For other uses, see Amazon (disambiguation).
Wounded Amazon of the Capitol, Rome.
Amazon preparing for a battle (Queen Antiop or Armed Venus), by Pierre-Eugène-Emile Hébert 1860 (National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.).

In Greek mythology, the Amazons (Greek: Ἀμαζόνες, Amazónes, singular Ἀμαζών, Amazōn) were a race of women warriors. Scythian women were the real-world basis for the myth.[1][2]

Herodotus reported that they were related to the Scythians (an Iranian people) and placed them in a region bordering Scythia in Sarmatia (modern territory of Ukraine). Other historiographers place them in Anatolia,[3] or sometimes Libya.[4]

Notable queens of the Amazons are Penthesilea, who participated in the Trojan War, and her sister Hippolyta, whose magical girdle, given to her by her father Ares, was the object of one of the labours of Hercules. Amazon warriors were often depicted in battle with Greek warriors in amazonomachies in classical art.

The Amazons have become associated with many historical people throughout the Roman Empire period and Late Antiquity. In Roman historiography, there are various accounts of Amazon raids in Anatolia. From the early modern period, their name has become a term for female warriors in general. Amazons were said to have founded the cities and temples of Smyrna, Sinope, Cyme, Gryne, Ephesus, Pitania, Magnesia, Clete, Pygela, Latoreria and Amastris; according to legend, the Amazons also invented the cavalry.[5]


The origin of the word is uncertain. It may be derived from an Iranian ethnonym *ha-mazan- "warriors", a word attested indirectly through a derivation, a denominal verb in Hesychius of Alexandria's gloss «ἁμαζακάραν· πολεμεῖν. Πέρσαι» ("hamazakaran: 'to make war' in Persian"), where it appears together with the Indo-Iranian root *kar- "make" (from which Sanskrit karma is also derived).[6]

Alternatively, a Greek derivation from *ṇ-mṇ-gw-jon-es "manless, without husbands" (a- privative and a derivation of *man- also found in Slavic muzh) has been proposed, an explanation deemed "unlikely" by Hjalmar Frisk.[7] 19th century scholarship also connected the term to the ethnonym Amazigh.[8] A further explanation proposes Iranian *ama-janah "virility-killing" as source.[9]

The Hittite researcher Friedrich Cornelius assumes that there had been the land Azzi with the capital Chajasa in the area of the Thermodon-Iris Delta on the coast of the Black Sea. He brings its residents in direct relation to the Amazons, namely based on its name (woman of the land Azzi = 'Am'+ 'Azzi' = Amazon) and its customs (matriarchal custom of promiscuous sexual intercourse, even with blood relatives). The location of that land as well as his conclusions are controversial. — Gerhard Pollauer[10]

Among Classical Greeks, amazon was given a folk etymology as originating from a- (ἀ-) and mazos (μαζός), "without breast", connected with an etiological tradition once claimed by Marcus Justinus who alleged that Amazons had their right breast cut off or burnt out.[11] There is no indication of such a practice in ancient works of art,[12] in which the Amazons are always represented with both breasts, although the left is frequently covered (see photos in article). Adrienne Mayor suggests the origin of this myth was due to the word's etymology.[12][13]


Amazon wearing trousers and carrying a shield with an attached patterned cloth and a quiver. Ancient Greek Attic white-ground alabastron, c.470 BC, British Museum, London.

The legendary Amazons were thought to have lived in Pontus,[14] which is part of modern-day Turkey near the southern shore of the Euxine Sea (the Black Sea). There they formed an independent kingdom under the government of a queen named Hippolyta or Hippolyte ("loose, unbridled mare"). This area is known to have been occupied in the Late Bronze Age by a transhumant group known to the Hittites as the Kaŝka; though they were not directly known to Greeks, modern archaeologists have determined that they finally defeated their enemies, the Hittites, about 1200 BC; they left no inscriptions. The Amazons were supposed to have founded many towns, amongst them Smyrna, Ephesus, Sinope, and Paphos. According to the dramatist Aeschylus, in the distant past they had lived in Scythia (modern Crimea), at the Palus Maeotis ("Lake Maeotis", the Sea of Azov). According to Plutarch, the Amazons lived in and about the Don river, which the Greeks called the Tanais; but which was called by the Scythians the "Amazon". The Amazons later moved to Themiscyra (modern Terme) on the River Thermodon (the Terme river in northern Turkey). Herodotus called them Androktones ("killers of men"), and he stated that in the Scythian language they were called Oiorpata, which he asserted had this meaning.


