Apollo 13 (film)

Apollo 13

A thin light-gray crescent Moon stretches diagonally from lower left to upper right against a black background, with a blue and white crescent Earth in the far distance. In front of the portion of the Moon that is in shadow on the left appears a small image of the Apollo 13 Command/Service Module joined to the Lunar Module, with vapor streaming from a hole in the side of the Service Module — the words "Houston, we have a problem" appear directly above the craft in white lower-case lettering. The names of the principal actors appear in white lettering at the top of the image, and the title APOLLO 13 in block white upper-case letters appears at the lower right.

Theatrical release poster
Directed by Ron Howard
Produced by Brian Grazer
Screenplay by William Broyles, Jr.
Al Reinert
Based on Lost Moon
by Jim Lovell
Jeffrey Kluger
Music by James Horner
Cinematography Dean Cundey
Edited by Daniel P. Hanley
Mike Hill
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release dates
  • June 30, 1995 (1995-06-30) (United States)
Running time
140 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $52 million[1]
Box office $355.2 million[2]

Apollo 13 is a 1995 American docudrama space adventure film directed by Ron Howard. The film stars Tom Hanks, Kevin Bacon, Bill Paxton, Gary Sinise, and Ed Harris. The screenplay by William Broyles, Jr., and Al Reinert, that dramatizes the aborted 1970 Apollo 13 lunar mission, is an adaptation of the book Lost Moon: The Perilous Voyage of Apollo 13 by astronaut Jim Lovell and Jeffrey Kluger.

The film depicts astronauts Lovell, Jack Swigert, and Fred Haise aboard Apollo 13 for America's third Moon landing mission. En route, an on-board explosion deprives their spacecraft of most of its oxygen supply and electric power, forcing NASA's flight controllers to abort the Moon landing, and turning the mission into a struggle to get the three men home safely.

Howard went to great lengths to create a technically accurate movie, employing NASA's technical assistance in astronaut and flight controller training for his cast, and even obtaining permission to film scenes aboard a reduced gravity aircraft for realistic depiction of the "weightlessness" experienced by the astronauts in space.

Released to cinemas in the United States on June 30, 1995,[3] Apollo 13 was nominated for nine Academy Awards (winning for Best Film Editing and Best Sound).[4] In total, the film grossed over $355 million worldwide during its theatrical releases. The film was very positively received by critics.


Astronaut Jim Lovell hosts a house party where guests watch Neil Armstrong's televised first human steps on the Moon. Afterwards Lovell, who had orbited the Moon on Apollo 8, tells his wife Marilyn that he intends to return to the Moon to walk on its surface.

Three months later, as Lovell conducts a VIP tour of NASA's Vertical Assembly Building, his boss Deke Slayton informs him that his crew will fly Apollo 13 instead of 14. Lovell, Ken Mattingly, and Fred Haise train for their new mission. A few days before launch, Mattingly is exposed to the measles, and the flight surgeon demands his replacement with Mattingly's backup, Jack Swigert. Lovell resists breaking up his team, but relents when Slayton threatens to bump his crew to a later mission. As the launch date approaches, Marilyn has a nightmare about her husband's safety, but goes to the Kennedy Space Center the night before launch to see him off.

On April 11, 1970, Flight Director Gene Kranz gives the go-ahead from Houston's Mission Control Center for the Apollo 13 launch. As the Saturn V rocket climbs through the atmosphere, a second stage engine cuts off prematurely, but the craft reaches its Earth parking orbit. After the third stage fires to send Apollo 13 to the Moon, Swigert performs the maneuver to connect the Command/Service Module Odyssey to the Lunar Module Aquarius and pull it away from the spent rocket.

Three days into the mission, the crew makes a television transmission, which the networks decline to broadcast live. After Swigert turns on the liquid oxygen tank stirring fans as requested, one of the tanks explodes, emptying its contents into space and sending the craft tumbling. The other tank is soon found to be leaking. Mission Control aborts the Moon landing, and Lovell and Haise must hurriedly power up Aquarius to use as a "lifeboat" for the return home, as Swigert shuts down Odyssey before its battery power runs out. In Houston, Kranz rallies his team to come up with a plan to bring the astronauts home safely, declaring "failure is not an option". Controller John Aaron recruits Mattingly to help him invent a procedure to restart Odyssey for the landing on Earth.

