For other uses, see Aleviler.
For the mainly Syrian-Shi’ite religious group, see Alawis. For the mainly mystical branch of Twelver-Shi’ites in Turkey, see Alevis.

The Alids are the dynasties descended from Ali ibn Abi Talib, son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad (see Family tree of Muhammad and Family tree of Husayn ibn Ali). Shia Muslims consider him the First Imam appointed by Muhammad and the first rightful caliph.

Lines of Descent

Simplified Alid Interrelationships as presented in Burke's Peerage

Primarily Sunnis in the Arab world reserve the term sharif or "sherif" for descendants of Hasan ibn Ali, while sayyid is used for descendants of Husayn ibn Ali. Both Hasan and Husayn are grandchildren of Prophet Muhammad, through the marriage of his cousin Ali and his daughter Fatima. However ever since the post-Hashemite era began, the term sayyid has been used to denote descendants from both Hasan and Husayn. Arab Shiites use the terms sayyid and habib to denote descendants from both Hasan and Husayn; see also ashraf.

To try to resolve the confusion surrounding the descendants of Muhammad, the Ottoman Caliphs during the 19th Century C.E. attempted to replicate the Almanach de Gotha (the tome listing the Noble houses of Europe) to show known and verifiable lines of descent. Although not 100% complete in its scope (some lines might have been excluded due to lack of proof, although no false lines are included) the resulting "Kitab al-Ashraf" (Book of the Sharifs), kept at the Topkapi Palace Museum in Istanbul is one of the best sources of evidence of descent from Muhammad.

There are several dynasties of Alid origin:

Genealogical tree of the Fatimid caliphs (in yellow). Their ancestry from the seven Ismaili imams (in grey) and Muhammad is also shown.
Ali ibn Abi Talib,
Husayn ibn Ali,
Ali Zayn al Abidin ibn Husayn,
Muhammad el Bakir ibn Ali,
Djafar el Sadik ibn Muhammad,
Ismail ibn Djafar,
Muhammad ibn Ismail,
Ahmad al-Wafi (Abadullah ibn Muhammad ibn Ismail),
Muhammad at-Taqi (Ahmed ibn Abadullah ibn Muhammad),
Raḍī ʿAbd Allāh az-Zaki (Husayn ibn Ahmad ibn Abadullah) and
Ubayd Allah al-Mahdi Billah.
Ali ibn Albi Talib,
Husayn ibn Ali,
Ali Zayn al Abidin ibn Husayn,
Muhammad el Bakir ibn Ali,
Djafar el Sadik ibn Muhammad,
Musa ibn Ja'far al-Kazim,
Hamzah ibn Musa,
Mohammad al-Qasim ibn Hamzah ,
Ahmed ibn Mohammad,
Mohamed ibn Ahmed ,
Ismail ibn Mohamed,
Ja'far ibn Ismail,
Ibrahim ibn Ja'far ,
Mohamed ibn Ibrahim ,
Ali ibn Mohamed,
Mohamed ibn Mohamed,
Feroz Shah ibn Mohamed,
Awoad ibn Feroz Shah ,
Mohamed ibn Awoad ,
Rashid ibn Mohamed,
Ahmed ibn Rashid ,
Gabriel ibn Ahmed,
Isaac ibn Gabriel ,
Safi al-Din ibn Isaac,
Sadruddin ibn Safi al-Din ,
Ali ibn Sadruddin,
Ibrahim ibn Ali,
Sadruddin ibn Ibrahim,
Haider ibn Sadruddin,
Shah Ismail Safavid ibn Haider.

Genealogical Trees

This is a table of the interrelationships between the different parts of the Alid dynasties:[3]

Below is a simplified family tree of Husayn ibn Ali. For the ancestors of ibn Ali see the family tree of Muhammad and the family tree of Ali. People in italics are considered by the majority of Shia and Sunni Muslims to be Ahl al-Bayt (People of the House). Twelver Shia also see the 4th to 12th Imamah as Ahl al-Bayt.

