Amsterdam Centraal station

"Amsterdam Centraal" redirects here. It is not to be confused with Amsterdam-Centrum.
Amsterdam Centraal

Station building in 2011
Location Stationsplein 15
Amsterdam, Netherlands
Coordinates 52°22′42″N 4°54′0″E / 52.37833°N 4.90000°E / 52.37833; 4.90000Coordinates: 52°22′42″N 4°54′0″E / 52.37833°N 4.90000°E / 52.37833; 4.90000
Operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen
Line(s) Amsterdam–Rotterdam railway
Amsterdam–Arnhem railway
Amsterdam–Zutphen railway
Nieuwediep–Amsterdam railway
Amsterdam–Schiphol railway
Platforms 11
Tracks 15
Connections GVB Amsterdam Metro: 51, 53, 54
GVB Amsterdam Tram: 1, 2, 4, 5, 9, 13, 16, 17, 24, 26
GVB Amsterdam Ferry: 901, 902, 905, 906, 907
Connexxion: 170, 172, 174, 272, 391, 392, 394, N70, N71, N92, N94
EBS: 301, 304, 306, 307, 308, 312, 314, 315, 316, 319, N01, N04, N10, N14
GVB: 18, 21, 22, 32, 33, 34, 35, 48, 748, 752, 753, 754, 755, 757, 758, 759, 761, 763
Architect Pierre Cuypers
Other information
Station code Asd
Opened 15 October 1889
Passengers 162.000 passenger daily (2013-2014 statistics) [1]
Preceding station   ICE   Following station
TerminusIntercity-Express 100
toward Basel SBB
Intercity-Express 120
toward Paris Nord
Thalys Intercity 9300Terminus
toward Lille Europe
Thalys (winter)
Thalys (summer)
NS International
TerminusIntercity (DB) 140
toward Breda
Intercity Direct 900Terminus
NS Hispeed 1000
NS International 9200
TerminusCity Night Line 419
Nederlandse Spoorwegen
toward Schagen
NS Intercity 800
toward Maastricht
NS Nachtnet 1400
toward Enkhuizen
NS Intercity 1500
toward Deventer
NS Intercity 2100Terminus
toward Dordrecht
NS Intercity 2200
toward Vlissingen
NS Intercity 2600
toward Den Helder
NS Intercity 3000
toward Nijmegen
toward Vlissingen
NS Intercity 12600
toward Enkhuizen
NS Intercity 14500Terminus
toward Uitgeest
NS Sprinter 4000
TerminusNS Sprinter 4600
toward Zwolle
toward Uitgeest
NS Sprinter 4700Terminus
toward Zandvoort
NS Sprinter 5400
toward Hoofddorp
NS Sprinter 5800
TerminusNS Sprinter 7400
toward Rhenen
NS Sprinter 14800
toward Hoorn
Amsterdam Metro
TerminusLine 51
toward Westwijk
Line 53
toward Gaasperplas
Line 54
toward Gein
toward Noord
Line 52
from 2018
toward Station Zuid

Amsterdam Centraal (Dutch pronunciation: [ɑmstər'dɑm sɛn'traːl]; abbreviation: Asd) is the largest railway station of Amsterdam, Netherlands, and a major national railway hub. Used by 260,000 passengers a day,[2] it is the second-busiest railway station in the country after Utrecht Centraal and the most visited national heritage site of the Netherlands.[3][4]

National and international railway services at Amsterdam Centraal are provided by NS, the principal rail operator in the Netherlands. Amsterdam Centraal is the northern terminus of Amsterdam Metro Routes 51, 53, and 54, operated by municipal public transport operator GVB. It is also served by a number of GVB tram and ferry routes as well as local and regional bus routes operated by GVB, Connexxion and EBS.

Amsterdam Centraal was designed by Dutch architect Pierre Cuypers and first opened in 1889. It features a Gothic/Renaissance Revival station building[5] and a cast iron platform roof spanning approximately 40 metres.

Since 1997, the station building, underground passages, metro station and the surrounding area have been undergoing major reconstruction and renovation works to accommodate the North-South Line metro route, which is due to open in 2018.


Amsterdam Centraal station, designed by Pierre Cuypers, c. 1890-1900.
First station roof (1889), designed by L.J. Eijmer, as seen from platform 2.

