|Date||17 December 2010 – mid-2012|
|Death(s)||thousands (International estimate; see table below)|
|Part of a series on|
The Arab Spring or The Democracy Spring (Arabic: الربيع الديمقراطي, is (Arabic: الربيع العربي, ar-rabīˁ al-ˁarabī) was a revolutionary wave of both violent and non-violent demonstrations, protests, riots, coups and civil wars in the Arab world that began on 17 December 2010 in Tunisia with the Tunisian Revolution, and spread throughout the countries of the Arab League and its surroundings. Major insurgencies and civil wars in Iraq, Libya, Syria, and Yemen resulted, along with civil uprisings in Bahrain and Egypt, large street demonstrations in Algeria, Iran, Lebanon, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, Oman and Sudan and minor protests in Djibouti, Mauritania, the Palestinian territories, Saudi Arabia, Somalia and the Western Sahara. A major slogan of the demonstrators in the Arab world is Ash-sha`b yurid isqat an-nizam ("the people want to bring down the regime").
The wave of initial revolutions and protests faded by mid-2012, as many Arab Spring demonstrations were met with violent responses from authorities, as well as from pro-government militias and counter-demonstrators. These attacks were answered with violence from protestors in some cases. Large-scale conflicts resulted—the Syrian Civil War, Iraqi insurgency and the following civil war, the Egyptian Crisis and coup, the Libyan Crisis, and the Crisis in Yemen.
A power struggle continued after the immediate response to the Arab Spring. While leadership changed and regimes were held accountable, power went up for grabs across the Arab world. Ultimately it came down to a contentious battle between a consolidation of power by religious elites and the growing support for democracy in many muslim-majority states.
Some have referred to the succeeding and still ongoing conflicts as the Arab Winter. As of July 2016, only the uprising in Tunisia resulted in a transition to constitutional democratic governance.
The term "Arab Spring" is an allusion to the Revolutions of 1848, which is sometimes referred to as the "Springtime of Nations", and the Prague Spring in 1968. In the aftermath of the Iraq War it was used by various commentators and bloggers who anticipated a major Arab movement towards democratization. The first specific use of the term Arab Spring as used to denote these events may have started with the American political journal Foreign Policy. Marc Lynch, referring to his article in Foreign Policy, writes "Arab Spring—a term I may have unintentionally coined in a January 6, 2011 article". Joseph Massad on Al Jazeera said the term was "part of a US strategy of controlling [the movement's] aims and goals" and directing it towards western-style liberal democracy. Due to the electoral success of Islamist parties following the protests in many Arab countries, the events have also come to be known as "Islamist Spring" or "Islamist Winter".
Some observers have also drawn comparisons between the Arab Spring movements and the Revolutions of 1989 (also known as the "Autumn of Nations") that swept through Eastern Europe and the Second World, in terms of their scale and significance. Others, however, have pointed out that there are several key differences between the movements, such as the desired outcomes, the effectiveness of civil resistance, and the organizational role of Internet-based technologies in the Arab revolutions.
Pressures from within
The Arab Spring is widely believed to have been instigated by dissatisfaction, particularly of youth and unions, with the rule of local governments, though some have speculated that wide gaps in income levels and pressures caused by the Great Recession may have had a hand as well. Other sources confirm the US government's support of the uprisings, funded largely by the National Endowment for Democracy.
Other analysts pointed to the fourth stage "Toppling the Regimes" of the Al Qaeda strategy for world domination, described in Fouad Hussein's book published in 2005.
Numerous factors led to the protests, including issues such as dictatorship or absolute monarchy, human rights violations, political corruption (demonstrated by Wikileaks diplomatic cables), economic decline, unemployment, extreme poverty, and a number of demographic structural factors, such as a large percentage of educated but dissatisfied youth within the entire population. Catalysts for the revolts in all Northern African and Persian Gulf countries included the concentration of wealth in the hands of autocrats in power for decades, insufficient transparency of its redistribution, corruption, and especially the refusal of the youth to accept the status quo.
Some protesters looked to the Turkish model as an ideal (contested but peaceful elections, fast-growing but liberal economy, secular constitution but Islamist government). Other analysts blamed the rise in food prices on commodity traders and the conversion of crops to ethanol. Yet others have claimed that the context of high rates of unemployment and corrupt political regimens led to dissent movements within the region.
Social media and the Arab Spring
In the wake of the Arab Spring protests, a considerable amount of attention has been focused on the role of social media and digital technologies in allowing citizens within areas affected by 'the Arab Uprisings' as a means for collective activism to circumvent state-operated media channels. The influence of social media on political activism during the Arab Spring has, however, been much debated. Protests took place both in states with a very high level of Internet usage (such as Bahrain with 88% of its population online in 2011) and in states with one of the lowest Internet penetration (Yemen and Libya).
The use of social media platforms more than doubled in Arab countries during the protests, with the exception of Libya. Some researchers have shown how collective intelligence, dynamics of the crowd in participatory systems such as social media, have the immense power to support a collective action – such as foment a political change. As of 5 April 2011, the amount of Facebook users in the Arab world surpassed 27.7 million people. Some critics have argued that digital technologies and other forms of communication—videos, cellular phones, blogs, photos, emails, and text messages—have brought about the concept of a 'digital democracy' in parts of North Africa affected by the uprisings.
Facebook, Twitter and other major social media played a key role in the movement of Egyptian and Tunisian activists in particular. Nine out of ten Egyptians and Tunisians responded to a poll that they used Facebook to organize protests and spread awareness. This large population of young Egyptian men referred to themselves as "the Facebook generation", exemplifying their escape from their non-modernized past. Furthermore, 28% of Egyptians and 29% of Tunisians from the same poll said that blocking Facebook greatly hindered and/or disrupted communication. Social media sites were a platform for different movements composed by many frustrated citizens, including the 2008 "April 6 Youth Movement" organized by Ahmed Mahed, which set out to organize and promote a nationwide labor strike, and which inspired the later creation of the "Progressive Youth of Tunisia".
During the Arab Spring, people created pages on Facebook to raise awareness about alleged crimes against humanity, such as police brutality in the Egyptian Revolution (see Wael Ghonim and Death of Khaled Mohamed Saeed). Whether the project of raising awareness was primarily pursued by Arabs themselves or simply advertised by western social media users is a matter of debate; Jared Keller, a journalist for The Atlantic, claims that most activists and protesters used Facebook (among other social media) to organize; However, what influenced Iran was "good old-fanshioned word of mouth". Jared Keller argued that the sudden and anomalous social media output was caused from westerners witnessing the situation(s), and then broadcasting them. The Middle East and North Africa used texting, emailing, and blogging only to organize and communicate information about internal local protests.
A study by Zeynep Tufekci of the University of North Carolina and Christopher Wilson of the United Nations Development Program concluded that "social media in general, and Facebook in particular, provided new sources of information the regime could not easily control and were crucial in shaping how citizens made individual decisions about participating in protests, the logistics of protest, and the likelihood of success." Marc Lynch of George Washington University said, "while social media boosters envisioned the creation of a new public sphere based on dialogue and mutual respect, the reality is that Islamists and their adversaries retreat to their respective camps, reinforcing each other's prejudices while throwing the occasional rhetorical bomb across the no-man's land that the center has become." Lynch also stated in a Foreign Policy article, "There is something very different about scrolling through pictures and videos of unified, chanting Yemeni or Egyptian crowds demanding democratic change and waking up to a gory image of a headless 6-year-old girl on your Facebook news feed."
Social networks were not the only instrument for rebels to coordinate their efforts and communicate. In the countries with the lowest Internet penetration and the limited role of social networks, such as Yemen and Libya, the role of mainstream electronic media devices - cell phones, emails, and video clips (e.g. YouTube) was very important to cast the light on the situation in the country and spread the word about the protests in the outside world. In Egypt, in Cairo particularly, mosques were one of the main platforms to coordinate the protest actions and raise awareness to the masses.
Events leading up to the Arab Spring
Tunisia experienced a series of conflicts during the three years leading up to the Arab Spring, the most notable occurring in the mining area of Gafsa in 2008, where protests continued for many months. These protests included rallies, sit-ins, and strikes, during which there were two fatalities, an unspecified number of wounded, and dozens of arrests. In Egypt, the labor movement had been strong for years, with more than 3,000 labor actions since 2004, and provided an important venue for organizing protests and collective action. One important demonstration was an attempted workers' strike on 6 April 2008 at the state-run textile factories of al-Mahalla al-Kubra, just outside Cairo. The idea for this type of demonstration spread throughout the country, promoted by computer-literate working class youths and their supporters among middle-class college students. A Facebook page, set up to promote the strike, attracted tens of thousands of followers and provided the platform for sustained political action in pursuit of the "long revolution." The government mobilized to break the strike through infiltration and riot police, and while the regime was somewhat successful in forestalling a strike, dissidents formed the "6 April Committee" of youths and labor activists, which became one of the major forces calling for the anti-Mubarak demonstration on 25 January in Tahrir Square.
In Algeria, discontent had been building for years over a number of issues. In February 2008, United States Ambassador Robert Ford wrote in a leaked diplomatic cable that Algeria is 'unhappy' with long-standing political alienation; that social discontent persisted throughout the country, with food strikes occurring almost every week; that there were demonstrations every day somewhere in the country; and that the Algerian government was corrupt and fragile. Some claimed that during 2010 there were as many as '9,700 riots and unrests' throughout the country. Many protests focused on issues such as education and health care, while others cited rampant corruption.
In Western Sahara, the Gdeim Izik protest camp was erected 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) south-east of El Aaiún by a group of young Sahrawis on 9 October 2010. Their intention was to demonstrate against labor discrimination, unemployment, looting of resources, and human rights abuses. The camp contained between 12,000 and 20,000 inhabitants, but on 8 November 2010 it was destroyed and its inhabitants evicted by Moroccan security forces. The security forces faced strong opposition from some young Sahrawi civilians, and rioting soon spread to El Aaiún and other towns within the territory, resulting in an unknown number of injuries and deaths. Violence against Sahrawis in the aftermath of the protests was cited as a reason for renewed protests months later, after the start of the Arab Spring.
The catalyst for the escalation of protests was the self-immolation of Tunisian Mohamed Bouazizi. Unable to find work and selling fruit at a roadside stand, Bouazizi had his wares confiscated by a municipal inspector on 17 December 2010. An hour later he doused himself with gasoline and set himself afire. His death on 4 January 2011 brought together various groups dissatisfied with the existing system, including many unemployed, political and human rights activists, labor, trade unionists, students, professors, lawyers, and others to begin the Tunisian Revolution.