As Swigert and Haise watch the Moon pass beneath them, Lovell laments his lost chance of walking on its surface, then turns their attention to the business of getting home. With Aquarius running on minimal electrical power, the crew suffers freezing conditions, and Haise contracts a urinary infection and a fever. Swigert suspects Mission Control is withholding their inability to get them home; Haise angrily blames Swigert's inexperience for the accident; and Lovell quickly squelches the argument. When carbon dioxide approaches dangerous levels, ground control must quickly invent a way to make the Command Module's square filters work in the Lunar Module's round receptacles. With the guidance systems on Aquarius shut down, the crew must make a difficult but vital course correction by manually igniting the Lunar Module's engine.

Mattingly and Aaron struggle to find a way to turn on the Command Module systems without drawing too much power, and finally transmit the procedure to Swigert, who restarts Odyssey by transferring extra power from Aquarius. When the crew jettisons the Service Module, they are surprised to see the extent of the damage. As they release Aquarius and re-enter the Earth's atmosphere, no one is sure that Odyssey's heat shield is intact. The tense period of radio silence due to ionization blackout is longer than normal, but the astronauts report all is well and splash down in the Pacific Ocean.

As helicopters bring the three men aboard the recovery ship USS Iwo Jima for a hero's welcome, Lovell's voice-over describes the subsequent investigation into the explosion, and the careers of Haise, Swigert, Mattingly, and Kranz. He wonders if and when mankind will return to the Moon.


Top to bottom: Hanks, Bacon and Paxton, who portray astronauts Lovell, Swigert, and Haise, respectively.

The real Jim Lovell appears as captain of the recovery ship USS Iwo Jima; Howard had intended to make him an admiral, but Lovell himself, having retired as a captain, chose to appear in his actual rank. Horror film director Roger Corman, a mentor of Howard, appears as a congressman being given a VIP tour by Lovell of the Vehicle Assembly Building, as it had become something of a tradition for Corman to make a cameo appearance in his protégés' films.[9][10] The real Marilyn Lovell appeared among the spectators during the launch sequence.[6] CBS News anchor Walter Cronkite appears in archive news footage and can be heard in newly recorded announcements, some of which he edited himself to sound more authentic.[6]

In addition to his brother, Clint Howard, several other members of Ron Howard's family appear in the movie:

Brad Pitt was offered a role in the film, but turned it down to star in Se7en.[11] Reportedly, the real Pete Conrad expressed interest in appearing in the film.[6]

Jeffrey Kluger appears as a television reporter.[10]


Preproduction and props

While planning the film, director Ron Howard decided that every shot of the film would be original and that no mission footage would be used.[12] The spacecraft interiors were constructed by the Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center's Space Works, which also restored the Apollo 13 Command Module. Two individual Lunar Modules and two Command Modules were constructed for filming. While each was a replica, composed of some of the original Apollo materials, they were built so that different sections were removable, which enabled filming to take place inside the capsules. Space Works also built modified Command and Lunar Modules for filming inside a Boeing KC-135 reduced-gravity aircraft, and the pressure suits worn by the actors, which are exact reproductions of those worn by the Apollo astronauts, right down to the detail of being airtight. When the actors put the suits on with their helmets locked in place, air was pumped into the suits to cool them down and allow them to breathe, exactly as in launch preparations for the real Apollo missions.[13]

The real Mission Control Center consisted of two control rooms located on the second and third floors of Building 30 at the Johnson Space Center in Houston, Texas. NASA offered the use of the control room for filming, but Howard declined, opting instead to make his own replica from scratch.[6][12] Production designer Michael Corenblith and set decorator Merideth Boswell were in charge of the construction of the Mission Control set at Universal Studios. The set was equipped with giant rear-screen projection capabilities and a complex set of computers with individual video feeds to all the flight controller stations. The actors playing the flight controllers were able to communicate with each other on a private audio loop.[13] The Mission Control room built for the film was on the ground floor.[12] One NASA employee, who was a consultant for the film, said that the set was so realistic that he would leave at the end of the day and look for the elevator before remembering he was not in Mission Control.[6] By the time the film was made, the USS Iwo Jima had been scrapped, so her sister ship, the USS New Orleans, was used as the recovery ship, instead.[12]

