Anglican Diocese of Sydney

Diocese of Sydney

Ecclesiastical province New South Wales
Rite Anglican
Cathedral St. Andrew's Cathedral, Sydney
Current leadership
Archbishop Glenn Davies
The fraction of the population of the Sydney metropolitan area that stated their religious affiliation as Anglican in the 2011 census, divided geographically by statistical area level 1

The Diocese of Sydney is a diocese within the Province of New South Wales of the Anglican Church of Australia. The majority of the diocese is evangelical and low church in tradition and committed to a Reformed and Calvinist theology.

The diocese goes as far as Lithgow in the west and the Hawkesbury River in the north, and it includes much of the New South Wales south coast. It encompasses Australia's largest city as well as the city of Wollongong. It is, geographically, among the larger Anglican dioceses in the world, though the smallest diocese in the state of New South Wales and one of the smaller dioceses in Australia.

At a synod on 6 August 2013, Glenn Davies, an assistant bishop of the diocese, was elected to be the next Archbishop of Sydney.[1][2] He was installed as archbishop on 23 August.[3]



Richard Johnson

The Anglican ministry has been present in Sydney since its foundation in 1788. An Evangelical cleric, Richard Johnson, was the first chaplain to the new colony of New South Wales and was sponsored by the London Missionary Society. Other chaplains, notably Samuel Marsden and William Cowper, were also sent. Their positions were unusual as their stipends were paid partly by the colonial government and some (Marsden among them) received large grants of land from the governor of the colony. Some (again including Marsden) were also magistrates. The early chaplains (Johnson and Marsden) were under the authority of the governor, as per their commissions.

Thomas Hobbes Scott

In 1825 Thomas Hobbes Scott the former secretary to J. T. Bigge, the commissioner of the inquiry into the administration of the colony of New South Wales by Governor Lachlan Macquarie, was appointed the first Archdeacon of Australia while still under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Calcutta. The archdeaconry was created as a corporation sole.

In his position as archdeacon, Scott was a member of the Legislative Council (ranking next behind the Lieutenant Governor) and had almost complete control of all church matters. The Colonial Office appointed him King's Visitor to schools and so he became responsible for public education throughout the colony. His educational policy was guided by the principle that the church and education were inseparably connected and the funds to sustain them were administered by the same trustees. Since this view was shared by the Colonial Office, the Governor Bathurst, in March 1826, created the Corporation of the Trustees of Church and School Lands, granting one-seventh of the lands of New South Wales to the corporation for the purposes of the Church of England and education in the colony. Scott became the ex officio Vice-President (the President being the Governor.)

It was mainly the combination of Archdeacon Scott's official positions as a member of the Legislative Council, as King's Visitor and also as Vice-President of the Corporation of Church and School Lands and of the substantial nature of the granting of the lands to the Corporation that led to Courts later holding that at this time the Church of England was the established church in the Colony of New South Wales. Scott retired in 1829 and was succeeded by William Grant Broughton. Scott was shipwrecked while returning to England and assisted the Anglican ministry in the new colony of Western Australia and then in establishing a Church of England chaplaincy in Batavia in the then Dutch East Indies.

William Grant Broughton

William Grant Broughton, first Bishop of Sydney

William Grant Broughton succeeded Scott in 1828. During the time that Broughton was the archdeacon the corporation was abolished and the Church of England lost its favoured place and other Christian churches were also awarded glebe land in towns in the colony.

The Diocese of Australia was formed by letters patent dated 18 January 1836[4] and Broughton was enthroned as Bishop of Australia on 5 June 1836. He then lost the ex officio position on the Legislative Council (though regaining it briefly later before the creation of a partly elected Council in 1842). He continued an education policy and established The King's School, Sydney.

Formation of the diocese

The Diocese of Tasmania separated from the Diocese of Australia in 1842. By letters patent of 25 June 1847,[5] the Diocese of Australia was divided into the four separate dioceses of Sydney, Adelaide, Newcastle and Melbourne. Broughton remained as Bishop of Sydney; he became metropolitan bishop and the Diocese of Sydney recognised as the metro-political see over Newcastle, Adelaide, Melbourne, Tasmania and New Zealand. The Diocese of Sydney has been led by an archbishop since 1897.