The Arab Spring
The series of protests and demonstrations across the Middle East and North Africa that commenced in 2010, became known as the "Arab Spring", and sometimes as the "Arab Spring and Winter", "Arab Awakening" or "Arab Uprisings" even though not all the participants in the protests were Arab. It was sparked by the first protests that occurred in Tunisia on 18 December 2010 in Sidi Bouzid, following Mohamed Bouazizi's self-immolation in protest of police corruption and ill treatment. With the success of the protests in Tunisia, a wave of unrest sparked by the Tunisian "Burning Man" struck Algeria, Jordan, Egypt, and Yemen, then spread to other countries. The largest, most organised demonstrations often occurred on a "day of rage", usually Friday afternoon prayers. The protests also triggered similar unrest outside the region.
By the end of February 2012, rulers had been forced from power in Tunisia, Egypt, Libya, and Yemen; civil uprisings had erupted in Bahrain and Syria; major protests had broken out in Algeria, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Morocco, and Sudan; and minor protests had occurred in Mauritania, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Djibouti, Western Sahara, and Palestine. Tunisian President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali fled to Saudi Arabia on 14 January 2011 following the Tunisian Revolution protests. In Egypt, President Hosni Mubarak resigned on 11 February 2011 after 18 days of massive protests, ending his 30-year presidency. The Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi was overthrown on 23 August 2011, after the National Transitional Council (NTC) took control of Bab al-Azizia. He was killed on 20 October 2011, in his hometown of Sirte after the NTC took control of the city. Yemeni President Ali Abdullah Saleh signed the GCC power-transfer deal in which a presidential election was held, resulting in his successor Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi formally replacing him as the president of Yemen on 27 February 2012, in exchange for immunity from prosecution. Weapons and Tuareg fighters returning from the Libyan Civil War stoked a simmering conflict in Mali which has been described as 'fallout' from the Arab Spring in North Africa.
During this period of regional unrest, several leaders announced their intentions to step down at the end of their current terms. Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir announced that he would not seek re-election in 2015, as did Iraqi Prime Minister Nouri al-Maliki, whose term was ending in 2014, although there were violent demonstrations demanding his immediate resignation in 2011. Protests in Jordan also caused the sacking of four successive governments by King Abdullah. The popular unrest in Kuwait also resulted in resignation of Prime Minister Nasser Mohammed Al-Ahmed Al-Sabah cabinet.
The geopolitical implications of the protests drew global attention. Some protesters were nominated for the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize. Tawakkol Karman from Yemen was co-recipient of the 2011 Nobel Peace Prize due to her role organizing peaceful protests. In December 2011, Time magazine named "The Protester" its "Person of the Year". Another award was noted when the Spanish photographer Samuel Aranda won the 2011 World Press Photo award for his image of a Yemeni woman holding an injured family member, taken during the civil uprising in Yemen on 15 October 2011.
Summary of conflicts by country
|Country||Date started||Status of protests||Outcome||Death toll||Situation|
|Tunisia||18 December 2010||Government overthrown on 14 January 2011||Overthrow of Zine El Abidine Ben Ali; Ben Ali flees into exile in Saudi Arabia
|Algeria||29 December 2010||Ended in January 2012||8||Major protests|
|Jordan||14 January 2011||Ended||
||3||Protests and governmental changes|
|Oman||17 January 2011||Ended in May 2011||
||2–6||Protests and governmental changes|
|Egypt||25 January 2011||The governments overthrown on February 2011, the Egyptian Crisis follows||Overthrow of Hosni Mubarak, who is later convicted of corruption and ordered to stand trial for ordering the killing of protesters.
|Yemen||27 January 2011||Government overthrown on February 2012. Yemeni Crisis follows.||Overthrow of Ali Abdullah Saleh; Saleh granted immunity from prosecution.
|Djibouti||28 January 2011||Ended in March 2011||2||Minor protests|
|Somalia||28 January 2011||Ended||0||Minor protests|
|Sudan||30 January 2011||26 October 2013||
|Iraq||12 February 2011||ended 23 December 2011, instability and eventually civil war follows||
|Bahrain||14 February 2011||18 March 2011||120||Sustained civil disorder and government changes|
|Libya||17 February 2011||Government overthrown on 23 August 2011, crisis follows||Overthrow of Muammar Gaddafi; Gaddafi killed by rebel forces
||40,000+||Government overthrown and civil war|
|Kuwait||19 February 2011||Ended in December 2012||0||Protests and governmental changes|
|Morocco||20 February 2011||Ended in March–April 2012||6||Protests and governmental changes|
|Mauritania||25 February 2011||Ended||3||Minor protests|
|Lebanon||27 February 2011||Ended in December 2011||0||Protests and governmental changes|
|Saudi Arabia||11 March 2011||Ended||24||Minor protests|
|Syria||26 January 2011||Civil uprising, which transformed into Syrian Civil War on July–August 2011||
|Iranian Khuzestan||15 April 2011||Ended on 18 April 2011||12||Major protests|
|Borders of Israel||15 May 2011||Ended on 5 June 2011||
|Palestinian Authority||10 February 2011||5 October 2012||0||Minor protests|
|Total death toll and other consequences:||tens of thousands killed (combined estimate of events)||
Following the self-burning of Mohamed Bouazizi in Sidi Bouzid, a series of increasingly violent street demonstrations through December 2010 ultimately led to the ousting of longtime President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali on 14 January 2011. The demonstrations were preceded by high unemployment, food inflation, corruption, lack of freedom of speech and other forms of political freedom, and poor living conditions. The protests constituted the most dramatic wave of social and political unrest in Tunisia in three decades, and have resulted in scores of deaths and injuries, most of which were the result of action by police and security forces against demonstrators. Ben Ali fled into exile in Saudi Arabia, ending his 23 years in power.
Eighteen days after protests emerged, Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak stepped down. But the clear cut victor or direction of the country was not announced. The lack of a formal re-election process led Egypt into a chaotic transfer of power. A state of emergency was declared and a caretaker coalition government was created following Ben Ali's departure, which included members of Ben Ali's party, the Constitutional Democratic Rally (RCD), as well as opposition figures from other ministries. However, the five newly appointed non-RCD ministers resigned almost immediately. As a result of continued daily protests, on 27 January Prime Minister Mohamed Ghannouchi reshuffled the government, removing all former RCD members other than himself, and on 6 February the former ruling party was suspended; later, on 9 March, it was dissolved. Following further public protests, Ghannouchi himself resigned on 27 February, and Béji Caïd Essebsi became Prime Minister.
On 23 October 2011, citizens voted in the first post-revolution election to elect representatives to a 217-member constituent assembly that would be responsible for the new constitution. The leading Islamist party, Ennahda, won 37% of the vote, and managed to elect 42 women to the Constituent Assembly.
On 26 January 2014, a new constitution was elected. The constitution is seen as progressive, increases human rights, gender equality, government duties toward people, lays the ground for a new parliamentary system and makes Tunisia a decentralized and open government.
On 26 October 2014, the country held its first parliamentary elections since the 2011 Arab Spring and its presidentials on 23 November 2014, finishing its transition to a democratic state. These elections were characterized by the fall in popularity of Ennahdha, for the secular Nidaa Tounes party, which became the first party of the country.
Protests in Egypt began on 25 January 2011 and ran for 18 days. Beginning around midnight on 28 January, the Egyptian government attempted, somewhat successfully, to eliminate the nation's Internet access, in order to inhibit the protesters' ability to use media activism to organize through social media. Later that day, as tens of thousands protested on the streets of Egypt's major cities, President Hosni Mubarak dismissed his government, later appointing a new cabinet. Mubarak also appointed the first Vice President in almost 30 years.
On 10 February, Mubarak ceded all presidential power to Vice President Omar Suleiman, but soon thereafter announced that he would remain as President until the end of his term. However, protests continued the next day, and Suleiman quickly announced that Mubarak had resigned from the presidency and transferred power to the Armed Forces of Egypt. The military immediately dissolved the Egyptian Parliament, suspended the Constitution of Egypt, and promised to lift the nation's thirty-year "emergency laws". A civilian, Essam Sharaf, was appointed as Prime Minister of Egypt on 4 March to widespread approval among Egyptians in Tahrir Square. Violent protests however, continued through the end of 2011 as many Egyptians expressed concern about the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces' perceived sluggishness in instituting reforms and their grip on power.
Hosni Mubarak and his former interior minister Habib al-Adli were convicted to life in prison on the basis of their failure to stop the killings during the first six days of the 2011 Egyptian Revolution. His successor, Mohamed Morsi, was sworn in as Egypt's first democratically elected president before judges at the Supreme Constitutional Court. Fresh protests erupted in Egypt on 22 November 2012. On 3 July 2013, the military overthrew the replacement government and President Morsi was removed from power.
Anti-government protests began in Libya on 15 February 2011. By 18 February the opposition controlled most of Benghazi, the country's second-largest city. The government dispatched elite troops and militia in an attempt to recapture it, but they were repelled. By 20 February, protests had spread to the capital Tripoli, leading to a television address by Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, who warned the protestors that their country could descend into civil war. The rising death toll, numbering in the thousands, drew international condemnation and resulted in the resignation of several Libyan diplomats, along with calls for the government's dismantlement.
Amidst ongoing efforts by demonstrators and rebel forces to wrest control of Tripoli from the Jamahiriya, the opposition set up an interim government in Benghazi to oppose Colonel Muammar Gaddafi's rule. However, despite initial opposition success, government forces subsequently took back much of the Mediterranean coast.
On 17 March, United Nations Security Council Resolution 1973 was adopted, authorising a no-fly zone over Libya, and "all necessary measures" to protect civilians. Two days later, France, the United States and the United Kingdom intervened in Libya with a bombing campaign against pro-Gaddafi forces. A coalition of 27 states from Europe and the Middle East soon joined the intervention. The forces were driven back from the outskirts of Benghazi, and the rebels mounted an offensive, capturing scores of towns across the coast of Libya. The offensive stalled however, and a counter-offensive by the government retook most of the towns, until a stalemate was formed between Brega and Ajdabiya, the former being held by the government and the latter in the hands of the rebels. Focus then shifted to the west of the country, where bitter fighting continued. After a three-month-long battle, a loyalist siege of rebel-held Misrata, the third largest city in Libya, was broken in large part due to coalition air strikes. The four major fronts of combat were generally considered to be the Nafusa Mountains, the Tripolitanian coast, the Gulf of Sidra, and the southern Libyan Desert.
In late August, anti-Gaddafi fighters captured Tripoli, scattering Gaddafi's government and marking the end of his 42 years of power. Many institutions of the government, including Gaddafi and several top government officials, regrouped in Sirte, which Gaddafi declared to be Libya's new capital. Others fled to Sabha, Bani Walid, and remote reaches of the Libyan Desert, or to surrounding countries. However, Sabha fell in late September, Bani Walid was captured after a grueling siege weeks later, and on 20 October, fighters under the aegis of the National Transitional Council seized Sirte, killing Gaddafi in the process.