Amsterdam Centraal was designed by Pierre Cuypers, who is also known for his design of the Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. While Cuypers was the principal architect, it is believed that he focused mostly on the decoration of the station building and left the structural design to railway engineers.[6] The station was built by contractor Philipp Holzmann. The new central station replaced Amsterdam Willemspoort Station, which had closed in 1878, as well as the temporary Westerdok Station used from 1878 to 1889. The idea for a central station came from Johan Rudolph Thorbecke, then the Netherlands Minister of the Interior and responsible for the national railways, who, in 1884, laid two proposals before the Amsterdam municipal council. In the first proposal, the station would be situated between the Leidseplein and the Amstel river. In the other, it would be built in the open harbour front allowing for the station to be connected to the existing main lines in the area to the west and the south, but also to a projected new northern line.[7]

Cuypers' design of the station building in many ways strongly resembled his other architectural masterpiece, the Rijksmuseum, of which the construction had begun in 1876. It features a palace-like, Gothic/Renaissance Revival facade,[5] with two turrets and many ornamental details and stone reliefs referring to the capital city's industrial and commercial importance. Cuypers' station reflects the romantic nationalistic mood in the late nineteenth-century Netherlands, with its many decorative elements glorifying the nation's economic and colonial power at the time.[8][9]

As with the Rijksmuseum, the station's overall architecture reminded many contemporaries of medieval cathedrals.[6] For that reason, as well as for the fact that it became increasingly clear that the national government wanted the station to be built at the city's waterfront effectively separating the city from the IJ lake, the plan was highly controversial. In his book on the history of city, Amsterdam historian Geert Mak writes that:

Almost all of Amsterdam's own experts and others involved thought this to be a catastrophic plan, 'the most disgusting possible attack on the beauty and glory of the capital'. Nevertheless, the building of the Central Station in front of the open harbour was forced through by the railway department of the Ministry of Transport in The Hague, and the Home Secretary, Thorbecke. Finally, the plan made its way through the Amsterdam municipal council by a narrow majority.[10]

Construction works started in 1882.[11] The station is built on three interconnected artificial islands in the IJ lake. These islands were created with sand taken from the dunes near Velsen, which had become available as a result of the excavation of the North Sea Canal. The islands together are known as Stationseiland (Station Island). Like many other structures in Amsterdam, the station was built on wooden piles (8,687 pieces). The construction of the station was delayed because of the instability of the soil, which set back the completion of the work by several years. The station building was completed in 1884, but the commission to Cuypers did not include the roofwork of the platforms. Therefore, the station did not yet feature its distinctive station roof. This roof, consisting of 50 curved trusses and a span of almost 45 meters, was designed by L.J. Eijmer, a civil engineer with the private railroad company Staatsspoorwegen. The roof was manufactured by Andrew Handyside and Company of Derby, England.[12] Cuypers did design the decorations for the trusses and the gable ends. On October 15, 1889, the station was officially opened, drawing large numbers of crowds. The visitors were charged 0.25 guilders to see the station; in the first two days after the opening, several dozens of thousands paid.[13] The opening of the central station marked the city's transition from a waterfront city to an inland city, spurring further redevelopment activities in the city centre which included the realignment of streets and the filling up of canals. The waterways would soon be replaced by tramways and cars as the primary modes of transport in the city.[14]

In 1920, the East Wing of the station (the lower end of building) was demolished and replaced by "The East", a postal service building designed by Cuypers' son Joseph. A second, narrower and longer but similar roof on the north side of the station was completed in 1922. In the 1950s, a pedestrian tunnel was created between the station and the road in front of it, which terminated inside the station. With the construction of the metro tunnel in the late 1970s, both the pedestrian tunnel and the road in front of the station disappeared. In the early 1980s, the central hall and middle tunnel were considerably widened and modernized. In the 1990s, a new signaling post was built on the western side of the station. In addition, the number of tracks on that side was expanded in order to increase capacity in the direction of Sloterdijk station. In 1996, a third, 'centre roof' designed by Jan Garvelink, architect at Holland Rail Consult, was built between the two existing roofs, whereby all platforms at the station were now covered.

Since 1997, the station has been continuously undergoing reconstruction works because of the development of the North-South Line of the Amsterdam Metro, which was originally planned to be completed in 2014. Due to several setbacks, some at the Amsterdam Centraal building site, the line is now expected to open fully in 2018. Construction works at the station include a renovation of the station building, including the reconstruction of original station features which had disappeared over the years, a redevelopment of the Stationsplein (Station Square), and a new bus station on the north side of the station. In 2000, the new western passenger tunnel opened replacing the main tunnel in the centre of the station which was shut down enabling the construction of the new metro line. In 2004, platforms 10-15 were extended to accommodate international high-speed rail services. Construction works for the bus station commenced in 2003, opened in 2009 and finished in 2014. It includes the construction of a fourth station roof and a station hall with space for shops and restaurants. It replaces 5 small bus stations and several isolated bus stops across the Station Island. With all buses eventually moving to the new bus station on the north side, the Station Island should only be accessible to pedestrians, cyclists and trams.