In some versions of the myth, no men were permitted to have sexual encounters or reside in Amazon country; but once a year, in order to prevent their race from dying out, they visited the Gargareans, a neighbouring tribe. The male children who were the result of these visits were either killed, sent back to their fathers or exposed in the wilderness to fend for themselves; the girls were kept and brought up by their mothers, and trained in agricultural pursuits, hunting, and the art of war. In other versions when the Amazons went to war they would not kill all the men. Some they would take as slaves, and once or twice a year they would have sex with their slaves.[15]

The intermarriage of Amazons and men from other tribes was also used to explain the origin of various people; for example, the story of the Amazons settling with the Scythians (Herodotus, Histories 4.110.1-117.1).[16]

In the Iliad, the Amazons were referred to as Antianeirai ("those who fight like men").

The Amazons appear in Greek art of the Archaic period and in connection with several Greek legends. They invaded Lycia, but were defeated by Bellerophon, who was sent against them by Iobates, the king of that country, in the hope that he might meet his death at their hands.[17][18] The tomb of Myrine is mentioned in the Iliad; later interpretation made of her an Amazon: according to Diodorus,[19] Queen Myrine led her Amazons to victory against Libya and much of Gorgon.

They attacked the Phrygians, who were assisted by Priam, then a young man.[20] In his later years, however, towards the end of the Trojan War, his old opponents took his side against the Greeks under their queen Penthesilea "of Thracian birth", who was slain by Achilles.[21][22][23][24][25][26]

One of the tasks imposed upon Hercules by Eurystheus was to obtain possession of the girdle of the Amazonian queen Hippolyta.[27][28][29][30] He was accompanied by his friend Theseus, who carried off the princess Antiope, sister of Hippolyta, an incident which led to a retaliatory invasion of Attica,[31][32] in which Antiope perished fighting by the side of Theseus. In some versions, however, Theseus marries Hippolyta and in others, he marries Antiope and she does not die; by this marriage with the Amazon Theseus had a son Hippolytus. The battle between the Athenians and Amazons is often commemorated in an entire genre of art, amazonomachy, in marble bas-reliefs such as from the Parthenon or the sculptures of the Mausoleum of Halicarnassus.

Thalestris, Queen of the Amazons, visits Alexander (1696)

The Amazons are also said to have undertaken an expedition against the island of Leuke, at the mouth of the Danube, where the ashes of Achilles had been deposited by Thetis. The ghost of the dead hero appeared and so terrified the horses, that they threw and trampled upon the invaders, who were forced to retire. Pompey is said to have found them in the army of Mithridates.

They are heard of in the time of Alexander, when some of the king's biographers make mention of Amazon Queen Thalestris visiting him and becoming a mother by him (the story is known from the Alexander Romance).[33] However, several other biographers of Alexander dispute the claim, including the highly regarded secondary source, Plutarch. In his writing he makes mention of a moment when Alexander's secondary naval commander, Onesicritus, was reading the Amazon passage of his Alexander history to King Lysimachus of Thrace who was on the original expedition: the king smiled at him and said "And where was I, then?"[34]

The Roman writer Virgil's characterization of the Volscian warrior maiden Camilla in the Aeneid borrows heavily from the myth of the Amazons.

Jordanes' Getica (c. 560), purporting to give the earliest history of the Goths, relates that the Goths' ancestors, descendants of Magog, originally dwelt within Scythia, on the Sea of Azov between the Dnieper and Don Rivers. After a few centuries, following an incident where the Goths' women successfully fended off a raid by a neighboring tribe, while the menfolk were off campaigning against Pharaoh Vesosis, the women formed their own army under Marpesia and crossed the Don, invading Asia. Her sister Lampedo remained in Europe to guard the homeland. They procreated with men once a year. These Amazons conquered Armenia, Syria, and all of Asia Minor, even reaching Ionia and Aeolia, holding this vast territory for 100 years. Jordanes also mentions that they fought with Hercules, and in the Trojan War, and that a smaller contingent of them endured in the Caucasus Mountains until the time of Alexander. He mentions by name the Queens Menalippe, Hippolyta, and Penthesilea.

In the Grottaferrata Version of Digenes Akritas, the twelfth century medieval epic of Basil, the Greek-Syrian knight of the Byzantine frontier, the hero battles with and kills the female warrior Maximo.