Protests occurred in many towns in both the north and south of Yemen starting in mid-January 2011. Demonstrators initially protested against governmental proposals to modify the constitution of Yemen, unemployment and economic conditions, and corruption, but their demands soon included a call for the resignation of President Ali Abdullah Saleh, who had been facing internal opposition from his closest advisors since 2009.
A major demonstration of over 16,000 protesters took place in Sana'a on 27 January 2011, and soon thereafter human rights activist and politician Tawakel Karman called for a "Day of Rage" on 3 February. According to Xinhua News, organizers were calling for a million protesters. In response to the planned protest, Ali Abdullah Saleh stated that he would not seek another presidential term in 2013. On 3 February, 20,000 protesters demonstrated against the government in Sana'a, others participated in a "Day of Rage" in Aden that was called for by Tawakel Karman, while soldiers, armed members of the General People's Congress, and many protestors held a pro-government rally in Sana'a. Concurrent with the resignation of Egyptian president Mubarak, Yemenis again took to the streets protesting President Saleh on 11 February, in what has been dubbed a "Friday of Rage". The protests continued in the days following despite clashes with government advocates. In a "Friday of Anger" held on 18 February, tens of thousands of Yemenis took part in anti-government demonstrations in the major cities of Sana'a, Taiz, and Aden. Protests continued over the following months, especially in the three major cities, and briefly intensified in late May into urban warfare between Hashid tribesmen and army defectors allied with the opposition on one side and security forces and militias loyal to Saleh on the other.
After Saleh pretended to accept a Gulf Cooperation Council-brokered plan allowing him to cede power in exchange for immunity only to back away before signing three separate times, an assassination attempt on 3 June left him and several other high-ranking Yemeni officials injured by a blast in the presidential compound's mosque. Saleh was evacuated to Saudi Arabia for treatment, but he handed over power to Vice President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi, who has largely continued his policies and ordered the arrest of several Yemenis in connection with the attack on the presidential compound. While in Saudi Arabia, Saleh kept hinting that he could return any time and continued to be present in the political sphere through television appearances from Riyadh starting with an address to the Yemeni people on 7 July. On Friday 13 August, a demonstration was announced in Yemen as "Mansouron Friday" in which hundreds of thousands of Yemenis called for Ali Abdullah Saleh to go. The protesters joining the "Mansouron Friday" were calling for establishment of "a new Yemen". On 12 September, Saleh issued a presidential decree while still receiving treatment in Riyadh authorizing Vice President Abd al-Rab Mansur al-Hadi to negotiate a deal with the opposition and sign the GCC initiative.
On 23 September, three months since the assassination attempt, Saleh returned to Yemen abruptly, defying all earlier expectations. Pressure on Saleh to sign the GCC initiative eventually led to his signing of it in Riyadh on 23 November, in which Saleh agreed to step down and set the stage for the transfer of power to his vice-president. A presidential election was then held on 21 February 2012, in which Hadi (the only candidate) won 99.8 percent of the vote. Hadi then took the oath of office in Yemen's parliament on 25 February. By 27 February, Saleh had resigned from the presidency and transferred power to his successor, however he is still wielding political clout as the head of the General People's Congress party. The replacement government was overthrown by Houthi rebels on 22 January 2015.
Protests in Syria started on 26 January 2011, when a police officer assaulted a man in public at "Al-Hareeka Street" in old Damascus. The man was arrested right after the assault. As a result, protesters called for the freedom of the arrested man. Soon a "day of rage" was set for 4–5 February, but it was uneventful. On 6 March, the Syrian security forces arrested about 15 children in Daraa, in southern Syria, for writing slogans against the government. Soon protests erupted over the arrest and abuse of the children. Daraa was to be the first city to protest against the Ba'athist government, which has been ruling Syria since 1963.
Thousands of protesters gathered in Damascus, Aleppo, al-Hasakah, Daraa, Deir ez-Zor, and Hama on 15 March, with recently released politician Suhair Atassi becoming an unofficial spokesperson for the "Syrian revolution". The next day there were reports of approximately 3000 arrests and a few casualties, but there are no official figures on the number of deaths. On 18 April 2011, approximately 100,000 protesters sat in the central Square of Homs calling for the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad. Protests continued through July 2011, the government responding with harsh security clampdowns and military operations in several districts, especially in the north.
On 31 July, Syrian army tanks stormed several cities, including Hama, Deir Ez-Zour, Abu Kamal, and Herak near Daraa. At least 136 people were killed, the highest death toll in any day since the start of the uprising. On 5 August 2011, an anti-government demonstration took place in Syria called "God is with us", during which the Syrian security forces shot the protesters from inside the ambulances, killing 11 people consequently.
By late November – early December, the Baba Amr district of Homs fell under armed Syrian opposition control. By late December, the battles between the government's security forces and the rebel Free Syrian Army intensified in Idlib Governorate. Cities in Idlib and neighborhoods in Homs and Hama began falling into the control of the opposition, during this time military operations in Homs and Hama stopped.
By mid-January the FSA gained control over Zabadani and Madaya. By late January, the Free Syrian Army launched a full-scale attack against the government in Rif Dimashq, where they took over Saqba, Hamoreya, Harasta and other cities in Damascus's Eastern suburbs. On 29 January, the fourth regiment of the Syrian Army led by the president's brother Maher al-Assad and the Syrian Army dug in at Damascus, and the fighting continued where the FSA was 8 km away from the Republican palace in Damascus. Fighting broke out near Damascus international airport, but by the next day the Syrian government deployed the Republican Guards. The military gained the upper hand and regained all land the opposition gained in Rif Dimashq by early February. On 4 February, the Syrian Army launched a massive bombardment on Homs and committed a huge massacre, killing 500 civilians in one night in Homs. By mid-February, the Syrian army regained control over Zabadani and Madaya. In late February, Army forces entered Baba Amr after a big military operation and heavy fighting. Following this, the opposition forces began losing neighborhoods in Homs to the Syrian Army including al-Inshaat, Jobr, Karm el-Zaytoon and only Homs's old neighborhood's, including Al-Khalidiya, Homs|al-Khalidiya, remained in opposition hands.
By March 2012, the government began military operations against the opposition in Idlib Governorate including the city of Idlib, which fell to the Army by mid-March. Saraqib and Sarmin were also recaptured by the government during the month. Still, at this time, the opposition managed to capture al-Qusayr and Rastan. Heavy fighting also continued in several neighborhoods in Homs and in the city of Hama. The FSA also started to conduct hit-and-run attacks in the pro-Assad Aleppo Governorate, which they were not able to do before. Heavy-to-sporadic fighting was also continuing in the Daraa and Deir ez-Zor Governorates.
By late April 2012, despite a cease-fire being declared in the whole country, sporadic fighting continued, with heavy clashes specifically in Al-Qusayr, where rebel forces controlled the northern part of the city, while the military held the southern part. FSA forces were holding onto Al-Qusayr, due to it being the last major transit point toward the Lebanese border. A rebel commander from the Farouq Brigade in the town reported that 2,000 Farouq fighters had been killed in Homs province since August 2011. At this point, there were talks among the rebels in Al-Qusayr, where many of the retreating rebels from Homs city's Baba Amr district had gone, of Homs being abandoned completely. On 12 June 2012, the UN peacekeeping chief in Syria stated that, in his view, Syria has entered a period of civil war.
The protests in Bahrain started on 14 February, and were initially aimed at achieving greater political freedom and respect for human rights; they were not intended to directly threaten the monarchy.(pp162–3) Lingering frustration among the Shiite majority with being ruled by the Sunni government was a major root cause, but the protests in Tunisia and Egypt are cited as the inspiration for the demonstrations.(p65) The protests were largely peaceful until a pre-dawn raid by police on 17 February to clear protestors from Pearl Roundabout in Manama, in which police killed four protesters.(pp73–4) Following the raid, some protesters began to expand their aims to a call for the end of the monarchy. On 18 February, army forces opened fire on protesters when they tried to reenter the roundabout, fatally wounding one.(pp77–8) The following day protesters reoccupied Pearl Roundabout after the government ordered troops and police to withdraw.(p81) Subsequent days saw large demonstrations; on 21 February a pro-government Gathering of National Unity drew tens of thousands,(p86) whilst on 22 February the number of protestors at the Pearl Roundabout peaked at over 150,000 after more than 100,000 protesters marched there and were coming under fire from the Bahraini Military which killed around 20 and injured over 100 protestors.(p88) On 14 March, GCC forces (composed mainly of Saudi and UAE troops) were requested by the government and entered the country,(p132) which the opposition called an "occupation".
King Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa declared a three-month state of emergency on 15 March and asked the military to reassert its control as clashes spread across the country.(p139) On 16 March, armed soldiers and riot police cleared the protesters' camp in the Pearl Roundabout, in which 3 policemen and 3 protesters were reportedly killed.(pp133–4) Later, on 18 March, the government tore down Pearl Roundabout monument.(pp150) After the lifting of emergency law on 1 June, several large rallies were staged by the opposition parties. Smaller-scale protests and clashes outside of the capital have continued to occur almost daily. On 9 March 2012, over 100,000 protested in what the opposition called "the biggest march in our history".
The police response has been described as a "brutal" crackdown on peaceful and unarmed protestors, including doctors and bloggers. The police carried out midnight house raids in Shia neighbourhoods, beatings at checkpoints, and denial of medical care in a "campaign of intimidation". More than 2,929 people have been arrested, and at least five people died due to torture while in police custody.(p287,288) On 23 November 2011, the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry released its report on its investigation of the events, finding that the government had systematically tortured prisoners and committed other human rights violations.(pp415–422) It also rejected the government's claims that the protests were instigated by Iran. Although the report found that systematic torture had stopped,(pp417) the Bahraini government has refused entry to several international human rights groups and news organizations, and delayed a visit by a UN inspector. More than 80 people had died since the start of the uprising.
In the aftermath of the Arab Spring in various countries, there was a wave of violence and instability commonly known as the Arab Winter or Islamist Winter. The Arab Winter was characterized by extensive civil wars, general regional instability, economic and demographic decline of the Arab League and overall religious wars between Sunni and Shia Muslims.
Although the long-term effects of the Arab Spring have yet to be shown, its short-term consequences varied greatly across the Middle East and North Africa. In Tunisia and Egypt, where the existing regimes were ousted and replaced through a process of free and fair election, the revolutions were considered short-term successes. This interpretation is, however, problematized by the subsequent political turmoil that emerged, particularly in Egypt. Elsewhere, most notably in the monarchies of Morocco and the Persian Gulf, existing regimes co-opted the Arab Spring movement and managed to maintain order without significant social change. In other countries, particularly Syria and Libya, the apparent result of Arab Spring protests was a complete collapse of social order.
Social scientists have endeavored to understand the circumstances that led to this variation in outcome. A variety of causal factors have been highlighted, most of which hinge on the relationship between the strength of the state and the strength of civil society. Countries with stronger civil society networks in various forms underwent more successful reforms during the Arab Spring; these findings are also consistent with more general social science theories such as those espoused by Robert D. Putnam and Joel S. Migdal.