Moore College

The diocese initially relied upon priests and bishops who were trained in and had migrated from England and Ireland. Broughton had attempted to found a theological college but it closed in 1849. In 1856, Moore Theological College opened, the official theological college (seminary) for Sydney Anglicans. Since that time it has grown in size and stature. In 2006 it had in excess of 450 students, many of whom end up in ministry outside the ecclesiastical and geographical boundaries of the Sydney diocese.[6]

Anglican Church League

Since the beginning of the 20th century, Evangelicals within the diocese were concerned about growing Anglo-Catholicism and Modernism within the church and fought very hard to preserve Sydney's Evangelical nature—especially as Tractarian clergy had started arriving from England in the 19th century. Out of this came the Anglican Church League, a body of Evangelicals who worked in the politics of the diocese to further the Evangelical cause.[7] Currently, all bishops and most senior officeholders in the diocese are members of the Anglican Church League.

Anglicans Together

In response to the dominance of Evangelicalism and Calvinism in the diocese, a number of other Anglicans and parishes identified with different Anglican traditions of churchmanship, such as Anglo-Catholicism and Broad Church, have joined in the formation of an organisation called Anglicans Together. The organisation supports traditional forms of Anglican liturgy, such as the Book of Common Prayer, as well as encouraging a broader spectrum of theological perspective. Members of Anglicans Together also support celebrating the Eucharist every Sunday and its focus as the principal form of Christian worship. The use of vestments for clergy and an emphasis on the Catholic nature of Anglicanism are also supported.

Characteristics of Sydney Anglicanism

Evangelical distinctives

Most Sydney Anglicans stand within the Reformed and English Puritan traditions. Evangelicals within the diocese see themselves as standing in the heritage of the English Reformation and direct the diocese accordingly. As such the diocese officially holds to belief in the divine inspiration and authority of scripture in line with the official statement of Anglican belief, the "Articles of Religion" (more commonly known as the Thirty-nine Articles). There are, however, a number of beliefs that differentiate the Evangelicalism of the Diocese of Sydney from other Evangelical and Calvinist traditions:

  1. Typological interpretation of the Old Testament—a biblical theological approach which interprets Old Testament prophecies regarding the Land of Israel, the Jerusalem Temple and the Davidic Kingdom as having a typological rather than literal fulfilment in the New Covenant; thus rejecting dispensationalism and Christian Zionism which are more characteristic of American Evangelicalism. This approach is described by Graeme Goldsworthy, a Sydney theologian, in his book According to Plan.[8]
  2. Identification of church with the local congregation as opposed to a diocese or denomination.[9] Sydney's ecclesiology, influenced by the former Principal and Vice-Principal of Moore College David Broughton Knox and Donald Robinson (later respectively Principal of George Whitefield College and Archbishop of Sydney) among others, believes that the church is God's people meeting around God's Word.[10] This leads to church meetings being centred around the public reading, explanation and response to God's Word. Further, Anglicans in Sydney generally identify themselves primarily with their local congregation rather than a denomination or institution, and place less emphasis on the celebration of Holy Communion (called the Eucharist by many Anglicans) than do Anglicans of many other dioceses.
  3. The importance of evangelism and a personal faith.
  4. Amillennialism—a belief that the reign of Jesus (the millennium) was inaugurated with his death and resurrection and will be consummated with his second coming (cf. premillennialism and postmillennialism).

Sydney Anglicans have been described as fundamentalist and sect-like by their opponents.[11] They respond by arguing that whereas fundamentalists interpret all parts of the Bible literally Evangelicals in Sydney interpret the Bible in the context of the literary genre.

Affiliation with Anglican doctrine

For most of the last 450 years Anglicans worldwide have used the Book of Common Prayer framed by Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer in 1549, revised significantly in 1552 and modified slightly in 1662. They have also subscribed to, or otherwise acknowledged as foundational, the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion as listed in the Book of Common Prayer. While the Book of Common Prayer is no longer used in many Sydney churches, the diocese still fully affirms the doctrine and principles embodied within it as they interpret them. In keeping with the theologically reformed character of the 39 Articles, the diocese holds the view that all church doctrine and traditions are subject to the authority of Scripture.