The three passenger tunnels underneath the station were upgraded and provided with convenience stores and kiosks. In addition, two new passageways were created enabling the hosting of larger retail stores, geared towards passengers who have more time to spend at the station.


From 2017 there will be further reconstruction works at the station. A number of platforms will be widened making use of the tracks which do not currently have platforms. This means that alterations will be made in the tunnels under the platforms again. Furthermore, the eastern tunnel will be made wider, based on the example of the middle tunnel. The old railway bridges to the east of the station will also be replaced.

Railway services

Amsterdam Centraal is a terminus station on many historical railway lines in the Netherlands: the Amsterdam–Rotterdam railway (1839), also known as the Oude Lijn, via Haarlem, Leiden and Den Haag; the Den Helder–Amsterdam railway (1865), also known as the Staatslijn K, from Den Helder to Amsterdam via Alkmaar and Uitgeest; the Amsterdam-Zutphen railway (1874), also known as the Oosterspoorweg, via Hilversum, Amersfoort and Apeldoorn; the Amsterdam-Elten railway (1856), also known as the Rhijnspoorweg, via Utrecht and Arnhem; and the Amsterdam-Schiphol railway (1986), also known as the Westtak Ringspoorbaan.

As of December 2014, Amsterdam Centraal is served by 13 international rail routes and 15 national rail routes.[15]

International rail

Train Operator(s) From Via To Freq. Service
Thalys 9300 NS, NMBS, SNCF Amsterdam Centraal Schiphol Airport - Rotterdam - Antwerp - Brussels-South Paris Nord 10/day High-speed
Thalys 9900 NS, NMBS, SNCF Amsterdam Centraal Schiphol Airport - Rotterdam - Antwerp - Brussels-South Lille 2/day High-speed
Thalys 9920 NS, NMBS, SNCF Amsterdam Centraal Schiphol Airport - Rotterdam - Antwerp - Brussels-South - Albertville Bourg-Saint-Maurice 1/week High-speed, winter only
Thalys 9926 NS, NMBS, SNCF Amsterdam Centraal Schiphol Airport - Rotterdam - Antwerp - Brussels-South - Avignon Marseille 1/week High-speed, summer only
InterCity 9200 NS, NMBS Amsterdam Centraal Schiphol Airport - Den Haag HS - Rotterdam - Antwerp - Brussels Airport - Brussels-Central Brussels-South 16/day
Intercity-Express 100 NS, DB Amsterdam Centraal Utrecht - Arnhem - Cologne - Frankfurt Airport Basel SBB 1/day High-speed
Intercity-Express 120 NS, DB Amsterdam Centraal Utrecht - Arnhem - Cologne Frankfurt (Main) Hbf 5/day High-speed
Intercity (DB) 140 NS, DB Amsterdam Centraal Amersfoort - Hengelo - Osnabrück - Hanover Berlin Hbf 8/day
CityNightLine 140 DB Amsterdam Centraal Utrecht - Arnhem - Cologne Munich 1/day Night train
CityNightLine 40419 DB Amsterdam Centraal Utrecht - Arnhem - Cologne - Basel SBB Zurich 1/day Night train

National rail

National rail services at the station are provided by NS, the principal rail operator in the Netherlands. NS offers four types of rail service from Amsterdam Centraal: Intercity Direct operating on the HSL-Zuid high-speed rail line, long-distance InterCity services, local Sprinter services, and the Nachtnet night service.