Family tree of Husayn ibn Ali

(family tree)
Khadijah bint Khuwaylid
(family tree)
1st Shia Imāmah, 4th Sunni Rashidun
Muhsin ibn Ali
Hasan ibn Ali
2nd Twelver/Zaidiyyah and 1st Mustaali Imāmah
Husayn ibn Ali
3rd Twelver/Zaidiyyah and 2nd Mustaali/Nizari Imāmah
Umm Kulthum bint Ali
Zaynab bint Ali
Rubab bint Imra al-Qais
Layla bint Abi Murrah al-Thaqafi
Umm Ishaq bint Talhah
Fatema Sugra bint Husayn
Sakinah bint Husayn
Ali al-Asghar ibn Husayn
Sukayna bint Husayn
Ali al-Akbar ibn Husayn
Fatimah bint Husayn
Mother of ‘Umar
Ali ibn Husayn
4th Twelver/Zaidiyyah and 3rdMustaali/Nizari Imāmah
Fatimah bint al-Hasan
Jayda al-Sindhi
Umar ibn Husayn
‘Umar al-Ashraf
Muhammad al-Baqir
5th Twelver and 4th Mustaali/Nizari Imāmah
Farwah bint al-Qasim
(Umm Farwa)
Zayd ibn Ali
5th Zaidiyyah Imāmah
Abu Bakr ibn Husayn
Hamidah Khatun
Ja'far al-Sadiq
6th Twelver and 5th Mustaali/Nizari Imāmah
Fatima bint al-Hussain'l-Athram bin al-Hasan bin Ali
Zaynab bint Husayn
Musa al-Kadhim
7th Twelver Imāmah
Abdullah al-Aftah ibn Ja'far al-Sadiq
Isma'il ibn Jafar
6th Mustaali/Nizari Imāmah
Umm Kulthum bint Husayn
Ummul Banīn Najmah
al-Nāṣir al-Kabīr
Ali ar-Ridha
8th Twelver Imāmah
Sabīkah a.k.a. Khayzurān
Muhammad ibn Ismail
7th and the last Sevener Imāmah and 7th Mustaali/Nizari Imāmah
Muhammad al-Taqi
9th Twelver Imāmah
Ahmad al-Wafi
8th Mustaali/Nizari Imāmah
Other issue
Ali al-Hadi
10th Twelver Imāmah
Hâdise ( Hadīthah ) / Suzan ( Sūsan ) / Sevil ( Savīl )
Other issue
Muhammad at-Taqi
9th Mustaali/Nizari Imāmah
Hasan al-Askari
11th Twelver Imāmah
Rabi Abdullah
10th Mustaali/Nizari Imāmah
Muhammad al-Mahdi
12th and final Twelver Imāmah

Family tree of Hasan ibn Ali

The Hashemites of Sharifs of Mecca, Kings of Jordan, Syria and Iraq are descended from the other brother Hasan ibn Ali:

Genealogical tree of the Hashemite family showing their descent Muhammad the Prophet,[6] [7] which is contradictory to the previous family tree of Hasan bin Ali in some parts.

[8] [9] [10]

The Alaouites, Kings of Morocco, are also descended from the other brother Hasan ibn Ali through Al Hassan Addakhil:

Genealogical tree of the Alouite family showing their descent Muhammad the Prophet,[11][12] which is contradictory to the previous family tree of Hasan bin Ali.

Genealogoical chart of the descent from the Prophet of the Idrisid dynasty, rulers of Fez and Morocco, Kings of Tunis, and the Senussi dynasty, founders and heads of the Libyan Senussi Order and Kings of Libya are also descended from the other brother Hasan ibn Ali through Al Hassan Addakhil.

Genealogical tree of the Idrisid and Senussi family showing their descent Muhammad the Prophet.[12]

See also


  2. Ibn Khaldoun, Histoire des Berbères, 2003, Berti, Alger.
  3. Daftary, Farhad. "ʿAlids." Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Edited by: Gudrun Krämer, Denis Matringe, John Nawas, Everett Rowson. Brill Online, 2014.
  4. Al-Yasin, Shaykh Radi. "1". Sulh al-Hasan. Jasim al-Rasheed. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. p. 4.
  5. Madelung, "Al-Ukhaydir," p. 792
  6. The Hashemites: Jordan's Royal Family
  7. Stitt, George (1948). A Prince of Arabia, the Amir Shereef Ali Haider. George Allen & Unwin, London.
  8. Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1996). The New Islamic Dynasties. Edinburgh University Press.
  9. Antonius, George (1946). The Arab Awakening. Capricorn Books, New York.
  10. The Hashemites, 1827-present
  11. "Morocco (Alaoui Dynasty)". Retrieved 2014-01-01.
  12. 1 2 Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh (1980). Burke's Royal Families of the World: Africa & the Middle East. Burke's Peerage.

External links

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