Acrylic paint

For other uses, see Acrylic (disambiguation).
A stylish wooden box, resting on tissue paper, is opened to reveal an ornate gold logo with the words "Acrylic Extra-Fine" in all capital letters below. Paint tubes of many colors are lined up inside.
Tubes of acrylic paint (made by Caran d'Ache).
A blob of red acrylic paint shaped like a slug glistens as it rests against a white surface with a small blob to its upper left.
Red acrylic paint squeezed from a tube.
Red paint tube is squeezed by hand over previous line of paint on dark border.
Examples of acrylic wash over other colors. Notice how the two different colors would be difficult to converge even in wet conditions.
Two paintings (portrait orientation) are side-by-side with the only marks being thick lines that terminate with a sizeable dot of blue, yellow, or red. The left one has lines vertical/horizontal and he right one has lines diagonally.
Experimental pictures with floating acrylic paint.

Acrylic paint is a fast-drying paint made of pigment suspended in acrylic polymer emulsion. Acrylic paints are water-soluble, but become water-resistant when dry. Depending on how much the paint is diluted with water, or modified with acrylic gels, media, or pastes, the finished acrylic painting can resemble a watercolor or an oil painting, or have its own unique characteristics not attainable with other media.[1]


As early as 1934, the first usable acrylic resin dispersion was developed by German chemical company BASF, which was patented by Rohm and Haas. The synthetic paint was first used in the 1940s, combining some of the properties of oil and watercolor.[2] Between 1946 and 1949, Leonard Bocour and Sam Golden invented a solution acrylic paint under the brand Magna paint. These were mineral spirit-based paints.[3] Acrylics were made commercially available in the 1950s.

Following that development, Golden came up with a waterborne acrylic paint called "Aquatec".[4] Otto Röhm invented acrylic resin, which was quickly transformed into acrylic paint. In 1953, the year that Rohm and Haas developed the first acrylic emulsions, Jose L. Gutierrez produced Politec Acrylic Artists' Colors in Mexico, and Henry Levinson of Cincinnati-based Permanent Pigments Co. produced Liquitex colors. These two product lines were the very first acrylic emulsion artists' paints.[5]

Water-based acrylic paints were subsequently sold as latex house paints, as latex is the technical term for a suspension of polymer microparticles in water. Interior latex house paints tend to be a combination of binder (sometimes acrylic, vinyl, pva, and others), filler, pigment, and water. Exterior latex house paints may also be a co-polymer blend, but the best exterior water-based paints are 100% acrylic, due to elasticity and other factors, but vinyl costs half of what 100% acrylic resins cost, and PVA (polyvinyl acetate) is even cheaper, so paint companies make many different combinations of them to match the market.[6]

Soon after the water-based acrylic binders were introduced as house paints, artists and companies alike began to explore the potential of the new binders. Water-soluble artists' acrylic paints were sold commercially by Liquitex beginning in the 1950s, with modern high-viscosity paints becoming available in the early '60s. In 1963, Rowney (now part of Daler-Rowney since 1983) was the first manufacturer to introduce artist’s acrylic paints in Europe, under the brand name "Cryla".[1]

Painting with acrylics

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Acrylic paintings.

Before the 19th century, artists mixed their own paints, which allowed them to achieve the desired color and thickness, and to control the use of fillers, if any. While suitable media and raw pigments are available for the individual production of acrylic paint, hand mixing may not be practical because of the fast drying time and other technical issues.

Acrylic painters can modify the appearance, hardness, flexibility, texture, and other characteristics of the paint surface by using acrylic media or simply by adding water. Watercolor and oil painters also use various media, but the range of acrylic media is much greater. Acrylics have the ability to bond to many different surfaces, and media can be used to modify their binding characteristics. Acrylics can be used on paper, canvas and a range of other materials, however their use on engineered woods such as medium-density fiberboard can be problematic because of the porous nature of those surfaces.[7] In these cases it is recommended that the surface first be sealed with an appropriate sealer. Acrylics can be applied in thin layers or washes to create effects that resemble watercolors and other water-based media. They can also be used to build thick layers of paint—gel and molding paste media are sometimes used to create paintings with relief features that are, quite literally, sculptural. Acrylic paints are also used in hobbies such as train, car, house, and human models. People who make such models use acrylic paint to build facial features on dolls, or raised details on other types of models. Wet acrylic paint is easily removed from paint brushes and skin with water, whereas oil paints require the use of a hydrocarbon.