Train Operator(s) From Via To Freq. Service
Intercity Direct 900 NS Amsterdam Centraal Schiphol Airport - Rotterdam Centraal Breda 2/hour High-speed
Intercity Direct 1000 NS Amsterdam Centraal Schiphol Airport Rotterdam Centraal 2/hour High-speed
InterCity 800 NS Alkmaar Amsterdam Centraal - Utrecht Centraal - 's-Hertogenbosch - Eindhoven Maastricht 2/hour
InterCity 1500 NS Enkhuizen Hoorn - Amsterdam Centraal - Hilversum Deventer 2/hour * Runs only 1x per 2 hours between Amersfoort and Deventer outside peak hours
  • Does not run between Amersfoort and Deventer at evenings and weekends
InterCity 2100 NS Amsterdam Centraal Schiphol Airport - Leiden Centraal Den Haag Centraal 2/hour
InterCity 2200 NS Amsterdam Centraal Haarlem - Leiden Centraal - Den Haag HS - Rotterdam Centraal Dordrecht 2/hour
InterCity 2600 NS Lelystad Centrum Amsterdam Centraal - Schiphol Airport - Den Haag HS - Rotterdam Centraal Vlissingen 2/hour
InterCity 3000 NS Den Helder Alkmaar - Amsterdam Centraal - Utrecht Centraal - Arnhem Nijmegen 2/hour
InterCity 14500 NS Enkhuizen Hoorn Amsterdam Centraal 2/hour Peak hours only
Sprinter 4000 NS Uitgeest Zaandam - Amsterdam Centraal - Breukelen - Woerden Rotterdam Centraal 2/hour
Sprinter 4600 NS Amsterdam Centraal Weesp - Almere - Lelystad Zwolle 2/hour
Sprinter 4700 NS Uitgeest Zaandam - Amsterdam Centraal - Utrecht Centraal Rhenen 2/hour
Sprinter 5400 NS Amsterdam Centraal Haarlem Zandvoort aan Zee 2/hour
Sprinter 5800 NS Hoofddorp Schiphol Airport - Amsterdam Centraal - Hilversum Amersfoort Vathorst 2/hour
Sprinter 14800 NS Hoorn Alkmaar - Uitgeest - Haarlem Amsterdam Centraal 2/hour
Nachtnet 1400 NS Amsterdam Centraal Schiphol Airport - Den Haag HS - Rotterdam Centraal - Utrecht Centraal Amsterdam Centraal 1/hour Night train

Railway station layout

Amsterdam Centraal station at night
Amsterdam Centraal station from the side

Amsterdam Centraal has fifteen tracks, eleven of which are alongside a platform: four island platforms with tracks along the full length on both sides (tracks 4/5, 7/8, 10/11, 13/14); one side platform with one track along the full length (track 15); and one bay platform (or side platform) with two tracks (tracks 1/2). All tracks along a platform have an A-side and a B-side, except for track 1. This means that there are 21 places where a train can be positioned for passenger access. One track has a side track along the full length (track 2); on the other side, there is track only at the west end (track 1; bay platform), along the rest of the platform is the station building. Tracks 3, 6, 9, and 12 have no platform.

Diagram (platforms are yellow, tunnels are grey, north is up):

15a ========== ========== ========== ========== 15b
14a ========== ========== ========== ========== 14b
13a ========== ========== ========== ========== 13b
12a ========== ========== ========== ========== 12b
11a ========== ========== ========== ========== 11b
10a ========== ========== ========== ========== 10b
9a ========== ========== ========== ========== 9b
8a ========== ========== ========== ========== 8b
7a ========== ========== ========== ========== 7b
6a ========== ========== ========== ========== 6b
5a ========== ========== ========== ========== 5b
4a ========== ========== ========== ========== 4b
3a ========== ========== ========== ========== 3b
2a ========== ========== ========== ========== 2b
1 ====

Other transport

Metro services

Metro train at Centraal Station
Amsterdam Metro network

Amsterdam Centraal metro station (called Centraal Station on the Amsterdam Metro system) opened in 1980. It is the terminus station of three routes: Route 51 (Amsterdam Centraal - Amstelveen Westwijk), Route 53 (Amsterdam Centraal - Gaasperplas), and Route 54 (Amsterdam Centraal - Gein). In 2018, the new Route 52 (Noord Station - Zuid Station) is due to open, which will also call at Amsterdam Centraal.

The metro station is only accessible with an OV-chipkaart smart card, the national fare system for public transport in the Netherlands. Disposable cards for one-hour, one-day or multiple-day use are available at ticket machines in the metro station hall.