One of the primary influences that have been highlighted in the analysis of the Arab Spring is the relative strength or weakness of a society's formal and informal institutions prior to the revolts. When the Arab Spring began, Tunisia had an established infrastructure and a lower level of petty corruption than did other states, such as Libya. This meant that, following the overthrow of the existing regime, there was less work to be done in reforming Tunisian institutions than elsewhere, and consequently it was less difficult to transition to and consolidate a democratic system of government.
Also crucial was the degree of state censorship over print, broadcast, and social media in different countries. Television coverage by channels like Al Jazeera and BBC News provided worldwide exposure and prevented mass violence by the Egyptian government in Tahrir Square, contributing to the success of the Egyptian Revolution. In other countries, such as Libya, Bahrain, and Syria, such international press coverage was not present to the same degree, and the governments of these countries were able to act more freely in suppressing the protests. Strong authoritarian regimes with high degrees of censorship in their national broadcast media were able to block communication and prevent the domestic spread of information necessary for successful protests. Morocco is a case in point, as its broadcast media at the time of the revolts was owned and operated almost exclusively by political elites with ties to the monarchy.
Countries with greater access to social media, such as Tunisia and Egypt, proved more effective in mobilizing large groups of people, and appear to have been more successful overall than those with greater state control over media. Even though a revolution did take place and the prior government has been replaced, Tunisia's government can not conclude that another uprising will not take place. There are still many grievances taking place today.
Due to tourism coming to a halt and other factors during the revolution and Arab Spring movement, the budget deficit has grown and unemployment has rose since 2011. According to World Bank, "Unemployment remains at 15.3% from 16.7% in 2011, but still well above the pre-revolution level of 13%." Large scale immigration brought on by a long and treacherous civil war has permanently harmed the Syrian economy. Projections for economic contraction will remain high at almost 7% in 2017.
Still to this day, in countries affected by the Arab Spring, there is great division amongst those who prefer the status quo and those who want democratic change. As these regions dive ever deeper into political conflict time will show if new ideas can be established or if old institutions will still stand strong. The largest change from the pre-revolution to the post-revolution was in the attempt to break up political elites and reshape the geopolitical structure of the middle east. It is speculated that many of the changes brought on by the Arab Spring will lead to a shifting of regional power in the Middle East and a quickly changing structure of power.
The support, even if tacit, of national military forces during protests has also been correlated to the success of the Arab Spring movement in different countries. In Egypt and Tunisia, the military actively participated in ousting the incumbent regime and in facilitating the transition to democratic elections. Countries like Saudi Arabia, on the other hand, exhibited a strong mobilization of military force against protesters, effectively ending the revolts in their territories; others, including Libya and Syria, failed to stop the protests entirely and instead ended up in civil war. The support of the military in Arab Spring protests has also been linked to the degree of ethnic homogeneity in different societies. In Saudi Arabia and Syria, where the ruling elite was closely linked with ethnic or religious subdivisions of society, the military sided with the existing regime and took on the ostensible role of protector to minority populations. Even aside from the military issue, countries with less homogeneous ethnic and national identities, such as Yemen and Jordan, seem to have exhibited less effective mobilization on the whole. The apparent exception to this trend is Egypt, which has a sizable Coptic minority.
Finally, the presence of a strong, educated middle class has been noted as a correlate to the success of the Arab Spring in different countries. Countries with strong welfare programs and a weak middle class, such as Saudi Arabia and Jordan, as well as countries with great economic disparity and an impoverished working class—including Yemen, Libya, and Morocco—did not experience successful revolutions. The strength of the middle class is, in turn, directly connected to the existing political, economic, and educational institutions in a country, and the middle class itself may be considered an informal institution. In very broad terms, this may be reframed in terms of development, as measured by various indicators such as the Human Development Index: rentier states such as the oil monarchies of the Persian Gulf exhibited less successful revolutions overall.
Some trends in political Islam resulting from the Arab Spring noted by observers (Quinn Mecham and Tarek Osman) include:
- Repression of the Muslim Brotherhood, not only in Egypt by the military and courts following the forcible removal of Morsi from office in 2013; but also by Saudi Arabia and a number of Gulf countries (not Qatar).
- Rise of Islamist "state-building" where "state failure" has taken place—most prominently in Syria, Iraq, Libya and Yemen. Islamists have found it easier than competing non-Islamists trying to fill the void of state failure, by securing external funding, weaponry and fighters -- "many of which have come from abroad and have rallied around a pan-Islamic identity". The norms of governance in these Islamist areas are militia-based, and the governed submit to their authority out of fear, loyalty, other reasons, or some combination. The "most expansive" of these new "models" is the Islamic State.
- Increasing sectarianism (primarily Sunni-Shia) at least in part from Proxy Wars. Fighters are proxies primarily for Saudi Arabia and the Gulf states and for Iran. Islamists are fighting Islamists across sectarian lines in Lebanon (Sunni militants targeting Hezbollah positions), Yemen (between mainstream Sunni Islamists of Islah and the Shiite Zaydi Houthi movement), in Iraq (Islamic State and Iraqi Shiite militias)
- Increased caution and political learning in countries such as Algeria and Jordan where Islamist have chosen not to lead a major challenge against their governments. In Yemen Islah "has sought to frame its ideology in a way that will avoid charges of militancy".
- In countries where Islamist did chose to lead a major challenge and did not succeed in transforming society (particularly Egypt), a disinterest in "soul-searching" about what went wrong, in favor of "antagonism and fiery anger" and a thirst for revenge. Partisans of political Islam (although this does not include some prominent leaders such as Rached Ghannouchi but is particularly true in Egypt) see themselves as victims of an injustice whose perpetrators are not just "individual conspirators but entire social groups".
- Arab Winter
- Arab Revolt
- Atlantic Revolutions
- Civil resistance
- Colour revolution
- Democracy in the Middle East
- Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict
- List of modern conflicts in North Africa
- List of modern conflicts in the Middle East
- List of ongoing armed conflicts
- List of ongoing protests
- Protests of 1968
- Revolutions of 1820
- Revolutions of 1830
- Revolutions of 1848
- Revolutions of 1917–23
- Revolutions of 1989
- War on Terror
- Egyptian crisis (2011–14)
- Libyan Crisis (2011–present)
- Syrian Civil War
- Spillover of the Syrian Civil War
- Women in the Arab Spring
- Ruthven, Malise (23 June 2016). "How to Understand ISIS". New York Review of Books. 63 (11). Retrieved 12 June 2016.
- Abulof, Uriel (10 March 2011). "What Is the Arab Third Estate?". Huffington Post. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- "Many wounded as Moroccan police beat protestors". Reuters. Reuters UK. 23 May 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Syria's crackdown". The Irish Times. 31 May 2011. Archived from the original on 26 October 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Bahrain troops lay siege to protesters' camp". CBS News. 16 March 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Syria clampdown on protests mirrors Egypt's as thugs join attacks". Ahram Online. 19 April 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- Almasmari, Hakim (16 March 2011). "Yemeni government supporters attack protesters, injuring hundreds". The Washington Post. Sanaa. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- Parks, Cara (24 February 2011). "Libya Protests: Gaddafi Militia Opens Fire On demonstrators". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 1 March 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- Fear and Faith in Paradise. Retrieved October 23, 2014.
- "Arab Winter". America Staging. Retrieved October 23, 2014.
- "Analysis: Arab Winter is coming to Baghdad". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved October 23, 2014.
- "Egypt and Tunisia's new 'Arab winter'". Euro news. Retrieved October 23, 2014.
- "Yemen's Arab winter". Middle East Eye. Retrieved October 23, 2014.
- Hoyle, Justin A. "A Matter Of Framing: Explaining The Failure Of Post-Islamist Social Movements In The Arab Spring." DOMES: Digest Of Middle East Studies 25.2 (2016): 186-209. Academic Search Complete. Web. 18 Nov. 2016.
- Krauthammer, Charles (21 March 2005): "The Arab Spring of 2005". The Seattle Times. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- Joseph Massad (29 August 2012). "The 'Arab Spring' and other American seasons". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 29 August 2012.
- Marc Lynch (6 January 2011). "Obama's 'Arab Spring'?".
- Marc Lynch (2012). The Arab Uprising: The Unfinished Revolutions of the New Middle East. New York: PublicAffairs. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-61039-084-2.
- The Atlantic: Muslim Protests: Has the US President, Barak Obama Helped Bring On an Anti-U.S. 'Islamist Spring'?, 23 September 2012, retrieved 30 November 2012
- Foreign Policy: Learning to Live With the Islamist Winter, 19 July 2012, retrieved 30 November 2012
- Cook, Steven A. "How Do You Say 1989 in Arabic?" From the Potomac to the Euphrates. Council on Foreign Relations. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- Landler, Mark. "Obama Cites Poland as Model for Arab Shift." The New York Times. 28 May 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- Sullivan, Charles J. "Riding the Revolutionary Wave: America, The Arab Spring and the Autumn of 1989 Archived 24 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine.." The Washington Review of Turkish and Eurasian Affairs. Rethink Institute. April 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "Open for Business?" The Economist. 23 June 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- T. R. Davies, "The failure of strategic nonviolent action in Bahrain, Egypt, Libya and Syria: ‘political ju-jitsu’ in reverse", Global Change, Peace and Security, vol. 26, no. 3 (2014), pp. 299-313. ISSN 1478-1158 E-ISSN 1478-1166.
- Guéhenno, Jean-Marie. "The Arab Spring is 2011, Not 1989." The New York Times. 21 April 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- "Similarities and Differences between Eastern Europe in 1989 and the Middle East in 2011". Summarized remarks from a panel discussion sponsored by Middle East Studies @ American University. 30 May 2011. Retrieved 25 June 2012.
- The Arab Spring—One Year Later: The CenSEI Report analyzes how 2011's clamor for democratic reform met 2012's need to sustain its momentum. The CenSEI Report, 13 February 2012
- "The Master Plan". The New Yorker. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
- "Alexander Kazamias, 'The "Anger Revolutions" in the Middle East: an answer to decades of failed reform', Journal of Balkan and Near Eastern Studies, 13:2, June 2011, pp.143-156.". www.academia.edu. Retrieved 20 February 2016.
- Cockburn, Alexander (18–20 February 2011). "The Tweet and Revolution". Archived from the original on 27 February 2011.
- Korotayev A; Zinkina J (2011). "Egyptian Revolution: A Demographic Structural Analysis". Entelequia. Revista Interdisciplinar. 13: 139–165.
- "Demographics of the Arab League, computed by Wolfram Alpha".
- Courtney Radsch (2013). "Digital Dissidence and Political Change: Cyberactivism and Citizen Journalism in Egypt". SSRN.
- Reverchon, Antoine; de Tricornot, Adrien (13 April 2011). "La rente pétrolière ne garantit plus la paix sociale".
