby, Printers, The New Hampshire Register and Farmer's Almanac for 1834, 1833, page 76
  305. John Seigenthaler, James K. Polk: The American Presidents Series: The 11th President, 1845–1849, 2004, page 25
  306. Ruth Tenzer Feldman, Chester A. Arthur, 2006, pages 32–33
  307. Iowa Secretary of State, Iowa Official Register, 1984, page 317
  308. Jacob G. Ullery, Men of Vermont Illustrated, 1894, page 99
  309. Logan Marshall, editor, The Sinking of the Titanic and Great Sea Disasters, 2009, page 14
  310. Jonathan Sutherland, African Americans at War: An Encyclopedia, Volume 1, 2004, page 124
  311. Edwin C. Tingstrom, Courage and Valor, Above and Beyond, 2013, page 59
  312. Paterson Weekly Press, The Great Event at Washington Today, 5 March 1885
  313. New York State Senate, report of the Adjutant General, 1885, Volume 1, page 179
  314. Wade Frazier,, Paul Bragg's Tarnished Legacy, May, 2007
  315. Atlanta Constitution, They Will Fight for America in the Olympic Games, 23 April 1906
  316. New York State Military Museum, Frederick E. Humphreys: First Military Pilot, 2008
  317. Edward T. Miller, editor, National Guard Magazine, The Rifle Hall of fame: William F. Leuschner, January, 1911, page 342
  318. Bertie Charles Forbes, Men Who are Making America, 1917, page 383
  319. Charles S. Forbes, The Vermonter magazine, Vermont Men of Today, January, 1901, page 100
  320. New Castle News, Athletics in the Army, 3 October 1919
  321. Jim Ober, The California State Military Museum, Buster Keaton: Comedian, Soldier, accessed 10 July 2013
  322. Rob Rains, James Naismith: The Man Who Invented Basketball, 2011, page 101
  323. Henry Hagman Burdick, editor, New York Division, National Guard: War Record, 1917, frontispiece
  324. Brian Burnes, Harry S. Truman, His Life and Times, 2003, page 45
  325. Stephen L. Harris, Journal of Olympic History, Hannes the Mighty and the National Guard, May, 2002, page 12
  326. State Historical Society of Missouri, Historic Missourians, Charles Augustus Lindbergh, accessed 19 June 2013
  327. New York Times, Babe Ruth Enlists Before Big Crowd: Sworn In as Member of the 104th Field Artillery on Times Square Isle of Safety, 21 May 1924
  328. Stanley Sandler, World War II in the Pacific: An Encyclopedia, 2001, page 538
  329. Pennsylvania Museum and Historical Commission, Biography, Governor Edward Martin, 2013
  330. Wayde Minami, 175th Wing Public Affairs, Turnbull and Ray Epitomized "Greatest Generation", 2011
  331. Jack K. Johnson, Military Historical Society of Minnesota, General John W. Vessey, Jr., Minnesota's Top Soldier, 1998, page 1
  332. Holly Zachariah, Columbus Dispatch, Citizen Soldier: Marysville Honors Former Leader of Ohio National Guard, 29 September 2009
  333. Mark Bushnell, Barre-Montpelier Times-Argus, Ernest Gibson: War Hero, Politician, GOP Reformer, 4 October 2009
  334. Robert Peyton Wiggins, Jungle Combat with the 112th Cavalry: Three Texans in the Pacific in World War II, 2011, page 187
  335. Life magazine, The Legacy of General McLain, 28 March 1955, page 111
  336. Nebraska State Historical Society, Miltonberger Collection: Biography, Butler Buchanan Miltonberger, 1897–1977, 2009
  337. Time magazine, World Battlefronts: Getting On with It, 26 March 1945
  338. Vicki Johnson, Tifflin Advertiser-Tribune, You Know the Name, but do You Know the Story of Rodger Young, 18 May 2013
  339. Wes Singletary, Florida's First Big League Baseball Players: A Narrative History, 2006, page 66
  340. Carol Ford, Hartford Radio History, WICC: Bob Crane, 2013
  341. Associated Press, Mount Vernon Daily Argus, National Guard Activates 27th, 42nd Divisions, 15 February 1947
  342. Thomas H. Taylor, Robert J. Martin, Rangers, Lead the Way, 1996, page 151
  343. Harold B. Simpson, "MURPHY, AUDIE LEON," Handbook of Texas Online, accessed 19 June 2013. Published by the Texas State Historical Association.