As of 2014, the following metro services call at Centraal Station:

Metro Route Operator From To Via Frequency
51 GVB Centraal Station Amstelveen Westwijk Weesperplein, Amstelstation, Station RAI, Zuid Station, Amstelveen Centrum 5/hour (Mon-Fri), 4/hour (Sat-Sun)
52 (from 2018) GVB Noord or Amsterdam Zuid Noord or Amsterdam Zuid Vijzelgracht , De Pijp , Europaplein (RAI) To be decided
53 GVB Centraal Station Gaasperplas Weesperplein, Amstelstation, Station Diemen-Zuid 5/hour (Mon-Fri), 4/hour (Sat-Sun)
54 GVB Centraal Station Gein Weesperplein, Amstelstation, Station Duivendrecht, Station Bijlmer ArenA 5/hour (Mon-Fri), 4/hour (Sat-Sun)

Tram services

Stationsplein, tram stop for routes 1, 2, 5, 13, 17

Tram services at Amsterdam Centraal are provided from two tram stations on Stationsplein (Station Square), situated in front of the station's main entrance. Tram routes 1, 2, 5, 13 and 17 call on the west side (Westzijde, Platform B) of the square, the other routes call on the east side (Oostzijde, Platform A).[16]

Tram Service Operator From To Via Frequency
1 GVB Centraal Station Osdorp De Aker Leidseplein, Overtoom, Surinameplein, Station Lelylaan, Pieter Calandlaan (Osdorp) 8 to 10x per hour (Monday-Friday), 6x per hour (Weekends)
2 GVB Centraal Station Nieuw Sloten Leidseplein, Museumplein, Willemsparkweg, Hoofddorpplein, Heemstedestraat metro station, Sloten 8 to 10x per hour (Monday-Friday), 6x per hour (Weekends)
4 GVB Centraal Station Station RAI Rembrandtplein, De Pijp, Rivierenbuurt 6x per hour. 4x per hour (Evenings/Sundays)
5 GVB Centraal Station Amstelveen Binnenhof Leidseplein, Museumplein, Station Zuid, Amstelveen 8 to 10x per hour (Monday-Friday), 6x per hour (Weekends)
9 GVB Centraal Station Diemen Sniep Rembrandtplein, Waterlooplein, Artis, Amsterdam Oost, Linneausstraat (Near Station Muiderpoort, Middenweg, Diemen West 6 to 8x per hour. 7 to 10x per hour (Saturday). 6 to 8x per hour (Sundays)
13 GVB Centraal Station Geuzenveld Westermarkt, Oud West, Overtooseveld Noord, Jan van Galenstraat metro station, Slotermeer 6 to 8x per hour. 4 to 8x per hour (Sundays)
16 GVB Centraal Station De Boelelaan/VU Rembrandtplein, Vijzelstraat, De Pijp, Museumplein, Haarlemmermeer Station, Amstelveenseweg metro station, VUmc 8 to 10x per hour (Monday-Friday), 6 to 8x per hour (Saturday), 4 to 6x per hour (Sundays)
17 GVB Centraal Station Dijkgraafplein (Osdorp) Westermarkt, Marnixstraat Bus Station, Kinkerstraat, Surinameplein, Station Lelylaan, Meer en Vaart, Osdorp Central 6 to 10x per hour (Monday-Friday), 6x per hour (Weekend)
24 GVB Centraal Station De Boelelaan/VU Rembrandtplein, Vijzelstraat, De Pijp, Museumplein, Stadionweg, Amstelveenseweg metro station, VUmc 8 to 10x per hour (Monday-Friday), 6 to 8x per hour (Saturday), 4 to 6x per hour (Sundays)
26 GVB Centraal Station IJburg Piet Heinkade, Rietlandpark, Zuiderzeeweg (P&R), IJburglaan 6 to 10x per hour. 6x per hour (Saturdays). 4 to 6x per hour (Sundays)

Bus services

City services

A GVB route 33 bus leaves Amsterdam Centraal.

As of December 2014, GVB city bus routes 32, 33, 34 and 35 depart from the new bus platform G on the lake side of the station (IJzijde or 'IJ side'). GVB routes 18, 21, 22 and 48 depart from Platform F, situated south of the station square on the Prins Hendrikkade, opposite the Victoria Hotel.[16][17]

Bus Service Operator Platform From To Via
18 GVB F Centraal Station Slotervaart Westerdok, De Baarsjes, Mercatorplein, Postjesweg metro station, Johan Huizingalaan
21 GVB F Centraal Station Geuzenveld Westerdok, Van Hallstraat, Haarlemmerweg, Bos en Lommerplein, De Vlugtlaan metro station, Geuzenveld Noord
22 GVB F Muiderpoort Station Spaarndammerbuurt Zeeburg, Centraal Station, Westerdok, Zaansestraat
32 GVB G Centraal Station Buikslotermeerplein Waddenweg, Purmerweg, Nieuwendam
33 GVB G Centraal Station Nieuwendam Waddenweg, Buikslotermeerplein, IJdoornlaan
34 GVB G Centraal Station Buikslotermeerplein Mosplein, Banne-Buiksloot
35 GVB G Centraal Station Molenwijk Mosplein, Klaprozenweg, Tuindorp Oostzaan, Oostzaanerdijk
48 GVB F Station Sloterdijk Borneo Eiland Transformatorweg, Spaarndammerdijk, Westerdok, Centraal Station, Java-eiland, KNSM-eiland