- Is Turkey the best model for Arab democracy?| by Mark LeVine| aljazeera.com| 19 September 2011
- Perez, Ines (4 March 2013)."Climate Change and Rising Food Prices Heightened Arab Spring". Scientific American.
- Friedman, Thomas (7 April 2012)."The Other Arab Spring". The New York Times.
- Natalini, Jones & Bravo (14 April 2015)."Quantitative Assessment of Political Fragility Indices and Food Prices as Indicators of Food Riots in Countries". Sustainability.
- Merchant, Brian (26 October 2015). "Climate Change and Rising Food Prices Heightened Arab Spring". Motherboard. Vice Media. Retrieved 7 February 2016.
- Ross, Alec; Ben Scott (2011). "Social Media: Cause, Effect and Response". NATO Review Magazine. NATO Review Magazine.
- Schillinger, Raymond (20 September 2011). "Social Media and the Arab Spring: What Have We Learned?". Huffington Post. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- Gurr, Ted R (1970). Why Men Rebel. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 069107528X.
- Hull, Dr. Richard J (2007). Deprivation and Freedom: A Philosophical Enquiry. New York: Routledge. ISBN 9780415373364.
- Smith, Heather J; Pettigrew, Thomas F (8 January 2015). "Advances in Relative Deprivation Theory and Research". Social Justice Research. 28 (1): 1–6. doi:10.1007/s11211-014-0231-5.
- Billet, Brett L (1993). Modernization Theory and Economic Development: Discontent in the Developing World. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0275944468.
- Skocpol, Theda (1994). Social Revolutions in the Modern World. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521400880.
- Lange, Matthew; Ruschemeyer, Dietrich (2005). States and Development : Historical Antecedents of Stagnation and Advance. New York: Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 9781403964922.
- CNN (12 March 2013). "CNN at SXSW: Social media in Arab Spring" (Online video clip). Youtube.
- "Opening Closed Regimes: What Was the Role of Social Media During the Arab Spring?". Ictlogy.net. 22 May 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "The Arab Spring and the impact of social media". Albanyassociates.com. 23 March 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- Himelfarb, Sheldon. "Social Media in the Middle East". United States Institute of Peace. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Stepanova, Ekaterina (May 2011). "The Role of Information Communication Technologies in the "Arab Spring"" (PDF). Pircenter.org/. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- Salem, Fadi, Mourtada. "Civil Movements: The Impact of Facebook and Twitter". Dubai School of Government. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- "Participatory Systems: Introduction" (PDF). Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- Online Collective Action: Dynamics of the Crowd in Social Media
- Wellman, Barry; Rainie, Lee (2014). Networked. Boston, MA: The MIT Press. p. 207.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 10 June 2016. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
- Kirkpatrick, David D.; Sanger, David E. (13 February 2011). "Egyptians and Tunisians Collaborated to Shake Arab History". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- Rainie, Lee; Wellman, Barry (2014). Networked. Boston, MA: The MIT Press. p. 207.
- Wellman, Barry; Rainie, Lee (2014). Networked. Boston, MA: The MIT Press. p. 208.
- Mellen, Roger (2013). "Modern Arab Uprisings and Social Media: An Historical Perspective on Media and Revolution". Explorations in Media Ecology.
- Keller, Jared (18 June 2010). "Evaluating Iran's Twitter Revolution". The Atlantic. The Atlantic. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- "Debate flares on 'Twitter revolutions,' Arab Spring." Agence France-Presse 10 Mar. 2013. NewsBank. Web. 26 Oct. 2016.
- "Twitter Devolutions". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2016-10-27.
- Demidov, Oleg (2012). "Social Networks in International and National Security". Security Index. 18 (1): 22–36. doi:10.1080/19934270.2012.634122. ISSN 1993-4270.
- Niklas Albin Svensson. "Tunisia: the protests continue". In Defence of Marxism.
- "Tunisian government faces growing dissent in mining region". NewsLibrary.com. 4 August 2008. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- "Labor movement drives Egypt, Tunisia protests". The Detroit News. 10 February 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- Ford, Robert (19 December 2007). "An ailing and fragile Algerian regime drifts into 2008". WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks cable: 07ALGIERS1806. Archived from the original on 5 January 2011. Retrieved 4 January 2011.
- Chikhi, Lamine (21 January 2011). "Algeria army should quit politics: opposition". Reuters. Reuters Africa. Archived from the original on 21 January 2011. Retrieved 22 January 2011.
- Belhimer, Mahmoud (17 March 2010). "Political Crises but Few Alternatives in Algeria". Arab Reform Bulletin. Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Archived from the original on 13 February 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- "Mass exodus" from Western Sahara cities. Afrol News, 21 October 2010.
- "Saharawi protests, violence and blackmail Moroccan". On the News. 20 May 2011. Archived from the original on 27 July 2011. Retrieved 6 June 2011.
- "Tunisia suicide protester Mohammed Bouazizi dies". BBC News. 5 January 2011.
- Hardy, Roger (2 February 2011). "Egypt protests: an Arab spring as old order crumbles". BBC. Archived from the original on 22 March 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- Ashley, Jackie (8 March 2011). "The Arab spring requires a defiantly European reply". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- "Arab Spring – Who lost Egypt?". The Economist. 1 March 2011. Archived from the original on 8 March 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- Miller, Aaron. "What Is Palestine's Next Move in the New Middle East?". Moment Magazine. Archived from the original on 14 June 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- "The Arab awakening – Spotlight". Al Jazeera English. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- "Arab Awakening?". American Thinker. 2 June 2011. Archived from the original on 17 June 2012. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- "The Arab awakening reaches Syria". The Economist. 21 March 2011.
- Laila Lalami (17 February 2011). "Arab Uprisings: What the February 20 Protests Tell Us About Morocco". The Nation. Retrieved 5 July 2012.
- "Democracy's hard spring". The Economist. 10 March 2011.
- Fahim, Kareem (22 January 2011). "Slap to a Man's Pride Set Off Tumult in Tunisia". The New York Times. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- Noueihed, Lin (19 January 2011). "Peddler's martyrdom launched Tunisia's revolution". Reuters UK. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- Raghavan, Sudarsan (27 January 2011). "Inspired by Tunisia and Egypt, Yemenis join in anti-government protests". The Washington Post. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- "Yemenis square off in rival 'Day of Rage' protests". Arab News. 3 February 2011. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 6 February 2011.
- "Police in south Yemen disperse 'day of rage' protests". Aden, Yemen: Google News. Agence France-Presse. 11 February 2011. Archived from the original on 14 February 2011. Retrieved 13 February 2011.
- Murphy, Brian (13 February 2011). "Bahrain moves to foil anti-government rallies". The Washington Post.
- "Tunisia's Ben Ali flees amid unrest". Al Jazeera. 15 January 2011.
- Peterson, Scott (11 February 2011). "Egypt's revolution redefines what's possible in the Arab world". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- Spencer, Richard (23 February 2011). "Libya: civil war breaks out as Gaddafi mounts rearguard fight". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- Bakri, Nada; Goodman, J. David (28 January 2011). "Thousands in Yemen Protest Against the Government". The New York Times.
- "Protester killed in Bahrain 'Day of Rage'". Reuters. 14 February 2011.
- "'It Will Not Stop': Syrian Uprising Continues Despite Crackdown". Der Spiegel. 28 March 2011. Archived from the original on 10 June 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Algeria protest draws thousands". CBC News. 12 February 2011. Archived from the original on 12 May 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- McCrummen, Stephanie (25 February 2011). "13 killed in Iraq's 'Day of Rage' protests". The Washington Post. Baghdad. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Thousands protest in Jordan". Al Jazeera. 28 January 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Kuwaiti stateless protest for third day". Middle East Online. 20 February 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Morocco King on holiday as people consider revolt". Afrol. 30 January 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2011.
- "Sudan police clash with protesters". Al Jazeera. 30 January 2011. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- "Mauritania police crush protest – doctors announce strike". Radio Netherlands Worldwide. 9 March 2011. Archived from the original on 5 December 2012. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- Vaidya, Sunil (27 February 2011). "One dead, dozen injured as Oman protest turns ugly". Gulf News. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Man dies after setting himself on fire in Saudi Arabia". BBC News. 23 January 2011. Archived from the original on 25 January 2011. Retrieved 29 January 2011.
- Manson, Katrina (20 February 2011). "Pro-democracy protests reach Djibouti". Financial Times. Retrieved 1 June 2011.
- "New clashes in occupied Western Sahara". Afrol. 27 February 2011. Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "Mali coup: Arab Spring spreads to Africa". United Press International. 26 March 2012. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
- "Party: Bashir is not standing for re-election". Gulf Times. 22 February 2011. Archived from the original on 3 April 2011. Retrieved 22 February 2011.
- "Iraq PM plans no re-election". Voice of Russia. 5 February 2011. Archived from the original on 11 January 2012. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- "Iraq angered protesters call for Maliki resignation". Al Sumaria. 26 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- "Jordanians stage anti-gov't sit-in in Amman". Xinhua News Agency. 30 January 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- "Jordan's king 'appoints new prime minister'". Al Jazeera. 17 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- "Jordan king appoints new PM, government quits". Reuters. 1 February 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- "Kuwait's prime minister resigns after protests". BBC News. 28 November 2011. Retrieved 28 November 2011.
- Mounassar, Hammoud (27 January 2011). "Thousands of Yemenis call on president to quit". ABS-CBN News. Sanaa. Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 6 February 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
- "Arab protests attract Nobel interest". News24. Oslo. 31 January 2011. Archived from the original on 9 February 2011. Retrieved 8 February 2011.
- "TIME's Person of the Year 2011". Time. 14 December 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
- Keene, Jamie (10 February 2012). "World Press Photo presents Samuel Aranda with photo of the year award". The Verge. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
- Willsher, Kim (27 February 2011). "Tunisian prime minister Mohamed Ghannouchi resigns amid unrest". The Guardian. London.
- "Tunisia forms national unity government amid unrest". BBC News. 17 January 2011.
- "Tunisia dissolves Ben Ali party". Al Jazeera. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
- Beaumont, Peter (19 January 2011). "Tunisia set to release political prisoners". The Guardian. London.
- "Tunisia election delayed until 23 October". Reuters. 8 June 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "Tunisian elections intensify focus on alliances". Al Monitor. 14 September 2014. Retrieved 19 October 2014.
- "Report: 338 killed during Tunisia revolution". Associated Press. 5 May 2012.
- "Algeria's state of emergency is officially lifted". Bloomberg L.P. 24 February 2011. Retrieved 25 February 2011.
- "Algeria repeals emergency law". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- Krause, Flavia (27 January 2011). "Obama Poised to Step Up Criticism of Mubarak If Crackdown Is Intensified". Bloomberg. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- Blomfield, Adrian (1 February 2011). "King Abdullah II of Jordan sacks government amid street protests". The Telegraph. London.