Acrylic paints are the most common paints used in grattage, a surrealist technique that became popular with the advent of acrylic paint. Acrylics are used for this purpose because they easily scrape or peel from a surface.[8]

Painting techniques

Acrylic artists' paints may be thinned with water and used as washes in the manner of watercolor paints, but unlike watercolor the washes are not rehydratable once dry. For this reason, acrylics do not lend themselves to the color lifting techniques of gum arabic-based watercolor paints.

A person in silhouette stands gazing down at a piece of art on the floor. Paintings on the wall behind the person are glowing from the UV light.
Fluorescent acrylic paints lit by UV light. Paintings by Beo Beyond.

Acrylic paints with gloss or matte finishes are common, although a satin (semi-matte) sheen is most common. Some brands exhibit a range of finishes (e.g. heavy-body paints from Golden, Liquitex, Winsor & Newton and Daler-Rowney); Politec acrylics are fully matte.[9] As with oils, pigment amounts and particle size or shape can affect the paint sheen. Matting agents can also be added during manufacture to dull the finish. If desired, the artist can mix different media with their paints and use topcoats or varnishes to alter or unify sheen.

When dry, acrylic paint is generally non-removable from a solid surface if it adheres to the surface. Water or mild solvents do not re-solubilize it, although isopropyl alcohol can lift some fresh paint films off. Toluene and acetone can remove paint films, but they do not lift paint stains very well and are not selective. The use of a solvent to remove paint may result in removal of all of the paint layers (acrylic gesso, et cetera). Oils and warm, soapy water can remove acrylic paint from skin.[10]

Only a proper acrylic gesso should be used to prime canvas in preparation for painting with acrylic paints. However, acrylic paint can be applied to a raw canvas if so desired without any negative effect or chemical reaction (the case with oil paint). It is important to avoid adding non-stable or non-archival elements to the gesso upon application. However, the viscosity of acrylic can be successfully reduced by using suitable extenders that maintain the integrity of the paint film. There are retarders to slow drying and extend workability time, and flow releases to increase color-blending ability.

Properties of acrylics


Commercial acrylic paints come in two grades:


Differences between acrylic and oil paint

Opaque red/orange square in the upper-right corner looks opaque like oil paint. The textured grey/black area looks like watercolor.
Detail of acrylic painting showing finishes that resemble both oil and watercolor

The vehicle and binder of oil paints is linseed oil (or another drying oil), whereas acrylic paint has water as the vehicle for an emulsion (suspension) of acrylic polymer, which serves as the binder. Thus, oil paint is said to be "oil-based", whereas acrylic paint is "water-based" (or sometimes "water-borne").

An acrylic painting of a red and blue face in profile lies on top of a tray on a table. Below the painting, on the table, are a palette and various sizes and colors of paint.
A demonstration of blending with acrylic paint. No retarders were used.

The main practical difference between most acrylics and oil paints is the inherent drying time. Oils allow for more time to blend colors and apply even glazes over underpaintings. This slow-drying aspect of oil can be seen as an advantage for certain techniques, but it impedes an artist trying to work quickly. The fast evaporation of water from regular acrylic paint films can be slowed with the use of acrylic retarders. Retarders are generally glycol or glycerin-based additives. The addition of a retarder slows the evaporation rate of the water.

Oil paints may require the use of solvents such as mineral spirits or turpentine to thin the paint and clean up. These solvents generally have some level of toxicity and are often found objectionable. Relatively recently, water-miscible oil paints have been developed for artists' use. Oil paint films can become increasingly yellow and brittle with time; they lose much of their flexibility in a few decades. Additionally, the rules of "fat over lean" must be employed to ensure the paint films are durable.