City nightbuses

Night bus services operate daily, starting around midnight and running until around 6am. From Monday to Thursday, night buses run once per hour. On Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays, they run twice per hour. As of December 2014, all night buses depart from platform G on the lake side of the station and call at all main entertainment areas in Amsterdam's city centre, including Leidseplein and Rembrandtplein.[17]

Bus Service Operator From To
748 GVB Centraal Station Sloterdijk
752 GVB Centraal Station Geuzenveld
753 GVB Centraal Station Osdorp
754 GVB Centraal Station Amstelveen
755 GVB Centraal Station Gaasperdam
757 GVB Centraal Station Bijlmer ArenA
758 GVB Centraal Station Station Zuid, Sloten
759 GVB Centraal Station IJburg via Muiderpoort Station
761 GVB Centraal Station Nieuwendam
763 GVB Centraal Station Molenwijk

Noord Holland services

An EBS bus at the new bus station.

EBS (part of Egged) regional bus services depart from a new bus station on the IJ lake side of the station (beyond platform 15). This can be reached from the main central walkway via escalators. Connexxion bus services depart from the Kamperbrug bus stops on the city centre side of the station.

South of Amsterdam services

These services stop at the Prins Hendrikkade (Platform F), which is situated south of Stationsplein (Station Square).[16] The services are operated by Connexxion.

Ferry services

IJ lake ferry at Amsterdam Centraal.

Free of charge ferry services from Amsterdam Centraal to the borough of Amsterdam North across the IJ lake depart from the quay on the northern side of the station at the De Ruijterkade.

Ferry Service Operator From To Frequency Notes
NDSM-werfveer GVB Centraal Station NDSM-werf 2 to 4x per hour (Monday to Saturday). 2x per hour (Sunday) Late night services Friday (Saturday early morning) and Saturday (Sunday early morning). On Sunday mornings limited services.
Buiksloterwegveer GVB Centraal Station Buiksloterweg 24 hours a day, every 6 to 12 minutes (Monday to Sunday)
IJpleinveer GVB Centraal Station IJplein 2 to 4x per hour(Monday to Saturday). 2x per hour (Sunday) On Sunday mornings limited services.

See also


Inline citations
  2. "Amsterdam Central Station Island". Amsterdam Centraal Station Island Coordination Bureau. Retrieved 2014-08-02.
  3. "Stationsplein 9 Amsterdam". Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
  4. "Amsterdam Central Station Island". Amsterdam Central Station Island Coordinator Bureau. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
  5. 1 2 "Revival Styles: Holland". European Architecture. Retrieved 2014-08-03.
  6. 1 2 "Royal waiting room at Amsterdam Central Station". Netherlands Architecture Institute. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
  7. "Centraal Station (1882-1889)" (in Dutch). City of Amsterdam. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
  8. Wintle, Michael. 'Visualising Commerce and Empire: Decorating the Built Environment of Amsterdam', in: de Waard, Marco (ed.). Imagining Global Amsterdam: History, Culture, and Geography in a World City. Amsterdam University Press 2012.
  9. Banerjee, Jacqueline (2013-08-10). "Central Station, Amsterdam, by P. J. H. Cuypers (1827-1921), with Adolf L. van Gendt (1835-1901)". The Victorian Web. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
  10. Mak, Geert. Amsterdam. A Brief Life of the City. 1999
  11. Groß, p. 50
  12. Robert Thorne, "Handyside, Andrew (1805–1887)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 accessed 9 Jan 2008
  13. "Stations in aanbouw". Spoor (in Dutch). Nederlandse Spoorwegen. 2014 (3): 50–51. September 2014.
  14. "Centraal Station (1882-1889)" (in Dutch). City of Amsterdam. Retrieved 2014-08-04.
  15. "Dienstregeling 2015 (Timetable 2015)" (in Dutch). Nederlandse Spoorwegen. Retrieved 2014-12-14.
  16. 1 2 3 "Map of Central Station". GVB. Retrieved 2014-12-14.
  17. 1 2 "Bus station IJzijde". GVB. Retrieved 2014-12-14.
General sources

External links

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