- Derhally, Massoud A. (17 October 2011). "Jordan's King Appoints PM After Cabinet Resigns". Bloomberg. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "Jordan's prime minister resigns". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- "Jordan's king appoints new PM to form new government – CNN.com". Edition.cnn.com. 11 October 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "Region – World – Ahram Online". English.ahram.org.eg. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "Oman takes measures to address public grievances". Khaleej Times. 27 February 2011. Retrieved 6 March 2011.
- "Oman boosts student benefits". Google News. Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 22 December 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- "Oman shuffles cabinet amid protests". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- "Oman's ruler dismisses ministers". Al Jazeera. 5 March 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- "Oman's Sultan Granting Lawmaking Powers to Councils". Voice of America. 13 March 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- Surk, Barbara. "Police in Oman fire tear gas, rubber bullets at protesters seeking political reform; 1 killed". Google News. Canadian Press. Archived from the original on 3 March 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- "Deaths in Oman protests". Al Jazeera. 27 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- "Oman clashes: Two killed during protests in Gulf state". BBC News. 8 February 2011. Archived from the original on 27 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- "Egypt's prime minister quits, new govt soon-army". Forexyard.com. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 5 March 2011.
- Egypt's Mubarak Steps Down; Military Takes Over Archived 15 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine., The Wall Street Journal, 11 February 2011. Archived 15 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Egypt's military moves to dissolve parliament, suspend constitution". Haaretz. Reuters. 13 February 2011. Archived from the original on 14 February 2011. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
- "Egyptian state security disbanded". Al Jazeera. 15 March 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- "Egypt dissolves former ruling party". Al Jazeera English. 2011-04-16. Retrieved 2016-07-01.
- "How the mighty have fallen". Ahram. 2 February 2011. Archived from the original on 1 May 2011. Retrieved 23 March 2011.
- Kirkpatrick, David D.; Stack, Liam (13 March 2011). "Prosecutors Order Mubarak and Sons Held". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 16 April 2011. Retrieved 13 April 2011.
- "Mubarak to be tried for murder of protesters". Reuters. 24 May 2011. Archived from the original on 31 May 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2011.
- "Egypt's state of emergency ends after 31 years". The Daily Telegraph. London. 31 May 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
- "Mohammed Morsi sworn in as Egypt's president". CBS News. 30 June 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- "Clashes in Sinai over Morsi removal". Ahram Online. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
- "Egypt unrest: 846 killed in protests – official toll". BBC. 19 April 2011.
- Yemen MPs resign over violence, Al Jazeera, 23 February 2011.
- "Military restructuring in Yemen: Unravelling a tangled web | Comment Middle East". Commentmideast.com. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- Kasinof, Laura (21 January 2012). "Yemen Legislators Approve Immunity for the President". The New York Times. Retrieved 21 January 2012.
- Ahmed al-Haj (15 June 2012). "Yemen says more than 2,000 killed in uprising". The Washington Post. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
- "Djiboutians rally to oust president". aljazeera.com. 18 February 2011.
- "Sudan's Bashir will not stand in next election: party official". BBC News. Agence France-Presse. 21 February 2011.
- ABDELAZIZ, KHALID. "Sudan's Bashir chosen by ruling party as candidate for 2015 elections", Reuters, KHARTOUM, 21 October 2014. Retrieved on 21 October 2014.
- "UN rights monitor condemns deadly Sudan crackdown". Daily News Egypt. 4 October 2013.
- "Iraqi prime minister won't run for third term". MSNBC. 5 February 2011.
- "Governor of third Iraqi province quits over protests". The Gulf Today. 27 February 2011. Archived from the original on 4 March 2011.
- "Bahrain's king gives out cash ahead of protests". Reuters. 11 February 2011.
- Bahrain's king to free political prisoners as protests continue Archived 23 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Monsters and Critics, 22 February 2011. Archived 23 February 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- Bahrain sacks ministers amid protests Archived 1 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine., Press TV, 26 February 2011. Archived 1 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine.
- "Still rich but no longer so calm". The Economist. 3 December 2011. Retrieved 1 January 2012.
- "Bahrain creates panel to study unrest report". Al Jazeera. 27 November 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
- Check Casualties of the Bahraini uprising (2011–present) for comprehensive list
- "NATO Withdrawal from Libya". New Europe. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 31 October 2011.
- "Fighters clash again near Tripoli, several dead". Reuters. 12 November 2011.
- "Casualty figures exaggerated, says Ministry". Libya Herald. 7 January 2013. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "Kuwait Government resigns". Business Week. 28 November 2011. Archived from the original on 1 February 2012.
- "Kuwait to hold early general election on 2 February". Google News. Agence France-Presse. 18 December 2011. Archived from the original on 25 May 2012.
- "30 wounded in Kuwait protests on Friday". MSN. Archived from the original on 22 February 2011.
- Moroccan king to make reforms with constitutional body, Middle East Online, 22 February 2011;
- Karam, Souhail (20 March 2011). "Thousands in Morocco march for rights". The Independent. London.
- Miller, David (7 June 2011). "Demonstrator's death energizes Moroccan protesters". The Jerusalem Post. Retrieved 11 June 2011.
- "Mauritania's Bouazizi died today". Dekhnstan.wordpress.com. 23 January 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "Saudi King Boosts Spending, Returns to Country". Voice of America. 23 February 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2011.
- "King's order to benefit 180,000 temporary employees". Arab News. 28 February 2011. Archived from the original on 1 March 2011. Retrieved 28 February 2011.
- al-Suhaimy, Abeed (23 March 2011). "Saudi Arabia announces municipal elections". Asharq al-Awsat. Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
- Abu-Nasr, Donna (28 March 2011). "Saudi Women Inspired by Fall of Mubarak Step Up Equality Demand". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 2 April 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
- "Saudis vote in municipal elections, results on Sunday". Oman Observer. Agence France-Presse. 30 September 2011. Archived from the original on 14 December 2011. Retrieved 14 December 2011.
- Check casualties of the Saudi Arabian protests for comprehensive list
- "Syrian activist Haitham al-Maleh freed under amnesty". BBC News. 8 March 2011. Archived from the original on 11 March 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
- "Syria frees 80-year-old former judge in amnesty". Reuters. 8 March 2011. Retrieved 8 March 2011.
- "Unrest continues in Syria". Al Bawaba. 23 March 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
- "Assad attempts to appease minority Kurds". Al Jazeera. 8 April 2011. Retrieved 24 April 2011.
- "Syrian cabinet resigns amid unrest". 29 March 2011.
- "2011 Syrian protests: Security forces shoot at mourners". BBC News. 23 April 2011. Archived from the original on 24 April 2011. Retrieved 23 April 2011.
- "Syrian army units 'clash over crackdown'". Al Jazeera. 28 April 2011. Retrieved 28 April 2011.
- "Syria says 23 dead as Israel opens fire on Golan". France 24. Agence France-Presse. 6 June 2011. Archived from the original on 9 June 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "UN's Pillay condemns Israeli 'Naksa' killings". Al Jazeera. 8 June 2011. Retrieved 12 June 2011.
- "BBC News – Palestinian PM 'willing to resign' after protests". BBC. 7 September 2012. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- "Abbas asks caretaker Palestinian PM to stay on". Agence France-Presse. 13 August 2013. Retrieved 19 February 2014.
- Spencer, Richard (13 January 2011). "Tunisia riots: Reform or be overthrown, US tells Arab states amid fresh riots". The Daily Telegraph. London. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- Ryan, Yasmine. "Tunisia's bitter cyberwar". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- "Tunisia's Protest Wave: Where It Comes From and What It Means for Ben Ali". Foreign Policy. 3 January 2011. Archived from the original on 8 January 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- Borger, Julian (29 December 2010). "Tunisian president vows to punish rioters after worst unrest in a decade". The Guardian. UK. Archived from the original on 31 December 2010. Retrieved 29 December 2010.
- Davies, Wyre (15 December 2010). "Tunisia: President Zine al-Abidine Ben Ali forced out". BBC News. Archived from the original on 15 January 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2011.
- "Uprising in Tunisia: People Power topples Ben Ali regime". Indybay. 16 January 2011. Retrieved 26 January 2011.
- Zartman, I. William (2015-01-01). Arab Spring. University of Georgia Press. ISBN 9780820348261.
- "Tunisia announces withdrawal of 3 ministers from unity gov't: TV". People's Daily. 18 January 2011. Archived from the original on 19 January 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "Protests hit Tunisia amid mourning". Al Jazeera. 21 January 2011. Archived from the original on 21 January 2011. Retrieved 21 January 2011.
- "Tunisian minister suspends ex-ruling party". MSNBC. Associated Press. Retrieved 21 May 2012.
- "Tunisia disbands party of ousted president". USA Today. 9 March 2011. Retrieved 24 March 2011.
- Cunningham, Erin. "Tunisia elections seen as litmus test for Arab Spring". Global Post. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
- Deeter, Jessie. "Post-Revolution Tunisia attempts painful transition to democracy.". Pulitzer Center on Crisis Reporting. Retrieved 16 February 2012.
- "New Tunisian Constitution Adopted". Tunisia Live. 26 January 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- Tarek Amara (27 January 2014). "Arab Spring beacon Tunisia signs new constitution". Reuters. Retrieved 27 January 2014.
- "Tunisie : les législatives fixées au 26 octobre et la présidentielle au 23 novembre". Jeune Afrique. 25 June 2014.
- "Tunisia holds first post-revolution presidential poll". BBC News. Retrieved 23 November 2014.
- النتائج النهائية للانتخابات التشريعية [Final results of parliamentary elections] (PDF) (in Arabic). 20 November 2014. Retrieved 21 November 2014.
- Shenker, Jack (20 January 2011). "Warning Egypt could follow Tunisia". The Age. Melbourne.
- Dainotti; et al. (2011). "Analysis of Country-wide Internet Outages Caused by Censorship" (PDF). ACM.
- "Egypt: AP Confirms Government has Disrupted Internet Service". pomed.org. Archived from the original on 1 February 2011. Retrieved 28 January 2011.
- "EGYPT: US Embassy to begin voluntary evacuation flights Monday". Los Angeles Times. 30 January 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- "Egypt Program Evacuation Timeline" (PDF). News & Updates: IFSA-Butler. 31 January 2011. Retrieved 13 September 2013.
- "Egypt's Mubarak refuses to quit, hands VP powers". MyWay. Associated Press. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
- Bly, Laura (11 February 2011). "Sharm el-Sheikh resort in world spotlight as Egypt's Mubarak flees Cairo". USA Today. Archived from the original on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
- Wan, William; Walker, Portia (4 March 2011). "In Egypt, crowd cheers newly appointed prime minister Essam Sharaf". The Washington Post. Cairo. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- "EGYPT: Protests continue but activists divided over goals". Los Angeles Times. 15 July 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- Kirkpatrick, Patrick D. (2 June 2012). "New Turmoil in Egypt Greets Mixed Verdict for Mubarak". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
- "New president: Egypt turns page to new era". CNN Wire Staff. CNN. 30 June 2012. Retrieved 30 June 2012.