A helmeted Amazon with her sword and a shield bearing the Gorgon head image, Tondo of an Attic red-figure kylix, 510–500 BC
A Greek rider seizes a mounted Amazonian warrior (armed with a double-headed axe) by her Phrygian cap; Roman mosaic emblema (marble and limestone), 2nd half of the 4th century AD; from Daphne, a suburb of Antioch-on-the-Orontes (now Antakya in Turkey)

There are several (conflicting) lists of names of Amazons.

Quintus Smyrnaeus[36] lists the attendant warriors of Penthesilea: "Clonie was there, Polemusa, Derinoe, Evandre, and Antandre, and Bremusa, Hippothoe, dark-eyed Harmothoe, Alcibie, Derimacheia, Antibrote, and Thermodosa glorying with the spear."

Diodorus Siculus[37] lists twelve Amazons who challenged Heracles to single combat during his quest for Hippolyta's girdle and died against him one by one: Aella, Philippis, Prothoe, Eriboea, Celaeno, Eurybia, Phoebe, Deianeira, Asteria, Marpe, Tecmessa, Alcippe. After Alcippe's death, a group attack followed.

Another list of Amazons' names is found in Hyginus' Fabulae.[38] Along with Hippolyta, Otrera, Antiope and Penthesilea, it attests the following names: Ocyale, Dioxippe, Iphinome, Xanthe, Hippothoe, Laomache, Glauce, Agave, Theseis, Clymene, Polydora.

Yet another different set of names is found in Valerius Flaccus' Argonautica:[39] he mentions Euryale, Harpe, Lyce, Menippe and Thoe. Of these Lyce also appears in a fragment preserved in the Latin Anthology where she is said to have killed the hero Clonus of Moesia, son of Doryclus, with her javelin.[40]

John Tzetzes in Posthomerica[41] enumerates the Amazons who fell at Troy: Hippothoe, Antianeira, Toxophone, Toxoanassa, Gortyessa, Iodoce, Pharetre, Andro, Ioxeia, Oïstrophe, Androdaïxa, Aspidocharme, Enchesimargos, Cnemis, Thorece, Chalcaor, Eurylophe, Hecate, Anchimache, Andromache the queen. Concerning Antianeira and Andromache, see below; for almost all the other names on the list, this is a unique attestation.

Stephanus of Byzantium provides an alternate list of the Amazons who fell against Heracles, describing them as "the most prominent" of their people: Tralla, Isocrateia, Thiba, Palla, Coea (Koia), Coenia (Koinia).[42] Eustathius gives the same list minus the last two names.[43] Both Stephanus and Eustathius write of these Amazons in connection with the placename Thibais, which they report to have been derived from Thiba's name.

Other names of Amazons from various sources include:

Hero cults

According to ancient sources (Plutarch, Theseus,[83] Pausanias), Amazon tombs could be found frequently throughout what was once known as the ancient Greek world. Some are found in Megara, Athens, Chaeronea, Chalcis, Thessaly at Skotousa, in Cynoscephalae, and statues of Amazons are all over Greece. At both Chalcis and Athens, Plutarch tells us that there was an Amazoneum or shrine of Amazons that implied the presence of both tombs and cult. On the day before the Thesea at Athens there were annual sacrifices to the Amazons. In historical times Greek maidens of Ephesus performed an annual circular dance with weapons and shields that had been established by Hippolyta and her Amazons. They had initially set up wooden statues of Artemis, a bretas (Pausanias, (fl.c.160): Description of Greece, Book I: Attica).[84]

In art

Two female gladiators with their names Amazonia and Achillea.

In works of art, battles between Amazons and Greeks are placed on the same level as – and often associated with – battles of Greeks and centaurs. The belief in their existence, however, having been once accepted and introduced into the national poetry and art, it became necessary to surround them as far as possible with the appearance of natural beings. Amazons were therefore depicted in the manner of Scythian or Sarmatian horsemen. Their occupation was hunting and war; their arms the bow, spear, axe, a half shield, nearly in the shape of a crescent, called pelta, and in early art a helmet. The model in the Greek mind had apparently been the goddess Athena. In later art they approach the model of Artemis, wearing a thin dress, girt high for speed; while on the later painted vases their dress is often peculiarly Persian – that is, close-fitting trousers and a high cap called the kidaris. They were usually on horseback but sometimes on foot. This depiction of Amazons demonstrates just how closely, in the Greek mind, the Amazons were linked to the Scythians. Their manner of dress has been noted to bear a striking similarity to the traditional dress of nomadic peoples from the Crimea to Mongolia.[85] Amazons were described by Herodotus as wearing trousers and having tall stiff caps. The double-sided axe was the most emblematic of their weapons.[5] Amazons can also be identified in vase paintings by the fact that they are wearing one earring. The battle between Theseus and the Amazons (Amazonomachy) is a favourite subject on the friezes of temples (e.g. the reliefs from the frieze of the Temple of Apollo at Bassae, now in the British Museum), vases and sarcophagus reliefs; at Athens it was represented on the shield of the statue of Athena Parthenos, on wall-paintings in the Theseum and in the Stoa Poikile. There were also three standard Amazon statue types.