  344. Congressional Staff Directory, C.S.D. Advance Locator, 1989, page 55
  345. Robin Roberts, C. Paul Rogers, The Whiz Kids and the 1950 Pennant, 1996, page 9
  346. American Entertainment International Speakers Bureau, Biography, John Amos, 2012
  347. USA Track and Field Hall of Fame, Entry for Willie Davenport, 2001
  348. Associated Press, Montreal Gazette, Holtzman Hopes for Cool Summer, 2 April 1969
  349. United Press International, Milwaukee Sentinel, Holtzman Hurt in Guard Camp, 8 August 1969
  350. Ireland House Oral History Collection, Archives of Irish America, New York University Biographical Note, Peter T. King, 28 November 2005
  351. California National Guard, Grizzly magazine, By the Numbers: 1974, April, 2010, page 14
  352. CBS News, 2002 Senate Races, 2002, page 28
  353. Emily Hoferitza, Lillian Chatwin, 151st Air Refueling Wing Public Affairs, Utah Governor Reviews and Praises Utah Guard During Annual Parade, 20 September 2009
  354. Dennis Hevesi, G.V. (Sonny) Montgomery, Former Congressman, 85, Dies, 13 May 2006
  355. National Governors Association, Idaho Governor C. L. "Butch" Otter, accessed 19 June 2013
  356. Norman Black, Associated Press, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, Quayle and the Guard, 19 August 1988
  357. National Journal, Pennsylvania, 4th House District, Biography, Scott Perry (R), 7 November 2012
  358. Barbara Hoberock, Tulsa World, Gov.-elect Fallin Names Michael Thompson as DPS Commissioner Nominee, 21 December 2010
  359. Bob Haskell, American Forces Press Service, National Guard Bobsledder Jill Bakken Wins Olympic Gold, 20 February 2002
  360. Sonoran Alliance, Arizona Correctional Officers Endorse Sheriff Paul Babeu, 26 July 2012
  361. U.S. Department of Defense, Military Olympians: Shauna Rohbock, 2010
  362. John Cervone, Ocean State Guardian magazine, Rhode Island Guardsman Hosts History Channel Series, Spring, 2009, page 10
  363. Team USA, Courtney Zablocki, USA Luge, 2013
  364. Bryan Bender, Boston Globe, Scott Brown Promoted to Colonel in National Guard, 1 August 2012
  365. Associated Press, Lake County News-Sun, Duckworth Promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, 6 November 2011
  366. Cindy Huang, PBS Newshour, Meet Veteran, Representative-elect Tulsi Gabbard, 12 November 2012
  367. Lisa Tendrich Frank, An Encyclopedia of American Women at War, 2013, page 287
  368. Juliet Macur, New York Times, Bobsledder Chose War to Repay the Army, 17 December 2010
  369. U.S. Army, GI Jill – Miss Utah 2007, 2008
  370. Army National Guard, History of the Army National Guard, 1636–2000, Appendix 2, Directors of the Army National Guard, page 346
  371. National Guard Bureau, Biography, Clyde A. Vaughn, 2008
  372. National Guard Bureau, Biography, Raymond W. Carpenter, 2011
  373. National Guard Bureau, Biography, William E. Ingram, Jr., 2012
  374. Sgt. 1st Class Jim Greenhill , National Guard Bureau, Retiring Army Guard Director: Preserve This National Treasure, 14 January 2014
  375. Michelle Tan, Army Times, Director of Army National Guard Retires, 14 January 2014
  376. Chief of the National Guard Bureau Twitter Feed, 14 April 2015
  377. U.S. House Appropriations Committee, Hearing Record, Biographical sketch, Leonard C. Ward, 1970, page 843
  378. National Guard Association of the United States, The National Guardsman, Jelinek Named ARNG Director, Volumes 26–27, 1972, page 40
  379. National Guard Association of the United States, National Guardsman magazine, State Staff Changes, Volumes 30–31, 1976, page 38
  380. Turner Publishing Company, The Military Order of World Wars, 1996, page 60
  381. U.S. Senate Appropriations Committee, Hearing Record, Department of Defense Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1985, Biographical sketch, Richard D. Dean, 1984, page 200
  382. Diane Publishing Company, Hispanics in America's Defense, 1997, page 129
  383. U.S. House Armed Services Committee, Hearing Record, National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 1993, Biographical sketch, John R, D'Araujo, Jr., 1992, page 52
  384. US Field Artillery Association, Field Artillery Bulletin, 1995, page 25
  385. Minuteman Institute for National Defense Studies, Biography, Michael J. Squier, 2007
  386. Defense Daily, Personnel Moves, 28 June 2002
  387. U.S. Army Warrant Officers Association, Newsliner magazine, Biography, Frank J. Grass, October, 2012, page 8
  388. Michael Dann, National Guard Bureau, Nuttall Becomes Army Guard's Deputy Director, 24 August 2006
  389. U.S. House Armed Services Committee, National Guard Bureau Biography, Raymond W. Carpenter, 2009, page 1
  390. National Guard Bureau, Chief Names New ARNG Deputy Director, 26 June 2009
  391. Mark Thompson, Time magazine, No (Strategic) Reservations, 19 April 2013
  392. Army Times, Neb. Guard Chief Named Deputy Director of Army National Guard, 28 May 2013
  393. Army National Guard, Army National Guard: leaders, retrieved 23 January 2014
  394. "Biography, Major General Judd H. Lyons". National Guard Bureau General Officer Management Office. National Guard Bureau. Retrieved 24 June 2015.