- Kingsley, P.; Chulov, M. (3 July 2013). "Mohamed Morsi ousted in Egypt's second revolution in two years". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 3 July 2013.
- "HIGHLIGHTS – Libyan TV address by Saif al-Islam Gaddafi". Rabat. Reuters India. 21 February 2011. Retrieved 14 January 2012.
- "Ex Libyan minister forms interim govt-report". LSE. 26 February 2011. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- Hazelton, Liz (24 February 2011). "Exodus Tripoli: Libyan rebels seize control of third major city as thousands of foreigners battle to flee 'hell'". Daily Mail. London. Retrieved 27 February 2011.
- Blomfield, Adrian (6 July 2011). "Rebels wage a secret night-time war on the streets of Tripoli". The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- Levinson, Charles (20 July 2011). "Rebels Move Toward Gadhafi Stronghold". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 12 August 2011.
- "From voice said to be Gadhafi, a defiant message to his foes". CNN. 1 September 2011. Retrieved 1 September 2011.
- "Gaddafi loyalists flee Sebha to Niger". News24. 22 September 2011. Retrieved 24 September 2011.
- "Rebels to seek return of Gaddafi family from Algeria". Reuters. 29 August 2011.
- "NTC 'captured' Sabha as loyalists flee to Niger". Hürriyet Daily News. 22 September 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "Libya conflict: NTC forces claim Bani Walid victory". BBC News. 17 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "Qaddafi dead after Sirte battle, PM confirms". CBS News. 20 October 2011. Retrieved 20 October 2011.
- "Protests erupt in Yemen, president offers reform". Reuters Africa. 11 January 2011. Archived from the original on 20 January 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
- "Yemen protests: 'People are fed up with corruption'". BBC News. 27 January 2011.
- Bakri, Nada (27 January 2011). "Thousands in Yemen Protest Against the Government". The New York Times.
- Bryan, Angie (28 December 2009). "Yemeni tribal leader: for Saleh, Saudi involvement in Sa'ada comes not a moment too soon". WikiLeaks. WikiLeaks cable: 09SANAA2279. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved 31 January 2011.
- "Yemenis urge leader's exit". Al Jazeera. 23 January 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- "Yemenis in anti-president protest". The Irish Times. 27 January 2011.
- "New protests erupt in Yemen". Al Jazeera. 29 January 2011. Archived from the original on 31 January 2011. Retrieved 30 January 2011.
- "Yemen reinforces forces around capital amid fear of protest escalation". Xinhua News. 2 February 2011. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- Sudam, Mohamed (2 February 2011). "Yemeni president signals he won't stay beyond 2013". Reuters. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- Daragahi, Borzou (3 February 2011). "Yemen, Middle East: Tens of thousands stage rival rallies in Yemen". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 14 February 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- Sinjab, Lina (29 January 2011). "Yemen protests: 20,000 call for President Saleh to go". BBC News. Archived from the original on 3 February 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Opposing protesters rally in Yemen". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- "Saleh partisans take over Yemen protest site". Oneindia News. Archived from the original on 13 February 2011. Retrieved 4 February 2011.
- Lubin, Gus (11 February 2011). "YEMEN: Protests revived in 'Friday of Rage'". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 11 February 2011. Retrieved 11 February 2011.
- Lubin, Gus (15 February 2011). "Protests rage in Yemen, Bahrain; Iran hard-liners want foes executed". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 17 February 2011. Retrieved 16 February 2011.
- Johnston, Cynthia (26 May 2011). "Analysis: Yemen civil war likely without swift Saleh exit". Reuters. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- Hatem, Mohammed (23 April 2011). "Yemen's Saleh Agrees to Step Down in Exchange for Immunity, Official Says". Bloomberg. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
- "Yemeni Peace Process Collapses". The Australian. 2 May 2011. Retrieved 2 May 2011.
- "Several Arrested in Yemen for Alleged Role in an Assassination Attempt on Saleh". Fox News Channel. 13 June 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- Leyne, Jon (5 June 2011). "Yemen crisis: One-way ticket for Saleh?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 6 June 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2011.
- Al Qadhi, Mohammed (8 July 2011). "Saleh appears on Yemen TV, bandaged and burnt". The National. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- Massive protests against Yemeni President on "Mansouron" Friday, Alghad Newspaper, 13 August 2011
- "Yemen President Ali Abdullah Saleh returns to Sanaa". BBC News. 23 September 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
- "Yemeni President Saleh signs deal on ceding power". BBC News. 23 November 2011. Retrieved 6 December 2011.
- "February 2012". Rulers.org. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
- "New Yemen President Abdrabbuh Mansour Hadi takes oath". Bbc.co.uk. 25 February 2012. Retrieved 30 May 2013.
- "Yemen's Saleh formally steps down after 33 years". Google News. Agence France-Presse. 27 February 2012. Archived from the original on 25 May 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
- "'Day of rage' protest urged in Syria". MSNBC. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- ""Day of Rage" planned for Syria; protests scheduled for Feb 4–5". aysor.am. Retrieved 3 February 2011.
- "Daraa: The spark that lit the Syrian flame". CNN. 1 March 2012. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
- "Fresh Protests Erupt in Syria". Epoch Times. Archived from the original on 19 March 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- "ردّدوا هتافات تدعو لمحاربة الفساد وفتح باب الحريات". Al Arabiya. Archived from the original on 3 April 2011. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- "الاف السوريين يثورون في قلب دمشق و المحافظات مطالبين بالحرية". Sawt Beirut. Archived from the original on 19 March 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- "مظاهرة احتجاج في دمشق تطالب بالحريات". BBC. Retrieved 15 March 2011.
- "معلومات عن سقوط شهداء في تظاهرات الثلاثاء في سوريا". Sawt Beirut. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 16 March 2011.
- Amos, Deborah (15 July 2011). "In Syria, Opposition Stages Massive Protests". NPR. Archived from the original on 16 July 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- Wemple, Erik (2 August 2011). "Syria's Ramadan massacre". The Washington Post.
- 11 were killed on a Friday of 'God is with us', Al Arabiya, 5 August 2011
- "Syria in full scale civil war". news.com.au. 13 June 2012. Retrieved 6 March 2016.
- "Report of the Bahrain Independent Commission of Inquiry". BICI.
- "Bahrain mourners call for end to monarchy". The Guardian. London. 18 February 2011.
- "Day of transformation in Bahrain's 'sacred square'". BBC News. 19 February 2011.
- "Bangladeshis complain of Bahrain rally 'coercion'". BBC News. 17 March 2011.
- "Gulf States Send Force to Bahrain Following Protests". BBC News. 14 March 2011. Archived from the original on 20 April 2011. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Bahrain declares state of emergency after unrest". Reuters. 15 March 2011.
- "Curfew Follows Deadly Bahrain Crackdown". Al Jazeera. 16 March 2011. Archived from the original on 14 April 2011. Retrieved 16 April 2011.
- Farmer, Ben (18 March 2011). "Bahrain authorities destroy Pearl Roundabout". The Daily Telegraph. London.
- Chulov, Martin (1 June 2011). "Bahrain sees new clashes as martial law lifted". The Guardian. London.
- "Thousands rally for reform in Bahrain". Reuters. 11 June 2011.
- "Bahrain live blog 25 Jan 2012". Al Jazeera. 25 January 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
- "Heavy police presence blocks Bahrain protests". Al Jazeera. 15 February 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2012.
- "Bahrain protesters join anti-government march in Manama". BBC. 9 March 2012.
- "Mass pro-democracy protest rocks Bahrain". Reuters. 9 March 2012.
- Law, Bill (6 April 2011). "Police Brutality Turns Bahrain Into 'Island of Fear'. Crossing Continents (via BBC News). Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- Press release (30 March 2011). "USA Emphatic Support to Saudi Arabia". Zayd Alisa (via Scoop). Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- Cockburn, Patrick (18 March 2011). "The Footage That Reveals the Brutal Truth About Bahrain's Crackdown". The Independent. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- Wahab, Siraj (18 March 2011). "Bahrain Arrests Key Opposition Leaders". Arab News. Retrieved 15 April 2011. Archived 7 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine.
- Law, Bill (22 March 2011). "Bahrain Rulers Unleash 'Campaign of Intimidation'". Crossing Continents (via BBC News). Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- (registration required) "UK – Bahrain Union Suspends General Strike". Financial Times. 22 March 2011. Retrieved 9 April 2011.
- Chick, Kristen (1 April 2011). "Bahrain's Calculated Campaign of Intimidation". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 15 April 2011.
- "Bahrain inquiry confirms rights abuses". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 19 June 2012.
- Applying pressure on Bahrain, 9 May 2011, Retrieved 9 May 2011
- "Bahrain protesters join anti-government march in Manama". BBC. 9 March 2012. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- "Report: Doctors targeted in Bahrain". Al Jazeera. 18 July 2011. Archived from the original on 18 July 2011. Retrieved 20 July 2011.
- "Bahrain delays U.N. investigator, limits rights group visits". Reuters. 1 March 2012.
- Gregg Carlstrom (23 April 2012). "Bahrain court delays ruling in activists case". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 14 June 2012.
- "Middle East review of 2012: the Arab Winter". Telegraph.co.uk. 31 December 2012.
- "Arab Spring into Islamist Winter: Implications for U.S. Policy". The Heritage Foundation.
- Anderson, Lisa (May 2011). "Demystifying the Arab Spring: Parsing the Differences Between Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya". Foreign Affairs. 90 (3): 2–7.
- Haseeb, Khair El-Din (13 March 2012). "The Arab Spring Revisited". Contemporary Arab Affairs. 5 (2): 185–197. doi:10.1080/17550912.2012.673384.
- Hussain, Muzammil M; Howard, Philip N (2013). "What Explains Successful Protest Cascades? ICTs and the Fuzzy Causes of the Arab Spring". International Studies Review. 15: 48–66. doi:10.1111/misr.12020.
- Bellin, Eva (January 2012). "Reconsidering the Robustness of Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Lessons from the Arab Spring". Comparative Politics. 44 (2): 127–149. doi:10.5129/001041512798838021. JSTOR 23211807.
- Kausch, Kristina (2009). "Morocco: Smart Authoritarianism Refined". In Emerson, Michael; Youngs, Richard. Democracy's Plight in the European Neighbourhood: Struggling Transitions and Proliferating Dynasties. Brussels: Centre for European Policy Studies. pp. 140–147. ISBN 9789290799269.
- Migdal, Joel S (1988). Strong Societies and Weak States: State-Society Relations and State Capabilities in the Third World. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 9780691010731.
- Putnam, Robert D (2001). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 9780743203043.