"For actors, being able to actually shoot in zero gravity as opposed to being in incredibly painful and uncomfortable harnesses for special effects shots was all the difference between what would have been a horrible moviemaking experience as opposed to the completely glorious one that it actually was."

—Tom Hanks[13]

Howard anticipated difficulty in portraying weightlessness in a realistic manner. He discussed this with Steven Spielberg, who suggested using a KC-135 airplane, which can be flown in such a way as to create about 23 seconds of weightlessness, a method NASA has always used to train its astronauts for space flight. Howard obtained NASA's permission and assistance in filming in the realistic conditions aboard multiple KC-135 flights.[14]

Cast training and filming

To prepare for their roles in the film, Hanks, Paxton, and Bacon all attended the U.S. Space Camp in Huntsville, Alabama. While there, astronauts Jim Lovell and David Scott, commander of Apollo 15, did actual training exercises with the actors inside a simulated Command Module and Lunar Module. The actors were also taught about each of the 500 buttons, toggles, and switches used to operate the spacecraft.

The actors then traveled to Johnson Space Center in Houston, where they flew in NASA's KC-135 reduced-gravity aircraft to simulate weightlessness in outer space. While in the KC-135, filming took place in bursts of 25 seconds, the length of each period of weightlessness that the plane could produce. The filmmakers eventually flew 612 parabolas which added up to a total of three hours and 54 minutes of weightlessness. Parts of the Command Module, Lunar Module, and the tunnel that connected them were built by production designer Michael Corenblith, art directors David J. Bomba and Bruce Alan Miller, and their crew to fit inside the KC-135. Filming in such an environment, while never done before for a film, was a tremendous time saver. In the KC-135, the actors moved wherever they wanted, surrounded by floating props; the camera and cameraman were weightless, so filming could take place on any axis from which a shot could be set up.

In Los Angeles, Ed Harris and all the actors portraying flight controllers enrolled in a Flight Controller School led by Gerry Griffin, an Apollo 13 flight director, and flight controller Jerry Bostick. The actors studied audiotapes from the mission, reviewed hundreds of pages of NASA transcripts, and attended a crash course in physics.[12][13] Astronaut Dave Scott was impressed with their efforts, stating that each actor was determined to make every scene technically correct, word for word.[5]


Apollo 13: Music From The Motion Picture
Soundtrack album by James Horner
Released June 27, 1995
Genre Soundtrack
Length 77:41
Label MCA
Professional ratings
Review scores

The score to Apollo 13 was composed and conducted by James Horner. The soundtrack was released in 1995 by MCA Records and has seven tracks of score, eight period songs used in the film, and seven tracks of dialogue by the actors at a running time of nearly seventy-eight minutes. The music also features solos by vocalist Annie Lennox and Tim Morrison on the trumpet. The score was a critical success and garnered Horner an Academy Award nomination for Best Original Score.[19]

All music composed by James Horner, except where noted.

Apollo 13: Original Motion Picture Soundtrack
No. Title Length
1. "Main Title"   1:32
2. "One Small Step"   0:42
3. "Night Train" (performed by James Brown) 3:27
4. "Groovin'" (performed by The Young Rascals) 2:26
5. "Somebody to Love" (performed by Jefferson Airplane) 2:55
6. "I Can See for Miles" (performed by The Who) 4:09
7. "Purple Haze" (performed by The Jimi Hendrix Experience) 2:48
8. "Launch Control"   3:28
9. "All Systems Go/The Launch"   6:39
10. "Welcome to Apollo 13"   0:38
11. "Spirit in the Sky" (performed by Norman Greenbaum) 3:50
12. "House Cleaning/Houston, We Have a Problem"   1:34
13. "Master Alarm"   2:54
14. "What's Going On?"   0:34
15. "Into the L.E.M."   3:43
16. "Out of Time/Shut Her Down"   2:20
17. "The Darkside of the Moon" (performed by Annie Lennox) 5:09
18. "Failure is Not an Option"   1:18
19. "Honky Tonkin'" (performed by Hank Williams) 2:42
20. "Blue Moon" (performed by The Mavericks) 4:09
21. "Waiting for Disaster/A Privilege"   0:43
22. "Re-Entry & Splashdown"   9:05
23. "End Titles" (performed by Annie Lennox) 5:34