Disassociation from Anglican tradition

There are some areas of church practice that are being challenged within the diocese that have potential ramifications for the wider Anglican Communion. The system of episcopal order is under review with some eager to redefine some of the roles of the threefold order of deacons, priests and bishops.

The diocese is considering whether the laying on of hands at confirmation could be performed by the rector of the parish.[12] Although confirmation by a priest is common practice in Orthodoxy and is permitted in certain circumstances in Roman Catholicism, in the Anglican tradition confirmation can only be celebrated by a bishop. In 2005, possibly as a precursor to this change, the diocese formally removed the requirement of confirmation prior to partaking of communion for those who have been baptised as adults.[13] However, it is common practice throughout the diocese to allow all adults who profess genuine repentance and Christian faith to receive communion regardless of whether they have been baptised or confirmed.

Lay presidency (also known as "Lay Administration of Holy Communion") is being considered, whereby the Lord's Supper could be celebrated by deacons and authorised laity, including women.[14] According to current church law, only ordained priests and bishops are allowed to preside at the Lord's Supper. An ordinance to permit lay presidency was not proceeded with at the diocesan synod in 2005 due to concerns regarding its legality.[15] However, this issue hasn't died and new motions are being drafted ready to be put before the next diocesan synod.[16] In October 2008, the Australian Church Record and the Anglican Church League published The Lord's Supper in Human Hands. Who Should Administer?, which describes the forty-year discussion of this issue in Sydney and summarises the debate. Although Sydney was not the first diocese, nor the only one, in which this issue has been raised, it has been discussed within the diocese for a number of years. This publication has been widely distributed so that the Anglican Communion might examine and consider Sydney's discussions.

Despite the use of the term priest to describe the ordained leader of the local parish church in Anglicanism, the term is generally avoided in the Sydney diocese because of its association with the sacrificial priesthood in the Old Testament and, also, its association with Roman Catholicism. The view taught at the diocese's Moore Theological College is that the priestly work has been completed, once for all, by the death and resurrection of Jesus Christ and that the local church leader is simply a minister of God's people, rather than mediating between the people and God. Sydney Anglicans believe that this is faithful to the heart of Anglicanism, rather than a break from tradition. When a distinction must be made from bishops, deacons and lay ministers, the term presbyter is often used.

Liturgical practice

Despite their adherence to the 39 articles, and with the exception of the few churches that have High Church practices, the 1662 Book of Common Prayer is rarely used. Likewise, few churches sing canticles and responses, either from 1662 or An Australian Prayer Book.

The term "meeting" is sometimes used interchangeably with "service". The most notable example of this is St Andrew's Cathedral. Many meetings at Evangelical churches in the diocese do not use a prayer book or a liturgical form of service. There is often an early morning (e.g. 8.00 am) service that follows Morning Prayer or Holy Communion from An Australian Prayer Book. Even where no formal liturgy is used many core elements of Anglican liturgy may still be used for congregational participation, such as a corporate confession of sin, saying of creeds and corporate prayers. A screen and projector may be used in place of books. Lay or congregational participation in Sydney churches also occurs through Bible readings, leading intercessory prayer, leading the meetings, testimonies and interviews, singing and playing music. In many parishes fermented communion wine has been replaced with grape juice. Predominantly, the reason given for this is to be sensitive to people for whom alcohol could cause a problem (cf. 1 Cor 8:13).


Since 1911 the diocese has prohibited the wearing of the chasuble, a vestment now generally worn elsewhere in Australia for the celebration of the Eucharist. Traditionally in Sydney most clergy have worn the choir habit for all services but a few have also worn a cope and stole when celebrating the Eucharist and at certain other services. This prohibition against chasubles was originated by Archbishop Wright, an English Evangelical, who did so on the basis that the vestment was deemed illegal, relying on decisions of the English ecclesiastical courts as finally upheld in the Privy Council in Read v Bishop of Lincoln [1892] AC 664 (see also Ritualist movement). The main objection to this vestment in the mind of Sydney Anglicans is that it is associated with the high church idea of a "sacrificing" priesthood. That idea is contrary to Sydney's low church views of both Holy Communion and of the role and function of the ordained ministry. The archbishop's practice has since been codified by a synod ordinance, making Sydney the only diocese in the whole Anglican Communion that continues to ban the wearing of chasubles, reinforcing the perceived ongoing disapproval of Anglo-Catholics in the diocese.