Oil paint has a higher pigment load than acrylic paint. As linseed oil contains a smaller molecule than acrylic paint, oil paint is able to absorb substantially more pigment. Oil provides a refractive index that is less clear than acrylic dispersions, which imparts a unique "look and feel" to the resultant paint film. Not all the pigments of oil paints are available in acrylics.

Due to acrylic paint's more flexible nature and more consistent drying time between layers, an artist does not have to follow the same rules of oil painting, where more medium must be applied to each layer to avoid cracking. It usually takes 15–20 minutes for one to two layers of acrylic paint to dry. Although canvas needs to be properly primed before painting with oil to prevent it from eventually rotting the canvas, acrylic can be safely applied straight to the canvas. The rapid drying of acrylic paint tends to discourage blending of color and use of wet-in-wet technique as in oil painting. Even though acrylic retarders can slow drying time to several hours, it remains a relatively fast-drying medium and adding too much acrylic retarder can prevent the paint from ever drying properly.

Meanwhile, acrylic paint is very elastic, which prevents cracking from occurring. Acrylic paint's binder is acrylic polymer emulsion – as this binder dries, the paint remains flexible.[17]

Another difference between oil and acrylic paints is the versatility offered by acrylic paints. Acrylics are very useful in mixed media, allowing the use of pastel (oil & chalk), charcoal and pen (among others) on top of the dried acrylic painted surface. Mixing other bodies into the acrylic is possible—sand, rice, and even pasta may be incorporated in the artwork. Mixing artist or student grade acrylic paint with household acrylic emulsions is possible, allowing the use of premixed tints straight from the tube or tin, and thereby presenting the painter with a vast color range at their disposal. This versatility is also illustrated by the variety of additional artistic uses for acrylics. Specialized acrylics have been manufactured and used for linoblock printing (acrylic block printing ink has been produced by Derivan since the early 1980s), face painting, airbrushing, watercolor-like techniques, and fabric screen printing.

Notes and references

  1. 1 2 "Art Materials". Daler Rowney. 2012-02-15. Retrieved 2013-02-05.
  2. Phaidon Press (2001). The 20th-Century art book (Reprinted. ed.). London: Phaidon Press. ISBN 0714835420.
  3. Terry Fenton online essay about Kenneth Noland, and acrylic paint, accessed April 30th, 2007
  4. "A History of GOLDEN Artist Colors, Inc.". Golden Artist Colors, Inc.
  5. Painting With Acrylics (Watson-Guptill publications)
  6. "Water-based Alchemy by Dean Sickler". Retrieved August 11, 2012.
  7. Sealing, Staining, and Filling Wood Finishing and Refinishing accessed December 08, 2010
  8. Grattage Art Techniques accessed December 08, 2010
  9. "Val Green's Art Space – Acrylic Painting". Retrieved 2016-03-31.
  10. Removing Acrylic Paint From Skin Instructions accessed December 08, 2010
  11. Brady, Patti (December 29, 2008). rethinking acrylic. Cincinnati, Ohio: North Light Books. p. 16. ISBN 1600610137.
  12. 1 2 Kemp, Will. "The 8 key differences between Artist quality vs Student grade acrylic paints". Retrieved 21 April 2015. External link in |website= (help)
  13. 1 2 Glover, David Lloyd (2014). Color Mixing in Acrylic. Walter Foster Publishing. ISBN 9781600583889. Retrieved 16 November 2015.
  14. "Heavy Body Acrylic Paint". Retrieved 21 April 2015. External link in |website= (help)
  15. "Fluid". Retrieved 21 April 2015. External link in |website= (help)
  16. Brady, Patti (2008). rethinking acrylic. North Light Books. p. 14. ISBN 1600610137.
  17. Acrylic Paint Common Questions Technical Summary of Acrylic Paint accessed December 06, 2010 Archived January 1, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.

External links

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