Battle of the Amazons by Peter Paul Ruben

Later in the Renaissance, as Amazon myth evolved, artists started to depict warrior women in a new light. Queen Elizabeth was often thought of as an Amazon-like warrior during her reign and can be seen in many paintings as such. Though, as explained in Divinia Viagro by Winfried Schleiner, Celeste T. Wright "has given a detailed account of the bad press Amazons had in the Renaissance (with respect to their unwomanly conduct and Scythian cruelty). She notes that she has not found any Elizabethans comparing the queen directly to an Amazon, and suggests that they might have hesitated to do so because of the association of Amazons with enfranchisement of women, which was considered contemptible."[86]

Peter Paul Ruben and Jan Brueghel depicted the Battle of the Amazons around 1598, showing many attributes of Renaissance-styled paintings. Amazons also appear in the Rococo period in another painting titled Battle of the Amazons by Johann Georg Platzer. As a part of the Romantic period revival, German artist Anselm Feuerbach painted the Amazons as well. His paintings “engendered all the aspirations of the Romantics: their desire to transcend the boundaries of the ego and of the known world; their interest in the occult in nature and in the soul; their search for a national identity, and the ensuing search for the mythic origins of the Germanic nation; finally, their wish to escape the harsh realities of the present through immersion in an idealized past.[87]

In historiography

Amazon in combat, infl. Polyclitus, Rome. Brooklyn Museum Archives, Goodyear Archival Collection

Herodotus reported that the Sarmatians were descendants of Amazons and Scythians, and that their wives observed their ancient maternal customs, "frequently hunting on horseback with their husbands; in war taking the field; and wearing the very same dress as the men". Moreover, said Herodotus, "No girl shall wed till she has killed a man in battle". In the story related by Herodotus, a group of Amazons was blown across the Maeotian Lake (the Sea of Azov) into Scythia near the cliff region (today's southeastern Crimea). After learning the Scythian language, they agreed to marry Scythian men, on the condition that they not be required to follow the customs of Scythian women. According to Herodotus, this band moved toward the northeast, settling beyond the Tanais (Don) river, and became the ancestors of the Sauromatians. According to Herodotus, the Sarmatians fought with the Scythians against Darius the Great in the 5th century BC.

Hippocrates describes them as: "They have no right breasts...for while they are yet babies their mothers make red-hot a bronze instrument constructed for this very purpose and apply it to the right breast and cauterize it, so that its growth is arrested, and all its strength and bulk are diverted to the right shoulder and right arm."[88]

Amazons came to play a role in Roman historiography. Caesar reminded the Senate of the conquest of large parts of Asia by Semiramis and the Amazons. Successful Amazon raids against Lycia and Cilicia contrasted with effective resistance by Lydian cavalry against the invaders (Strabo 5.504; Nicholas Damascenus). Gnaeus Pompeius Trogus pays particularly detailed attention to the Amazons. The story of the Amazons as deriving from a Cappadocian colony of two Scythian princes Ylinos and Scolopetos is due to him. Pliny the Elder records some surprising facts pointing to the valley of the Terme River as possibly being their home: a mountain named for them (the modern Mason Dagi), as well as a settlement Amazonium; Herodotus (VI.86) first mentions their capital Themiscyra, which Pliny locates near the Terme.[89] Philostratus places the Amazons in the Taurus Mountains. Ammianus places them east of Tanais, as neighbouring the Alans. Procopius places them in the Caucasus. Diodorus Siculus (Bibliotheca historica III, chapter 52) mentioned that besides Pontus Amazons existed much older race (at that time entirely disappeared) of Amazons from western Libya, and retells their mythological story which includes Atlantis and Greek mythology.