  395. "Awards and Citations, Walter E. Fountain". Hall of Valor. Military Times. Retrieved February 16, 2016.
  396. "Awards and Citations, Timothy J. Wojtecki". Hall of Valor. Military Times. Retrieved February 17, 2016.
  397. "Biography, Timothy M. McKeithen". General Officer Management Office. National Guard Bureau. October 1, 2015.
  398. U.S. Army Center of Military History, History of Table of Distribution and Allowances (TDA) Units, 30 May 1995, updated 20 May 2011
  399. Dwyer, Brian (October 17, 2016). "Patching Ceremony Unites 10th Mountain Division and Vermont Army National Guard Unit". TCW News. Watertown, NY.
  400. Tan, Michelle (August 19, 2016). "Army units change patches as part of active, Guard and Reserve pilot program". Army Times. Springfield, VA.
  401. Block, Gordon (October 20, 2016). "Programs link Fort Drum soldiers with Army Guard, Reserve personnel". Watertown Daily Times. Watertown, NY.
  402. Richard Goldenberg, U.S. Army , National Guard Division Leaders Gather to Face Challenges for Missions at Home, Overseas, 9 June 2010
  403. University of North Texas, U.S. Army National Guard, 17 January 2013
  404. Bowling Green Daily News, Guard's Command Structure Unique in the Armed Forces, 27 June 1999
  405. National Guard Educational Foundation, 26th Infantry Division, 2011
  406. National Guard Educational Foundation, 27th Infantry Division, 2011
  407. National Guard Educational Foundation, 27th Armored Division, 2011
  408. "Ceremonies Today for 30th Armored". The Tennessean. Nashville, TV. October 28, 1973. p. 11. (subscription required (help)). The 30th Armored Division of the Tennessee National Guard will be retired today...
  409. National Guard Educational Foundation, 30th Infantry Division, 2011
  410. Tuscaloosa News, 31st Dixie Division Turning to Armor, 19 January 1968.
  411. Wisconsin Historical Society, Dictionary of Wisconsin History, Red Arrow Division, accessed 19 June 2013
  412. New York Times, Illinois Commander of Guard Replaced, 4 March 1968
  413. Al Goldberg, Toldeo Blade, Taps Sounds for Ohio Guard's Famed 37th, 18 February 1968
  414. National Guard Education Foundation, 39th Infantry Division Archived 29 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine., 2011
  415. California State Military Museum, Lineages and Honors of the California National Guard: 40th Armored Brigade Headquarters and Headquarters Company, accessed 19 June 2013
  416. Tri-City Herald, Taps For The 41st, 8 June 1967
  417. Washington Army National Guard, Headquarters and Headquarters Company, 81st Brigade Combat Team, 2007
  418. Associated Press, The Telegraph, Yankee Infantry Division is Facing Reorganization, 30 November 1967
  419. Eugene Register-Standard, Army Disbands 44th Division, 18 September 1954
  420. National Guard Education Foundation, 45th Infantry Division, 2011
  421. National Guard Educational Foundation, 46th Infantry Division, 2011
  422. Minnesota Military Museum, The 47th "Viking" Infantry Division, 1991
  423. National Guard Educational Foundation, 48th Armored Division, 2011
  424. Texas Army National Guard, History of the 36th Infantry Division, accessed 19 June 2013
  425. Texas Military Forces Museum, 36th Infantry Division, The "Texas" Division, accessed 19 June 2013
  426. U.S. House Appropriations Committee, Hearing Record, Department of Defense Appropriations for 1995, Volume 1, 1994, page 296

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to United States Army National Guard.
This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 11/19/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.