The film was released on 30 June 1995 in North America and on 22 September 1995 in the UK.

In September 2002 the film was re-released in IMAX. It was the first film to be digitally remastered using IMAX DMR technology.[20]

Box-office performance

The film was a box-office success, bringing in $355,237,933 worldwide.[2] The film's widest release was 2,347 theaters.[2] The film's opening weekend and the following two weeks placed it at #1 with a US gross of $25,353,380, which made up 14.7% of the total US gross.[2]

Apollo 13 box office revenue
Source Gross (US$) % Total All-time rank (unadjusted)
US $173,837,933[2] 48.9% 229[2]
Non-US $181,400,000[2] 51.1% N/A
Worldwide $355,237,933[2] 100.0% 282[2]


Review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reports that the film has an overall approval rating of 95%, based on 85 reviews, with a weighted average rating of 8.2/10. The site's critical consensus reads, "In recreating the troubled space mission, Apollo 13 pulls no punches: it's a masterfully told drama from director Ron Howard, bolstered by an ensemble of solid performances."[21] Metacritic, which assigns a normalized rating to reviews from mainstream critics, gave the film an average score of 77 out of 100, based on 22 critics, indicating "generally favorable reviews".[22]

Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times praised the film in his review saying: "A powerful story, one of the year's best films, told with great clarity and remarkable technical detail, and acted without pumped-up histrionics."[23] Richard Corliss from Time highly praised the film, saying: "From lift-off to splashdown, Apollo 13 gives one hell of a ride."[24] Edward Guthmann of San Francisco Chronicle gave a mixed review and wrote: "I just wish that Apollo 13 worked better as a movie, and that Howard's threshold for corn, mush and twinkly sentiment weren't so darn wide."[25] Peter Travers from Rolling Stone praised the film and wrote: "Howard lays off the manipulation to tell the true story of the near-fatal 1970 Apollo 13 mission in painstaking and lively detail. It's easily Howard's best film."[26] Movie Room Reviews said "This film is arguably one of the most dramatic and horrendous spaceflight stories ever told."[27]

Janet Maslin made the film an NYT Critics' Pick, calling it an "absolutely thrilling" film that "unfolds with perfect immediacy, drawing viewers into the nail-biting suspense of a spellbinding true story." According to Maslin, "like Quiz Show, Apollo 13 beautifully evokes recent history in ways that resonate strongly today. Cleverly nostalgic in its visual style (Rita Ryack's costumes are especially right), it harks back to movie making without phony heroics and to the strong spirit of community that enveloped the astronauts and their families. Amazingly, this film manages to seem refreshingly honest while still conforming to the three-act dramatic format of a standard Hollywood hit. It is far and away the best thing Mr. Howard has done (and Far and Away was one of the other kind)."[28] The academic critic Raymond Malewitz focuses on the DIY aspects of the "mailbox" filtration system to illustrate the emergence of an unlikely hero in late 20th-century American culture—"the creative, improvisational, but restrained thinker—who replaces the older prodigal cowboy heroes of American mythology and provides the country a better, more frugal example of an appropriate 'husband'."[29]

Ron Howard stated that, after the first test preview of the film, one of the comment cards indicated "total disdain"; the audience member had written that it was a "typical Hollywood" ending and that the crew would never have survived.[30] Marilyn Lovell praised Quinlan's portrayal of her, stating she felt she could feel what Quinlan's character was going through, and remembered how she felt in her mind.[5]