The cope, therefore, is often worn at Anglo-Catholic churches where the celebrant at the Eucharist would conventionally wear the chasuble. In general those clergy who robe wear a cassock, surplice, scarf and, occasionally, also an academic hood. Since about 1990 there has sometimes been a practice of wearing a long surplice without a cassock, particularly through the summer. Most clergy in the diocese, however, dispense even with these robes, conducting church services in street clothes ranging from a suit and tie or clerical collar, to smart casual attire.

Influential people

Theological influences

The Sydney diocese has been shaped by the activities and beliefs of many influential people throughout the 20th century:

Notable former archbishops

Relationships, politics and policy

Relationship with Australian Anglicanism

For most of the last century the uncompromisingly Evangelical positions adopted by the leaders of the Sydney diocese have contrasted with that of most other Anglican dioceses in Australia which have tended to be more Anglo-Catholic in their style of worship. This contrast helped to delay the adoption of a constitution for the Australian church and, in 1942, led to legal action being taken, ostensibly by members of the parish of Canowindra, a small town in the Diocese of Bathurst, but strongly supported by members of the Sydney diocese, Broughton Knox and T. C. Hammond (who both gave evidence in the ensuing proceedings) against the then Bishop of Bathurst, Arnold Lomas Wylde. In these proceedings, which ended in a split decision in the High Court of Australia, those bringing the action sought to prevent the parishes in the Bathurst diocese from using "The Red Book", a devotional manual authorised by the bishop.[21] The action was partly successful but led to a bitterness and distrust of the Sydney diocese by many Anglo-Catholics which has continued to the present.

These differences in teaching and style of worship have become more marked in recent years as those leading the Diocese of Sydney allege that other dioceses have become theologically liberal. This has placed continued strain on relationships with those other dioceses.[22][23] As a consequence of this some parishes outside the Sydney diocese are reluctant to invite Sydney-trained clergy to ministry positions and, conversely, clergy trained outside Sydney are rarely invited to minister within the Sydney diocese. However, many of the large and growing Evangelical churches in dioceses such as Adelaide and Perth continue to recruit some clergy and lay staff trained at Moore College.[24]

Some Sydney Anglicans have also been involved in planting independent evangelical churches in other parts of Australia. Along with ministers from other Christian traditions, eleven Anglican clergy have moved from Sydney to help establish these independent Evangelical churches. Prominent Sydney clergy such as Phillip Jensen and the Moore College principal, John Woodhouse, have been on the boards of some of these churches. At the 2005 synod links between Sydney Anglicans and independent Evangelical churches were strengthened, with the possibility of these independent churches becoming affiliated with the Sydney diocese.[25]

Relationship with the charismatic movement

The Sydney diocese has been less influenced by the charismatic movement than some other dioceses. While there are some parishes with strong charismatic leanings, most clergy support the doctrinal position that Christians are "filled" with the Holy Spirit at the time of conversion rather than as a separate Christian experience (as believed by some Pentecostals). As with other mainstream Christian church traditions, there is a fundamental belief in the central role of the Holy Spirit in conversion and sanctification of believers. "Charismatic" manifestations of the Holy Spirit, such as speaking in tongues, are considered to have ceased after the apostles, whereas the Fruit of the Holy Spirit is expected to be exhibited by all Christians.

Relationships within the diocese

Within the Sydney diocese there are parishes which support a range of doctrinal positions or use formal liturgical styles of worship that differ from the Evangelicalism which is dominant within the diocese. Differences can become politicised prior to the election of an archbishop with a number of clergy coalescing into like-minded groups. The two most visible groups are The Anglican Church League who support the Diocese's majority Evangelical position and Anglicans Together who are more theologically broad in their understanding of the Bible and promote a diversity of liturgical practice, which they believe to be in line with the Lambeth Quadrilateral.