Although Strabo shows skepticism as to their historicity, the Amazons in general continue to be taken as historical throughout Late Antiquity. Several Church Fathers speak of the Amazons as of a real people. Solinus embraces the account of Pliny. Under Aurelianus, captured Gothic women were identified as Amazons (Claudianus). The account of Justinus was influential, and was used as a source by Orosius who continued to be read during the European Middle Ages. Medieval authors thus continue the tradition of locating the Amazons in the North, Adam of Bremen placing them at the Baltic Sea and Paulus Diaconus in the heart of Germania.[90]

Medieval and Renaissance literature

Dahomey Amazons were so named by Western observers due to their similarity to the semi-mythical Amazons

Amazons continued to be discussed by authors of the European Renaissance, and with the Age of Exploration, they were located in ever more remote areas. In 1542, Francisco de Orellana reached the Amazon River (Amazonas in Spanish), naming it after a tribe of warlike women he claimed to have encountered and fought on the Nhamundá River, a tributary of the Amazon.[91] Afterwards the whole basin and region of the Amazon (Amazônia in Portuguese, Amazonía in Spanish) were named after the river. Amazons also figure in the accounts of both Christopher Columbus and Walter Raleigh.[92] Famous medieval traveller John Mandeville mentions them in his book:

"Beside the land of Chaldea is the land of Amazonia, that is the land of Feminye. And in that realm is all woman and no man; not as some may say, that men may not live there, but for because that the women will not suffer no men amongst them to be their sovereigns."[93]

Medieval and Renaissance authors credit the Amazons with the invention of the battle-axe. This is probably related to the sagaris, an axe-like weapon associated with both Amazons and Scythian tribes by Greek authors (see also Thracian tomb of Aleksandrovo kurgan). Paulus Hector Mair expresses astonishment that such a "manly weapon" should have been invented by a "tribe of women", but he accepts the attribution out of respect for his authority, Johannes Aventinus.

Ariosto's Orlando Furioso contains a country of warrior women, ruled by Queen Orontea; the epic describes an origin much like that in Greek myth, in that the women, abandoned by a band of warriors and unfaithful lovers, rallied together to form a nation from which men were severely reduced, to prevent them from regaining power. The Amazons and Queen Hippolyta are also referenced in Geoffrey Chaucer's Canterbury Tales in "The Knight's Tale".

Historical background

Classicist Peter Walcot wrote, "Wherever the Amazons are located by the Greeks, whether it is somewhere along the Black Sea in the distant north-east, or in Libya in the furthest south, it is always beyond the confines of the civilized world. The Amazons exist outside the range of normal human experience."[94]

Nevertheless, there are various proposals for a historical nucleus of the Amazons of Greek historiography, the most obvious candidates being historical Scythia and Sarmatia in line with the account by Herodotus, but some authors prefer a comparison to cultures of Asia Minor or even Minoan Crete.


Scythians and Sarmatians

Speculation that the idea of Amazons contains a core of reality is based on archaeological findings from burials, pointing to the possibility that some Sarmatian women may have participated in battle. These findings have led scholars to suggest that the Amazonian legend in Greek mythology may have been "inspired by real warrior women".[95]

Evidence of high-ranking warrior women comes from kurgans in southern Ukraine and Russia. David Anthony notes, "About 20% of Scythian-Sarmatian 'warrior graves' on the lower Don and lower Volga contained women dressed for battle similar to how men dress, a phenomenon that probably inspired the Greek tales about the Amazons."[96]

Mounted Amazon in Scythian costume, on an Attic red-figure vase, c.420 BC

Up to 25% of military burials were of armed Sarmatian women usually including bows.[97] Russian archaeologist Vera Kovalevskaya points out that when Scythian men were away fighting or hunting, nomadic women would have to be able to defend themselves, their animals and pasture-grounds competently. During the time that the Scythians advanced into Asia and achieved near-hegemony in the Near East, there was a period of twenty-eight years when the men would have been away on campaigns for long periods. During this time the women would not only have had to defend themselves, but to reproduce, and this could well be the origin of the idea that Amazons mated once a year with their neighbours, if Herodotus actually based his accounts on fact.[97]

Before modern archaeology uncovered some of the Scythian burials of warrior-maidens entombed under kurgans in the region of Altai Mountains and Sarmatia,[98] [99] giving concrete form at last to the Greek tales, the origin of the Amazon story had been the subject of speculation among classics scholars. In the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica speculation ranged along the following lines:

While some regard the Amazons as a purely mythical people, others assume an historical foundation for them. The deities worshipped by them were Ares (who is consistently assigned to them as a god of war, and as a god of Thracian and generally northern origin) and Artemis, not the usual Greek goddess of that name, but an Asiatic deity in some respects her equivalent. It is conjectured that the Amazons were originally the temple-servants and priestesses (hierodulae) of this goddess; and that the removal of the breast corresponded with the self-mutilation of the god Attis and the galli, Roman priests of Rhea Cybele. Another theory is that, as the knowledge of geography extended, travellers brought back reports of tribes ruled entirely by women, who carried out the duties which elsewhere were regarded as peculiar to man, in whom alone the rights of nobility and inheritance were vested, and who had the supreme control of affairs. Hence arose the belief in the Amazons as a nation of female warriors, organized and governed entirely by women. According to J. Viirtheim (De Ajacis origine, 1907), the Amazons were of Greek origin [...] It has been suggested that the fact of the conquest of the Amazons being assigned to the two famous heroes of Greek mythology, Heracles and Theseus [...] shows that they were mythical illustrations of the dangers which beset the Greeks on the coasts of Asia Minor; rather perhaps, it may be intended to represent the conflict between the Greek culture of the colonies on the Euxine and the barbarism of the native inhabitants.

Minoan Crete

Departure of the Amazons, by Claude Deruet, 1620

When Minoan archeology was still in its infancy, nevertheless, a theory raised in an essay regarding the Amazons contributed by Lewis Richard Farnell and John Myres to Robert Ranulph Marett's Anthropology and the Classics (1908),[100] placed their possible origins in Minoan civilization, drawing attention to overlooked similarities between the two cultures. According to Myres,[101] the tradition interpreted in the light of evidence furnished by supposed Amazon cults seems to have been very similar and may have even originated in Minoan culture.

Modern legacy

In Ukraine Katerina Tarnovska leads a group called the Asgarda which claims to be a new tribe of Amazons.[102] Tarnovska believes that the Amazons are the direct ancestors of Ukrainian women, and she has created an all-female martial art for her group, based on another form of fighting called Combat Hopak, but with a special emphasis on self-defense.[102] French photographer Guillaume Herbaut lived with the Asgarda and photographed them in 2004.[103] As of 2009, the group consists of 150 women.[104]

The city of Samsun in modern-day Turkey features a recently constructed "Amazon Village" museum, created to bring attention to the legacy of the Amazons and to generate both academic interest and popular tourism.[105] An iconic statue of the museum is the prominent figure of a fierce female warrior, flanked by two buildings designed to look like lions.

A festival is held every year in the Terme district of Samsun Province to celebrate the Amazons.[105]

At Greece, female equestrians are called "Amazons" (Greek: Αμαζόνες).