- North, Douglass C (1992). Transaction costs, institutions, and economic performance. San Francisco: ICS Press. p. 13.
- Hearns-Branaman, Jesse Owen (2012), 'The Egyptian Revolution did not take place: On live television coverage by Al Jazeera English', International Journal of Baudrillard Studies Vol 9, no 1 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 21 March 2015. Retrieved 17 May 2015.
- McCann, Colum (23 December 2011). "YEAR IN PICTURES: Arab Spring". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 May 2012.
- Lotan, Gilad; Graeff, Erhardt; Ananny, Mike; Gaffney, Devin; Pearce, Ian; Boyd, Danah (2011). "The Revolutions Were Tweeted: Information Flows During the 2011 Tunisian and Egyptian Revolutions". International Journal of Communication. 5: 1375–1405.
- Khondker, Habibul Haque (October 2011). "Role of the New Media in the Arab Spring". Globalizations. 8 (5): 675–679. doi:10.1080/14747731.2011.621287.
- Fahmy, Nabil. "Managing compromise in Middle East - Managing compromise in Middle East." Daily Star, The (Beirut, Lebanon) 25 Oct. 2016, Commentary: 7. NewsBank. Web. 24 Oct. 2016.
- "Tunisia Overview". www.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2016-10-27.
- "East Med." Middle East Monitor: East Med 26.11 (2016): 1-8. Business Source Complete. Web. 18 Nov. 2016.
- Bülent Aras & Richard Falk (2016) Five years after the Arab Spring: a critical evaluation, Third World Quarterly, 37:12, 2252-2258, DOI: 10.1080/01436597.2016.1224087
- Aras, Bülent, and Emirhan Yorulmazlar. "State, Region And Order: Geopolitics Of The Arab Spring." Third World Quarterly 37.12 (2016): 2259-2273. Business Source Complete. Web. 18 Nov. 2016.
- Gause III, F. Gregory (July 2011). "Why Middle East Studies Missed the Arab Spring: The Myth of Authoritarian Stability". Foreign Policy. 90 (4): 81–90. JSTOR 23039608.
- Campante, Filipe R; Chor, David (Spring 2012). "Why was the Arab World Poised for Revolution? Schooling, Economic Opportunities, and the Arab Spring". The Journal of Economic Perspectives. 26 (2): 167–187. doi:10.1257/jep.26.2.167. JSTOR 41495309.
- Acemoglu, Daron; Johnson, Simon; Robinson, James (4 January 2006). "Institutions as a Fundamental Cause of Long-Run Growth". In Aghion, Philippe; Durlauf, Steven N. Handbook of Economic Growth, Volume 1A. North-Holland. pp. 385–472. ISBN 9780444520418.
- Ruach, James E; Kostyshak, Scott (Summer 2009). "The Three Arab Worlds". Journal of Economic Perspectives. 23 (3): 165–188.
- Mecham, Quinn (October 24, 2014). "The evolution of Islamism since the Arab uprisings". Washington Post. Retrieved 28 October 2015.
- "Rethinking Political Islam". brookings.edu. Brookings. Retrieved 29 October 2015.
- Osman, Tarek (2016). Islamism: What It Means for the Middle East and the World. Yale University Press. p. 244. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- Aa. Vv. (2011), The New Arab Revolt: What Happened, What It Means, and What Comes Next, Council on Foreign Relations, Foreign Affairs, Maggio-Giugno.
- Abaza, M. (2011), Revolutionary Moments in Tahrir Square, American University of Cairo, 7 May 2011, www.isa-sociology.org.
- Abdih, Y. (2011), Arab Spring: Closing the Jobs Gap. High youth unemployment contributes to widespread unrest in the Middle East Finance & Development, in Finance & Development (International Monetary Fund), Giugno.
- Anderson, L (May–June 2011). "Demystifying the Arab Spring: Parsing the Differences between Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya". Foreign Affairs. 90 (3).
- Beinin, J. – Vairel, F. (2011), (a cura di), Social Movements, Mobilization, and Contestation in the Middle East and North Africa, Stanford, CA, Stanford University press.
- Brownlee, Jason; Masoud, Tarek; Reynolds, Andrew (2013). The Arab Spring: the politics of transformation in North Africa and the Middle East. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Browers, Michaelle (2009). Political Ideology in the Arab World: Accommodation and Transformation. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-76532-9.
- Cohen, R. (2011), A Republic Called Tahrir, in New York Times.
- Dabashi, Hamid. The Arab Spring: The End of Postcolonialism (Palgrave Macmillan; 2012) 182 pages
- Darwish, Nonie (28 February 2012). The demon We Don't Know: The Dark Side of Revolutions in the Middle East. John Wiley & Sons.
- Davies, Thomas Richard. (2014). "The failure of strategic nonviolent action in Bahrain, Egypt, Libya and Syria: ‘political ju-jitsu’ in reverse", Global Change, Peace and Security, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 299–313. ISSN 1478-1158 E-ISSN 1478-1166.
- Gardner, David (2009). Last Chance: The Middle East in the Balance. London: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-84885-041-5.
- Gause, F. G. (2011), Why Middle East Studies Missed the Arab Spring: The Myth of Authoritarian Stability, in Foreign Affairs, July/August.
- Goldstone, Jack A.; Hazel, John T., Jr. (14 April 2011). "Understanding the Revolutions of 2011: Weakness and Resilience in Middle Eastern Autocracies". Foreign Affairs.
- Haddad, Bassam; Bsheer, Rosie; Abu-Rish, Ziad, eds. (2012). The Dawn of the Arab Uprisings: End of an Old Order?. London: Pluto Press. ISBN 978-0-7453-3325-0.
- Kaye, Dalia Dassa (2008). More Freedom, Less Terror? Liberalization and Political Violence in the Arab World. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation. ISBN 978-0-8330-4508-9.
- Lutterbeck, Derek. (2013). Arab Uprisings, Armed Forces, and Civil-Military Relations. Armed Forces & Society, Vol. 39, No. 1 (pp. 28–52)
- Ottaway, Marina; Choucair-Vizoso, Julia, eds. (2008). Beyond the Façade: Political Reform in the Arab World. Washington, DC: Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. ISBN 978-0-87003-239-4.
- Pelletreau, Robert H. (24 February 2011). "Transformation in the Middle East: Comparing the Uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt and Bahrain". Foreign Affairs.
- Phares, Walid (2010). Coming Revolution: Struggle for Freedom in the Middle East. New York: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 978-1-4391-7837-9.
- Posusney, Marsha Pripstein; Angrist, Michele Penner, eds. (2005). Authoritarianism in the Middle East: Regimes and Resistance. Boulder: Lynne Rienner. ISBN 1-58826-317-7.
- Roberts, Adam, Michael J. Willis, Rory McCarthy and Timothy Garton Ash (eds.), Civil Resistance in the Arab Spring: Triumphs and Disasters, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2016. ISBN 978-0-19-874902-8.
- Rosiny, S. and Richter, T. (2016). "The Arab Spring: Misconceptions and Prospects". GIGA Focus Middle East No. 4/2016
- Steinitz, Chris and McCants, William (2014). Reaping the Whirlwind: Gulf State Competition after the Arab Uprisings. Arlington, VA: CNA Corporation.
- Struble Jr., Robert (22 August 2011). "Libya and the Doctrine of Justifiable Rebellion". Catholic Lane.
- Tausch, Arno (2015). Globalization, the environment and the future "greening" of Arab politics. Connecticut: REPEC.
- Tausch, Arno (2015). A Look at International Survey Data About Arab Opinion. Middle East Review of International Affairs, Vol. 17, No. 3 (Fall 2013), 57-74. New York: SSRN.
- United States. Congress. Senate. Committee on Foreign Relations. Subcommittee on International Operations and Organizations, Human Rights, Democracy, and Global Women's Issues. (2012). Women and the Arab Spring: Joint Hearing before the Subcommittee on International Operations and Organizations, Human Rights, Democracy, and Global Women's Issues and the Subcommittee on Near Eastern and South and Central Asian Affairs of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, First Session, November 2, 2011. Washington, D.C.: U.S. G.P.O.
- Tamil Amanda Jacoby. (2013). "Israel's relations with Egypt and Turkey during the Arab Spring: Weathering the Storm". Israel Journal of Foreign Affairs, VII (2), 29-42
- Arab Spring
- Right to Nonviolence
- Arab Spring, Christian Fall? – The situation of Christian minorities in the Middle East after the Arab Spring
- United States Institute of Peace
- Civil Movements: The Impact of Facebook and Twitter
- The first anniversary of the "Arab Spring" – What kind of change have taken place since then
- Middle East Constitutional Forum
- Live blogs
- Middle East at Al Jazeera
- Middle East protests at BBC News
- Arab and Middle East protests live blog at The Guardian
- Middle East Protests at The Lede blog at The New York Times
- Middle East protests live at Reuters
- Ongoing coverage
- A (Working) Academic Arab Spring Reading List collected peer-reviewed academic articles on the impact of social media on the Arab Spring
- Constitutional Transitions Timeline Collected legal and political changes and short analysis at Middle East Constitutional Forum
- Unrest in the Arab World collected news and commentary at Carnegie Endowment for International Peace
- Issue Guide: Arab World Protests, Council on Foreign Relations
- Middle East protests collected news and commentary at The Financial Times
- Unrest in the Arab World collected map, news and commentary at CNN
- "Arab and Middle East unrest collected news and commentary". The Guardian.
- "Arab and Middle East unrest – interactive timeline collected news and commentary". The Guardian.
- Rage on the Streets collected news and commentary at Hurriyet Daily News and Economic Review
- Middle East Unrest collected news and commentary at The National
- Middle East Uprisings collected news and commentary at Showdown in the Middle East website
- "The Arab Revolution collected news and commentary". Der Spiegel.
- The Middle East in Revolt collected news and commentary at Time
- The Arab Spring—One Year Later: The CenSEI Report analyzes how 2011's clamor for democratic reform met 2012's need to sustain its momentum. The CenSEI Report, 13 February 2012
- Interface journal special issue on the Arab Spring, Interface: a journal for and about social movements, May 2012
- "The Shoe Thrower's index (An index of unrest in the Arab world)". The Economist. 9 February 2011.
- "Interview with Tariq Ramadan: 'We Need to Get a Better Sense of the Trends within Islamism'". Qantara.de. 2 February 2011.
- Sadek J. Al Azm, "The Arab Spring: Why Exactly at this Time?" Reason Papers 33 (Fall 2011)
- Tracking the wave of protests with statistics, RevolutionTrends.org
- Arab uprisings: 10 key moments from BBC Middle East Editor Jeremy Bowden (10 December 2012)
- Can the "Arab Spring" present a real threat to Europe?
- The first anniversary of the "Arab Spring" – What kind of change have taken place since then
- Arab Spring, Christian Fall? – The situation of Christian minorities in the Middle East after the Arab Spring