Anglican realignment

The diocese has been a major force in the Anglican realignment movement, since the election of the first openly non-celibate gay bishop in the Anglican Communion, Gene Robinson, by the Episcopal Church of the United States in 2003. The Diocese of Sydney and Archbishop Peter Jensen in particular have been active in the Global Anglican Future Conference (GAFCON) and in the Global South, seeking a renewed Anglican Communion, more faithful to their understanding of Christian orthodoxy. In this way, the Diocese of Sydney supported the birth of the Anglican Church in North America as an alternative to the Episcopal Church and, in October 2009, their synod approved a resolution calling for the admission of the new province into the Anglican Communion. The resolution stated that the "Synod welcomes the creation of the Province of the Anglican Church in North America (ACNA) under the leadership of Archbishop Bob Duncan and notes the GAFCON Primates Council recognition of the ACNA as genuinely Anglican and its recommendation that Anglican Provinces affirm full communion with the ACNA. Synod therefore expresses its desire to be in full communion with the ACNA". It was also decided to seek a General Synod motion expressing the Anglican Church of Australia purpose to be in full communion with the new province.[26]

Sydney diocese and politics

Some external commentators (including the retired American bishop John Shelby Spong, Sydney Morning Herald writer Chris McGillion and journalist Muriel Porter) have attempted to link Sydney Evangelicals to the conservative "right". While most Sydney clergy strongly support conservative positions on controversial areas such as euthanasia, homosexuality and abortion, they also strongly support social justice issues such as protection of the rights of the underprivileged and the rights of unauthorised immigrants seeking refugee status.[27][28]

This "left" wing element has a lengthy history. Archdeacon R. B. Hammond (no relation to T. C. Hammond) who was the rector of St Barnabas' Broadway operated soup kitchens during the 1930s and was then a founders of a self-help community which became known as Hammondville where unemployed people built homes, established market gardens and so found work. More lately Sir Marcus Loane was noted for his criticisms of the then Liberal-Country Party coalition governments on issues relating to Vietnamese refugees after the end of the Vietnam War, seeking the ready admission of refugees to Australia. Loane was also outspoken on issues involving uranium mining. There have been clergy willing to speak out against the more conservative policies of the Diocese of Sydney. In 2007, Keith Mascord (now of Mission Australia) sent an open letter to the Standing Committee, revealing disgruntlements of people within the church (both leaders and congregation members) and suggesting alternative ways forward.[29][30]

The perception that Sydney Anglicans have adopted fundamentalism (see comments under Evangelical distinctives) has led to assumptions that the diocese gives implicit support for "right leaning" politicians in Australia.[11][31]

Ecumenical relations

While the Anglican communion's largest evangelical diocese has worked closely with its Roman Catholic counterpart on social issues for many years, the doctrinal divisions between Calvinists and Roman Catholics are too great to be overcome by a common distaste for liberal Anglicanism. On 28 October 2009, the Diocese of Sydney's synod adopted a resolution urging all Anglicans to reject the Vatican's proposal of personal ordinariates for disaffected Anglo-Catholic traditionalists.[32]

Sexual abuse, incidence and policy

The diocese has been disturbed by revelations of sexual abuse. Victor Roland Cole, a member of the standing committee and a former president of the Anglican Church League, was named in the Paedophile Enquiry of the Royal Commission into the New South Wales Police Service. In March 2003, Cole was defrocked on the grounds of sexual misconduct involving a 14-year-old girl.[33] Other cases were examined by the commission but not dealt with in public hearings. In 1996 the diocese responded to the Royal Commission by establishing the Church Discipline Ordinance which provides a mechanism for allegations and complaints to be dealt with and wrongdoers to be removed from their positions in the diocese.[34] The diocese is committed to safe ministry and the wellbeing of all those who participate in the activities of the church and there is zero tolerance for misconduct and abuse. The Professional Standards Unit (PSU) is responsible for receiving and taking care of complaints of child abuse or sexual misconduct by clergy and church workers.[35]

Women's ordination

One of the main differences between Sydney and the majority of other Anglican dioceses in Australia has been its unwillingness to allow the ordination of women to the priesthood (itself a term infrequently used in the diocese) or presbyterate. This issue is an indicator of Sydney's specificity in ecclesiology and theology to most other dioceses within the Anglican Communion.