In literature and popular media

See also


  1. Simon, Worrall. "Amazon Warriors Did Indeed Fight and Die Like Men". National Geographic. Retrieved 13 September 2016.
  2. Foreman, Amanda. "The Amazon Women: Is There Any Truth Behind the Myth?". Smithsonian Institution. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
  3. "4,000-year-old legend about northern Turkey to become film - Hurriyet Daily News and Economic Review". Retrieved 2010-09-07.
  4. Schmitz, Leonhard (1867). "Amazones". In William Smith. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. 1. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. pp. 137–138.
  5. 1 2 Steinem, Gloria; Chesler, Phyllis; Feitler, Bea (1972). Wonder Woman. Hole, Rinehart and Winston and Warner Books. ISBN 0-03-005376-5.
  6. Lagercrantz, Xenia Lidéniana (1912), 270ff., cited after Hjalmar Frisk, Greek Etymological Dictionary (1960–1970)
  7. Jacobsohn, KZ 54, 278ff., cited after Hjalmar Frisk (1960–1970).
  8. Guy Cadogan Rothery, The Amazons (1910), ch. 7: "There have been some authors who trace the word Amazon from this term."
  9. Hinge 2005, pp. 94–98
  10. Pollauer, Gerhard (2010). The Lost History of the Amazons: Recent research findings on the legendary women nation. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-4461-9305-1.
  11. Justinus' "Historiae Phillippicae ex Trogo Pompeio", Liber II, 4: "Virgines (...) armis, equis, venationibus exercebant, inustis infantum dexterioribus mammis, ne sagittarum iactus impediantur; unde dictae Amazones." "They exercised the virgins on weapon-wielding, horse-riding and hunting, and burned the children's right breasts, so that arrow-throwing wouldn't be impeded; and for such reason, they were called Amazons."
  12. 1 2 Haynes, Natalie (16 October 2014). "The Amazons: Lives & Legends of Warrior Women Across the Ancient World by Adrienne Mayor, book review". The Independent. Retrieved 6 April 2015.
  13. "Adrienne Mayor, Start the Week, Radio Four". 6 April 2015. Event occurs at 21:30.
  14. "History of Trabzon and Pontus". Karalahana.Com. 2012. Retrieved 2013-06-12.
  15. Strabo xi. 503.
  16. History of Herodotus, Book 4
  17. Homer, Iliad vi. 186, &c.
  18. Scholiast On Lycophron 17
  19. Homer, Iliad Book ii.45-46; book iii.52-55
  20. Homer, Iliad iii. 189
  21. In the Aethiopis, a continuation of the Iliad. The epic, by Arctinus of Miletus, is lost: only references to it survive.
  22. Quintus Smyrnaeus i. 699
  23. Justin ii.4
  24. Virgil, Aeneid i. 490
  25. Pausanias, Description of Greece v. 11. § 2
  26. Philostratus Her. xix. 19
  27. Pseudo-Apollodorus, Bibliotheca ii. 5
  28. Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica iv. 16
  29. Gaius Julius Hyginus, Fabulae 30
  30. Quintus Smyrnaeus xi. 244
  31. Pausanias, Description of Greece i. 2
  32. Plutarch, Theseus 26-28
  33. Greek Alexander Romance, 3.25-26
  34. Plutarch, Life of Alexander, Chapter 46
  35. Digenis Akritas: the Two-Blood Border Lord, translated by Denison B. Hull, 1972, Ohio University Press, G-vi, 385-387, p. 82.
  36. Quintus Smyrnaeus, Posthomerica I
  37. Diodorus Siculus, Bibliotheca historica IV. 16
  38. Gaius Julius Hyginus, Fabulae 163
  39. Valerius Flaccus, Argonautica, 6. 370-377
  40. 1 2 Latin Anthology, 392 (Traiani Imperatoris e Bello Parthico versus decori), ed. Riese
  41. Tzetzes, Posthomerica, 176-183
  42. Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. Thibaïs
  43. Eustathius on Dionysius Periegetes, 828
  44. Sextus Pompeius Festus, s. v. Aegeum Mare
  45. New York, Metropolitan Museum of Art 42.11.33, c. 600. LIMC, "Achilleus" no. 720*.
  46. 1 2 3 "Perseus Digital Library - Description of the Tyrrhenian amphora". 1990-01-24. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  47. Demosthenes in Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Amastris
  48. Strabo, Geography, 12. 3. 11
  49. Stephanus of Byzantium s. v. Anaia
  50. "Perseus:image:1990.24.0349".
  51. Mimnermus, Fragment 21a
  52. J H Blok (1995). The Early Amazons: Modern and Ancient Perspectives on a Persistent Myth. BRILL. p. 218. ISBN 978-90-04-10077-0.
  53. Tzetzes on Lycophron, 995
  54. Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. Kyme
  55. 1 2 3 Diodorus Siculus, Library of History, 3. 55
  56. Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. Kynna. Stephanus does not write out the Amazon's name, simply stating that the town Cynna could have been named "after one of the Amazons".
  57. Etymologicum Magnum 402. 8, under Ephesos
  58. Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. Ephesos
  59. Müller, Karl; Müller, Theodor; Langlois, Victor (1849). Fragmenta historicorum Graecorum. Didot. p. 595.
  60. F. A. Ukert, Die Amazonen, Abhandlungen der philosophisch-philologischen Classe der Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (1849).