Home media

A 10th-anniversary DVD of the film was released in 2005; it included both the theatrical version and the IMAX version, along with several extras.[31] The IMAX version has a 1.66:1 aspect ratio.[32]

In 2006, Apollo 13 was released on HD DVD and on 13 April 2010 it was released on Blu-ray disc as the 15th-anniversary edition on the 40th anniversary of the Apollo 13 accident.[31]


Year Award Category Recipient Result Ref.
1996 Academy Awards (1996) Best Film Editing Mike Hill and Daniel Hanley Won [4]
Best Sound Rick Dior, Steve Pederson, Scott Millan, David MacMillan Won
Best Actor in a Supporting Role Ed Harris (lost to Kevin Spacey in The Usual Suspects) Nominated
Best Actress in a Supporting Role Kathleen Quinlan (lost to Mira Sorvino in Mighty Aphrodite) Nominated
Best Art Direction Michael Corenblith (art director), Merideth Boswell (set decorator) (lost to Restoration) Nominated
Best Original Dramatic Score James Horner (lost to Il Postino) Nominated
Best Picture Brian Grazer (lost to Braveheart) Nominated
Best Visual Effects Robert Legato, Michael Kanfer, Leslie Ekker, Matt Sweeney (lost to Babe) Nominated
Best Adapted Screenplay William Broyles Jr., Al Reinert (lost to Sense & Sensibility) Nominated
American Cinema Editors (Eddies) Best Edited Feature Film Mike Hill, Daniel P. Hanley Nominated
American Society of Cinematographers Outstanding Achievement in Cinematography in Theatrical Releases Dean Cundey Nominated
BAFTA Film Awards Best Production Design Michael Corenblith Won
Outstanding Achievement in Special Visual Effects Robert Legato, Michael Kanfer, Matt Sweeney, Leslie Ekker Won
Best Cinematography Dean Cundey Nominated
Best Editing Mike Hill, Daniel Hanley Nominated
Best Sound David MacMillan, Rick Dior, Scott Millan, Steve Pederson Nominated
Casting Society of America (Artios) Best Casting for Feature Film, Drama Jane Jenkins, Janet Hirshenson Nominated
Chicago Film Critics Association Awards Best Picture Apollo 13 Won
Directors Guild of America Outstanding Directorial Achievement in Motion Pictures Ron Howard, Carl Clifford, Aldric La'Auli Porter, Jane Paul Won
Golden Globe Awards Best Supporting Actor – Motion Picture Ed Harris as Gene Kranz Nominated
Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture Kathleen Quinlan as Marilyn Lovell Nominated
Best Director – Motion Picture Ron Howard Nominated
Best Motion Picture – Drama Apollo 13 Nominated
Heartland Film Festival Studio Crystal Heart Award Jeffrey Kluger Won
Hugo Awards Best Dramatic Presentation Apollo 13 Nominated
MTV Movie Awards Best Male Performance Tom Hanks as Jim Lovell Nominated
Best Movie Apollo 13 Nominated
PGA Awards Motion Picture Producer of the Year Award Brian Grazer, Todd Hallowell Won
Saturn Awards Best Action / Adventure / Thriller Film Apollo 13 Nominated
Screen Actors Guild Awards Outstanding Performance by a Male Actor in a Supporting Role Ed Harris as Gene Kranz Won
Outstanding Performance by a Cast Kevin Bacon, Tom Hanks, Ed Harris, Bill Paxton, Kathleen Quinlan and Gary Sinise Won
Space Foundation's Douglas S. Morrow Public Outreach Award Best Family Feature – Drama Apollo 13 Won [33]
Writers Guild of America Awards Best Screenplay Adapted from Another Medium William Broyles Jr., Al Reinert Nominated
Young Artist Awards Best Family Feature – Drama Apollo 13 Nominated
2005 American Film Institute AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes "Houston, we have a problem." (#50) Won [34]
2006 American Film Institute AFI's 100 Years... 100 Cheers Apollo 13 (#12) Won [34]

Technical and historical accuracy

Apollo 13 space capsule prop from the film

The film depicts the crew hearing a bang quickly after Swigert followed directions from mission control to stir the oxygen and hydrogen tanks. In reality, the crew heard the bang 93 seconds later.[35]

The film portrays the Saturn V launch vehicle being rolled out to the launch pad two days before launch. In reality, the launch vehicle was rolled out on the mobile launch platform using the crawler-transporter weeks before the launch date.

