Antonio Sebastián de Toledo, 2nd Marquis of Mancera

Antonio Sebastián Álvarez de Toledo
Marqués de Mancera
Grandee of Spain
Caballero de Alcántara
Viceroy of New Spain
In office
October 15, 1664  December 8, 1673
Monarch Philip IV
Preceded by Diego Osorio
Succeeded by The Duke of Veragua
Personal details
Born 1608
Madrid, Spain
Died 1715
Madrid, Spain
Spouse(s) Leonora María del Carretto
Juliana Teresa de Meneses
Religion Catholic

Antonio Sebastián Álvarez de Toledo Molina y Salazar, 2nd Marquis of Mancera, Grandee of Spain[1] (c. 1608 – Madrid,1715) was a Spanish nobleman and diplomat who served as Viceroy of New Spain from October 15, 1664 to December 8, 1673.

Early life

Antonio Sebastián Álvarez de Toledo was born in Spain, but grew up in Peru, where his father, Pedro Álvarez de Toledo, 1st Marquis of Mancera, was viceroy from 1639 to 1648. As a young adult he joined the colonial navy and commanded squads against Dutch pirates. He returned to Spain with his father in 1648, and was subsequently majordomo of the royal palace, and then ambassador in Venice and Germany. On December 30, 1663 King Philip IV of Spain named him viceroy of New Spain, although the Council of the Indies had initially rejected him on grounds of his poor health.

As Viceroy of New Spain

The Marquis arrived in Chapultepec and remained there some days before making his formal entry into Mexico City. While in Chapultepec he gave orders that no celebration was to accompany his arrival, because the treasury of the colony had been exhausted by remittances to Spain and the war against the English. However he also ordered that the 16,000 pesos intended for the celebration be used for a filigreed golden box to be sent as a present to the king. He entered Mexico City October 15, 1664, and took up his office.

The viceroy and his wife, the virreina, became patrons of the seventeenth-century nun and savant, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz.[2]

In 1668, the English pirate Robert Searle sacked and destroyed the plaza of St. Augustine, Spanish Florida. He stole (among other things) the payroll intended for the garrison there.[3] To guard against a recurrence, Viceroy Álvarez de Toledo reorganized the Armada de Barlovento (coast guard). He ordered the construction of fast, heavily armed ships for the fleet. These expenses and other expenses of the administration nearly ruined the already depleted treasury. Nevertheless, the viceroy continued the reconstruction of the cathedral of Mexico City. Its ornate interior was finally finished in 1666, and the second dedication of the cathedral was held on December 22, 1667.

In other actions, the viceroy inspected the fortifications of San Juan de Ulúa, near Veracruz, and suspended work on the drainage system of Mexico City and the construction of a convent in Guanajuato for lack of money. He sent another unsuccessful expedition to Baja California. In 1670 Chichimecas invaded Durango, and the governor, Francisco González, abandoned its defense. He was able to save only his own property, and also left with the payroll of the soldiers.

In 1666 news of the death of King Philip IV reached Mexico City. A solemn memorial service was held in the as yet unfinished cathedral. Queen Mariana of Austria became regent for her son Charles II, who was 3 at the time of his father's death.

The Audiencia made trivial complaints against the viceroy to the Crown, such as that he arrived late at religious functions. Some of these complaints were forwarded to the viceroy. Toledo Molina y Salazar resigned the viceroyalty because of ill health, but the Crown did not accept his resignation. On the contrary, on April 3, 1670 it extended his term of office.

Later life

He finally left office in 1673, but still remained for some months in Mexico City. On April 2, 1674 he started the trip back to Spain. On April 22, at Tepeaca (Puebla), on the highway from Mexico City to Veracruz, his wife died and was interred there. He remained there for a time but eventually continued the trip alone and returned to Spain, where he died in 1715.


In 1655 the Marquis married Leonora María del Carretto, daughter of Francesco del Carretto, 2nd Marquis of Grana, with whom he had one daughter. In 1680 he married for a second time with Juliana Teresa de Meneses, widow of Francisco Ponce de León, 5th Duke of Arcos, but they had no descendants. The title passed to his nephew, Pedro Sarmiento, 3rd Marquis of Mancera.

By Leonora María del Carretto:


8. Enrique de Toledo
3rd Lord of Mancera
4. Luis de Toledo
4th Lord of Mancera
9. Isabel de Mendoza
2. Pedro Álvarez de Toledo
1st Marquis of Mancera
10. Sancho Martínez de Leiva
Lord of the house of Leiva
5. Isabel de Leiva
11. Leonor de Mendoza
1. Antonio Sebastián Álvarez de Toledo
6. Luis de Salazar
1st Lord of El Mármol
3. María Luisa de Salazar
3rd Lady of El Mármol
14. Felipe Enríquez de Lacarra
8th Lord of Ablitas
7. María Enríquez de Navarra
15. Mariana de Luna

Additional information


  1. in full, Spanish: Don Antonio Sebastián Álvarez de Toledo Molina y Salazar, segundo Marqués de Mancera, Grande de España, señor de Mármol y de las Cinco Villas, Virrey de Nueva España, embajador en Alemania y Venecia, consejero de Estado, caballero de la orden de Alcalá)
  2. Octavio Paz, Sor Juana, Cambridge: Belnap Press of Harvard University 1988, p. 21.
  3. James W. Raab (5 November 2007). Spain, Britain and the American Revolution in Florida, 1763-1783. McFarland. p. 10. ISBN 978-0-7864-3213-4.


  • Castro Pereira Mouzinho de Albuquerque e Cunha, Fernando de (1995). Instrumentário Genealógico - Linhagens Milenárias (in Portuguese). pp. 329–30. 
  • Hobbs, Nicolas (2007). "Grandes de España" (in Spanish). Archived from the original on 25 October 2008. Retrieved 15 October 2008. 
  • Instituto de Salazar y Castro. Elenco de Grandezas y Titulos Nobiliarios Españoles (in Spanish). periodic publication. 
  • Toledo, Antonio Sebastián de. Enciclopedia de México (in Spanish). 13. Mexico City. 1988. 
  • García Purón, Manuel (1984). México y sus gobernantes (in Spanish). 1. Mexico City: Joaquín Porrua. 
  • Orozco Linares, Fernando (1985). Gobernantes de México (in Spanish). Mexico City: Panorama Editorial. ISBN 968-38-0260-5. 
  • Orozco Linares, Fernando (1988). Fechas Históricas de México (in Spanish). Mexico City: Panorama Editorial. ISBN 968-38-0046-7. 
Government offices
Preceded by
Diego Osorio
Viceroy of New Spain
Succeeded by
The Duke of Veragua
Spanish nobility
Preceded by
Pedro Álvarez de Toledo
Marquis of Mancera
Succeeded by
Pedro Sarmiento
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