  61. "Eurypyle". 2007-03-21. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  62. Servius on Aeneid, 4. 345
  63. William Smith, Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology, v. 2, page 315
  64. Ptolemy Hephaestion, New History, 4, summarized in Photius, Bibliotheca, 190, although the source does not explicitly state that she was an Amazon
  65. Callimachus, Hymn 3 to Artemis, 239 & 267
  66. 1 2 3 "Justin's Epitome of Trogus Pompeius' History of the World, Book 2, part IV". Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  67. 1 2 3 4 Paulus Orosius, Historiae adversus paganos, I. 15
  68. Athenaeus, Banquet of the Learned, 1. 31D (p 139), with a reference to Alciphron of Maeander
  69. Pseudo-Plutarch, On Rivers, 14
  70. Scholia on Pindar, Nemean Ode 3. 64
  71. Plutarch, Theseus, 27
  72. Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. Myrleia
  73. Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 1. 752; compare also Pausanias, Description of Greece, 8. 14. 8, where it is deemed likely that the Myrtoan Sea takes its name from a certain woman named Myrto
  74. Hyginus, Fabulae, 224
  75. Scholia on Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica, 2. 946
  76. Stephanus of Byzantium, s. v. Σίσυρβα
  77. Strabo, Geography, 14. 1. 4
  78. Stephanus of Byzantium, ss. vv. Smyrna, Ephesos
  79. Strabo, Geography, 11. 5. 5; 12. 3. 22; 14. 1. 4
  80. Pritchett, W. Kendrick (1998). Studies in ancient Greek topography: Passes. University of California Press. p. 276. ISBN 978-0-520-09660-8. Retrieved 30 September 2010.
  81. Appian, Mithridatic Wars, 78
  82. Eustathius on Homer, Iliad 2. 814
  83. "The Internet Classics Archive | Theseus by Plutarch". 2010-09-02. Retrieved 2010-09-07.
  84. "Ancient History Sourcebook: Pausanias: Description of Greece, Book I: Attica". Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  85. "SECRETS OF THE DEAD . Amazon Warrior Women. Clues and Evidence". PBS. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  86. Schleiner, Winfried (1978-04-01). ""Divina Virago": Queen Elizabeth as an Amazon". Studies in Philology. 75 (2): 163–180. JSTOR 4173965.
  87. "German masters of the nineteenth century : paintings and drawings from the Federal Republic of Germany / The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York :: Metropolitan Museum of Art Publications". Retrieved 2015-09-30.
  88. "Perseus Under Philologic: Hipp. Aer. 17".
  89. Naturalis Historia VI.3.10
  90. F. A. Ukert, Die Amazonen, Abhandlungen der philosophisch-philologischen Classe der Königlich Bayerischen Akademie der Wissenschaften (1849), 63..
  91. It has been suggested that what Orellana actually engaged was an especially warlike tribe of Native Americans whose warrior men had long hair and thus appeared to him as women. See Theobaldo Miranda Santos, Lendas e mitos do Brasil ("Brazil's legends and myths"), Companhia Editora Nacional, 1979.
  92. Ukert (1849), p. 35.
  93. The Travels of Sir John Mandeville, Dover publications, Mineola, New York, 2006, cap. XVII, p. 103-104
  94. P. Walcot, "Greek Attitudes towards Women: The Mythological Evidence" Greece & Rome2nd Series 31.1 (April 1984, pp. 37-47) p 42.
  95. "Lyn Webster Wilde, "Did the Amazons really exist?" ''Diotima''". Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  96. Anthony, David W. (2007). The Horse, the Wheel, and Language: How Bronze-Age Riders from the Eurasian Steppes Shaped the Modern World. Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-05887-3.
  97. 1 2 "Diotima". Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  98. "Warrior Women of Eurasia", Archaeology Magazine (Abstract) Volume 50 Number 1, January/February 1997 Retrieved 7/10/08.
  99. In a recent excavation of Sarmatian sites by Dr. Jeannine Davis-Kimball, a tomb was found wherein female warriors were buried.
  100. L.R. Farnell and J.L. Myres, "Herodotus and anthropology" in Robert R. Marett Anthropology and the Classics 1908, pp. 138ff.
  101. (pp. 153 ff)
  102. 1 2 "Ukraine's Asgarda martial arts program recasts Amazon warrior women | Public Radio International". Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  103. 9/24/09 2:20pm 9/24/09 2:20pm. "Photographer Captures Ukrainian Amazons". Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  104. "Asgarda | PLANET°". 2009-09-23. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  105. 1 2 "Village of Amazons to be recreated in Samsun park - Today's Zaman, your gateway to Turkish daily news". 2010-06-10. Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  106. Wilson, Gretchen "With All Her Might: The Life of Gertrude Harding, Militant Suffragette" (Holmes & Meier Publishing, April 1998)
  107. Coustan, Dave (2005-04-21). "HowStuffWorks "Wonder Woman's Dirty Secrets"". Retrieved 2014-01-25.
  108. "The Unofficial Queen Hippolyta Biography". Retrieved 2014-01-25.

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