See also


  1. "New Anglican Archbishop of Sydney chosen", The Age (Melbourne), 6 August 2013.
  2. "Sydney Anglicans have a new Archbishop", Sydney Anglicans website, 6 August 2013.
  3. "New Archbishop enjoins "prayer for this city", Sydney Anglicans website, 24 August 2013.
  4. (Accessed 21 December 2015)
  5. Supplement to the New South Wales government gazette, 31 December 1847 (Accessed 21 December 2015)
  6. "The Students". Archived from the original on 2006-08-05.
  7. Anglican Church League, Sydney, Australia
  8. Goldsworthy, Graeme. According to Plan. Intervarsity Press, 1991
  9. See Knox, David Broughton (2000). Payne, Tony; Birkett, Kirsten; Beilharz, Karen, eds. Selected Works: Volume II: Church and Ministry. Kingsford, NSW: Matthias Media.
  10. See for example, Robinson, Donald (2007). Bolt, Peter; Thompson, Mark, eds. Donald Robinson Selected Works: Volume 1 - Assembling God’s People. Camperdown, NSW: Australian Church Record. pp. 249–50.
  11. 1 2 "Dr Muriel Porter and Bishop John McIntyre on the 'New Puritans'". The Religion Report: Radio National. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 2006. Archived from the original on 29 May 2006. Retrieved 15 June 2006.
  12. Morris, Linda (7 October 2005). "Anglicans split over rites review". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 June 2006.
  13. "Confirmation reform: next step Australia". Archived from the original on 2005-10-27.
  14. Morris, Linda (20 September 2004). "Sacrament no longer solely a priestly duty". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 15 June 2006.
  15. Collins, Madeleine (3 September 2004). "Lay administration: no law for Synod". Archived from the original on 2007-11-09. Retrieved 6 September 2007.
  16. "Report of the Standing Committee meeting held on 23 July 2007". 23 July 2007. Archived from the original on 2 September 2007. Retrieved 6 September 2007.
  17. Packer, Jim. "Evangelical Annihilationism in Review". Retrieved 2 May 2007.
  18. Payne, Tony; Jensen, Phillip. "To whom shall we go?". Retrieved 2 May 2007.
  19. – archbishop jensen
  20. McGillion, Chris. "Will new Sydney Abp confirm worst fears?". Archived from the original on 2006-08-21.
  21. "Wylde, Arnold Lomas (1880–1958)". Australian Dictionary of Biography Online. Retrieved 19 October 2006.
  22. Simons, Margaret (6 January 2001). "Australia's Church Leader's Views on Sexuality Ignite Controversy". Christianity Today. Archived from the original on 4 October 2006. Retrieved 19 October 2006.
  23. Gibbs, Stephen (28 May 2004). "Father, Son and duelling bishops". The Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 19 October 2006.
  24. Baird, Julia (20 October 2005). "Numbers rule as Team Sydney muscles up". Opinion. Retrieved 15 June 2006.
  25. Synod Summary – 10 November 2005: Circular to Ministers, Churchwardens, Parish Councils and Synod Representatives
  26. We see them and embrace them, 28 October 2009
  27. Rowbotham, Jill (17 October 2005). "Top Anglican backs PM's approach". The Australian. Retrieved 17 June 2006.
  28. "(Transcript of a radio interview with Peter Jensen, Anglican Archbishop of Sydney)". Australian Broadcasting Commission. 2007. Archived from the original on 18 October 2007. Retrieved 17 October 2007.
  29. "Letters to the Standing Committee of the Diocese of Sydney Written by Dr Keith Mascord", St Luke's Church, Enmore website. Retrieved 20 October 2008.
  30. Report of the Standing Committee meeting held on 15 October 2007, Sydney Diocesan Secretariat. Retrieved 20 October 2008.
  31. Thompson, Mark (2005). "The New Puritans or the True Anglicans?". The Melbourne Anglican. Anglican Media Melbourne. Archived from the original on 22 August 2006. Retrieved 15 June 2006.
  32. Mixed response to Pope’s offer to Anglicans
  33. Kelly Burke (16 March 2003). "Priest defrocked for sexual misconduct". The Sydney Morning Herald.
  34. Archbishop Peter F Jensen (10 July 2002). "Archbishop Jensen's pastoral statement on Sydney's child sexual abuse protocols".
  35. "Professional Standards Unit".

External links

Diocesan organisations

Churchmanship organisations

Sydney Anglican culture

Coordinates: 33°52′26″S 151°12′22″E / 33.87389°S 151.20611°E / -33.87389; 151.20611

This article is issued from Wikipedia - version of the 10/16/2016. The text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike but additional terms may apply for the media files.