The movie depicts Swigert and Haise arguing about who was at fault. The show The Real Story: Apollo 13 broadcast on the Smithsonian Channel includes Haise stating that no such argument took place and that there was no way anyone could have foreseen that stirring the tank would cause problems.[36]

The dialogue between ground control and the astronauts was taken nearly verbatim from transcripts and recordings, with the exception of one of the taglines of the film, "Houston, we have a problem." (This quote was voted #50 on the list "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes".) According to the mission transcript, the actual words uttered by Jack Swigert were "Hey, we've got a problem here" (talking over Haise, who had started "Okay, Houston"). Ground control responded by saying "This is Houston, say again please." Jim Lovell then repeated, "Houston, we've had a problem."[37]

One other incorrect dialogue is after the re-entry blackout. In the movie, Tom Hanks (as Lovell) says "Hello Houston... this is Odyssey... it's good to see you again." In the actual re-entry, the Command Module's transmission was finally acquired by a Sikorsky SH-3D Sea King recovery aircraft which then relayed communications to Mission Control. CAPCOM and fellow astronaut Joe Kerwin (not Mattingly, who serves as CAPCOM in this scene in the movie) then made a call to the spacecraft "Odyssey, Houston standing by. Over." Jack Swigert, not Lovell, replied "Okay, Joe," and unlike in the movie, this was well before the parachutes deployed; the celebrations depicted at Mission Control were triggered by visual confirmation of their deployment.[38]

The tagline "Failure is not an option", stated in the film by Gene Kranz, also became very popular, but was not taken from the historical transcripts. The following story relates the origin of the phrase, from an e-mail by Apollo 13 Flight Dynamics Officer Jerry Bostick:

"As far as the expression 'Failure is not an option,' you are correct that Kranz never used that term. In preparation for the movie, the script writers, Al Reinart and Bill Broyles, came down to Clear Lake to interview me on 'What are the people in Mission Control really like?' One of their questions was 'Weren't there times when everybody, or at least a few people, just panicked?' My answer was 'No, when bad things happened, we just calmly laid out all the options, and failure was not one of them. We never panicked, and we never gave up on finding a solution.' I immediately sensed that Bill Broyles wanted to leave and assumed that he was bored with the interview. Only months later did I learn that when they got in their car to leave, he started screaming, 'That's it! That's the tag line for the whole movie, Failure is not an option. Now we just have to figure out who to have say it.' Of course, they gave it to the Kranz character, and the rest is history."[39]

A DVD commentary track, recorded by Jim and Marilyn Lovell and included with both DVD versions,[31] mentions several inaccuracies included in the film, all done for reasons of artistic license:

"We were working and watching the controls during that time. Because we came in shallow, it took us longer coming through the atmosphere where we had ionization. And the other thing was that we were just slow in answering."

—Jim Lovell, on the real reason for the delay in replying after Apollo 13's four-minute re-entry into Earth's atmosphere[40]

See also


 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  1. "CNN Showbiz News: Apollo 13". CNN. Retrieved 9 April 2009.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 "Apollo 13 (1995)". Box Office Mojo. Retrieved 9 April 2009.
  3. "Apollo 13". Box Office Mojo. 30 June 1995. Retrieved 11 September 2016.
  4. 1 2 "Academy Awards, USA: 1996". awardsdatabase.oscars.org. Archived from the original on July 23, 2008. Retrieved 8 April 2009.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "Lost Moon: The Triumph of Apollo 13". Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  6. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Apollo 13: 2-Disc Anniversary Edition (Disc 1), Special Features: Commentary track by Jim and Marilyn Lovell (DVD). Universal Studios. 19 April 2005.
  7. "Film Casting that Might Have Been for John Travolta and Richard Gere". Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  8. The character in the film is a composite of protocol officer Bob McMurrey, who relayed the request for permission to erect a TV tower to Marilyn Lovell, and an unnamed OPA staffer who made the request on the phone, to whom she personally denied it as Quinlan did to "Henry" in the film. "Henry" is also seen performing other OPA functions, such as conducting a press conference. Kluger, Jeffrey; Jim Lovell (July 1995). Lost Moon: The Perilous Voyage of Apollo 13 (First Pocket Books printing ed.). New York: Pocket Books. pp. 118, 209–210, 387. ISBN 0-671-53464-5.
  9. "Repertoire Of Horrors: The Films Of Roger Corman". Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  10. 1 2 3 Apollo 13: 2-Disc Anniversary Edition (Disc 1), Special Features: Commentary track by Ron Howard (DVD). Universal Studios. 19 April 2005.
  11. "Brad Pitt - A Quick Overview". Retrieved 1 January 2012.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 Apollo 13: 2-Disc Anniversary Edition (Disc 1), Production Notes (DVD). Universal Studios. 19 March 2005.
  13. 1 2 3 4 "Production Notes (Press Release)" (PDF). IMAX. Retrieved 9 April 2009.
  14. "Ron Howard Weightless Again Over Apollo 13's DGA Win". Retrieved 16 December 2011.
  15. Apollo 13 at AllMusic
  16. Filmtracks review
  17. Soundtrack.Net review
  18. Tracksounds review Archived April 1, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
  19. Apollo 13 soundtrack review at Filmtracks. Retrieved 24 February 2011.
  20. "History of IMAX". Retrieved 11 February 2011.
  21. "Apollo 13". Rotten Tomatoes. Archived from the original on 20 August 2010. Retrieved 24 August 2010.
  22. "Apollo 13 Reviews". Metacritic. Retrieved 25 September 2011.
  23. "Apollo 13: Roger Ebert". Chicago Sun-Times. 30 June 1995. Retrieved 11 April 2009.
  24. "Apollo 13: Review". Time. 3 July 1995. Retrieved 11 April 2009.
  25. Guthmann, Edward (30 June 1995). "Apollo 13 Review: Story heroic, but it just doesn't fly.". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 11 April 2009.
  26. "Apollo 13 Review: Rolling Stone". Rolling Stone. Retrieved 11 April 2009.
  27. "Movie Review: "Apollo 13"". Movie Room Reviews. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
  28. Maslin, Janet (30 June 1995). "Apollo 13, a Movie for the Fourth of July". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
  29. Malewitz, Raymond (5 September 2014). "getting Rugged With Thing Theory". Stanford UP. Retrieved 30 September 2014.
  30. Howard, Ron (8 December 2008). "A conversation about the film "Frost/Nixon"". Charlie Rose. Archived from the original on 11 December 2008. Retrieved 8 December 2008.
  31. 1 2 3 "Apollo 13 Blu-Ray Release". Universal Studios. Retrieved 29 September 2011.
  32. "Apollo 13 (DVD - 2005)". Lethbridge Public Library. Retrieved 30 December 2011.
  33. "Symposium Awards". National Space Symposium. Archived from the original on 3 February 2009. Retrieved 26 April 2009.
  34. 1 2 "AFI's 100 years...100 quotes" (PDF). AFI. Archived (PDF) from the original on 26 March 2009. Retrieved 13 April 2009.
  35. Apollo 13 Timeline, Apollo by the Numbers: A Statistical Reference, NASA History Series, Office of Policy and Plans, Richard W. Orloff, Sept. 2004. See "Oxygen tank #2 fans on. Stabilization control system electrical disturbance indicated a power transient. 055:53:20."
  36. The Real Story: Apollo 13, Season 4, Episode 3, 2012. See this section beginning at 15:18.
  37. "Page 231 of Apollo 13's transcript at NASA Johnson Space Center" (PDF). Retrieved 8 August 2015.
  38. "Apollo 13's re-entry transcript on Spacelog".
  40. 1 2 3 4 William, Lena (19 July 1995). "In Space, No Room For Fear". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 September 2011.

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