List of academic databases and search engines

This page contains a representative list of major databases and search engines useful in an academic setting for finding and accessing articles in academic journals, repositories, archives, or other collections of scientific and other articles. As the distinction between a database and a search engine is unclear for these complex document retrieval systems, see:

Note that "free" or "subscription" can refer both to the availability of the database or of the journal articles included. This has been indicated as precisely as possible in the lists below.

This is a dynamic list and may never be able to satisfy particular standards for completeness. You can help by expanding it with reliably sourced entries.
Name Discipline(s) Description Access Cost Provider(s)
Academic Search Multidisciplinary Several versions: Complete, Elite, Premier, and Alumni Edition[1] Subscription EBSCO Publishing[2]
Aerospace & High Technology Database Aerospace, Aeronautics, Astronautics Subscription ProQuest[3]
African Journals OnLine (AJOL) Multidisciplinary Scholarly journals published in Africa[4] Free abstracts; Subscription full-text African Journals OnLine[5]
AgeLine Sociology, Gerontology Includes information on aging-related topics, including economics, public health and policy. Subscription EBSCO Publishing[6]
AGRICOLA: Agricultural Online Access Agriculture Free & Subscription Produced by the United States National Agricultural Library. Free access provided by NAL.[7] Subscription access provided by ProQuest,[8] OVID.[9]
AGRIS: Agricultural database Agriculture Covers agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, aquatic sciences and fisheries, human nutrition, extension literature from over 100 participating countries.

Material includes unique grey literature such as unpublished scientific and technical reports, theses, conference papers, government publications, and more.

Free Produced by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. AGRIS
Airiti Inc Multidisciplinary Subscription Airiti Inc[10]
Analytical Abstracts Chemistry Subscription Royal Society of Chemistry[11]
Analytical sciences digital library Analytical chemistry Free National Science Digital Library and the Analytical Chemistry Division of the American Chemical Society[12]
Anthropological Index Online Anthropology Index only (no abstracts or full-text). Free Royal Anthropological Institute[13]
Anthropological Literature Anthropology Free to Harvard faculty, staff and students. Subscription for non-Harvard access. Maintained by Harvard University. Non-Harvard access provided by OCLC[14]
Arachne Archaeology, Art history German language Free German Archaeological Institute & the University of Cologne[15]
Arnetminer Computer Science Online service used to index and search academic social networks Free Tsinghua University[16]
Arts & Humanities Citation Index Arts, Humanities Part of Web of Science Subscription Thomson Reuters[17]
arXiv Physics, Mathematics, Computer science, Nonlinear sciences, Quantitative biology and Statistics Repository of electronic pre-prints of papers in the fields of mathematics, physics, astronomy, computer science, quantitative biology, statistics, and quantitative finance. Free Cornell University[18]
Association for Computing Machinery Digital Library Computer Science, Engineering Subscription Association for Computing Machinery[19]
Astrophysics Data System Astrophysics, Geophysics, Physics Free Harvard University[20]
ATLA Religion Database Religious studies Provides information on topics such as biblical studies, world religions, church history, and religion in social issues Subscription [21]
AULIMP: Air University Library's Index to Military Periodicals Military Science Free Air University[22]
BASE: Bielefeld Academic Search Engine Multidisciplinary Free Bielefeld University[23]
BDD: Diacronia Bibliometric Database Linguistics, philology Free abstracts; Subscription full-text and references Revista Diacronia[24]
Beilstein database Organic chemistry Subscription Available from Elsevier under the product name Reaxys[25]
Biological Abstracts Biology A complete collection of bibliographic references covering life science and biomedical research literature published from more than 4,000 journals internationally. Subscription Available from Thomson Reuters[26]
BioOne Biology, Ecology, and Environmental Science A full-text aggregation of more than 180 scientific journals publishing current research in Biodiversity Conservation, Biology, Ecology, Environmental Science, Entomology, Ornithology, Plant Science, and Zoology. Free abstract & references, Open Access titles, and Subscription Available from BioOne[27]
Bioinformatic Harvester Biology, Bioinformatics A meta search engine for 50 major bioinformatic databases and projects. Free Available from Liebel-Lab KIT Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Book Review Index Online Book reviews Subscription Thomson Gale[28]
Books In Print Books Subscription R.R. Bowker[29]
CAB Abstracts Applied life sciences Bibliographic information service providing access to applied life sciences literature. Subscription CABI[30]
Chemical Abstracts Service Chemistry Subscription American Chemical Society[31]
Chemisches Zentralblatt Structural Database Science, Chemistry web-based retrieval application that provides language independent access to the information contained in Chemisches Zentralblatt Subscription Available from the InfoChem [32]
ChemXSeer Chemistry Free Pennsylvania State University[33]
Chinese Social Science Citation Index Social sciences Subscription Nanjing University[34]
Cochrane Library Medicine, Healthcare Includes reviews of research to promote evidence-based healthcare. Subscription Wiley Interscience[35]
CINAHL: Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Nursing, Allied Health Subscription EBSCO[36]
CiNii Multidisciplinary Database of 15 million articles in the Japanese language from 3600 journals. Free abstracts; Subscription full-text National Institute of Informatics[37]
CHBD: Circumpolar Health Bibliographic Database Medicine Free University of Calgary[38]
Citebase Search Mathematics, Computer science, Physics Semi-autonomous citation index of free online research Free University of Southampton[39]
CiteULike Computer science Free
CiteSeer Computer Science Replaced by CiteSeerX. Free Pennsylvania State University[40]
CiteSeerX Computer science, Statistics, Mathematics, becoming Multidisciplinary Free Pennsylvania State University[41]
CogPrints: Cognitive Sciences Eprint Archives Science (General) Free University of Southampton[42]
The Collection of Computer Science Bibliographies Computer science Free Alf-Christian Achilles[43]
Compendex Engineering Electronic version of Engineering Index. Subscription Elsevier[44]
Current Index to Statistics Statistics Limited free search[45] Subscription American Statistical Association and the Institute of Mathematical Statistics[46]
Current Contents Multidisciplinary Part of Web of Science. Contains 7 discipline-specific subsets. Subscription Thomson Reuters[47]
Directory of Open Access Journals Journals The Directory Of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) lists more than 10,000 open access journals (September 2014) in multiple research areas.[48] Free Lund University[49]
dblp computer science bibliography Computer science Comprehensive list of papers from major computer science conferences and journals Free Produced by Schloss Dagstuhl - Leibniz Center for Informatics and University of Trier, Germany[50]
EconBiz Economics EconBiz supports research in and teaching of economics with a central entry point for all kinds of subject-specific information and direct access to full texts. Free Produced by the ZBW- German National Library of Economics– Leibniz Information Centre for Economics (ZBW)[51]
EconLit Economics The American Economic Association's electronic database, the world's foremost source of references to economic literature. Subscription Produced by the American Economic Association.[52] Available from EBSCOhost, ProQuest, OVID, and AEA.[53]
EMBASE Biomedicine, Pharmacology Biomedical database with a strong focus on drug and pharmaceutical research. Subscription Elsevier[54]
ERIC: Educational Resource Information Center Education Education literature and resources. Provides access to over 1.3 million records dating back to 1966. Free Produced by the United States Department of Education.[55] Also available by subscription from OCLC, CSA.
Europe PMC Biomedical A database of biomedical and life sciences literature with access to full-text research articles and citations.[56] Includes text-mining tools and links to external molecular and medical data sets. A partner in PMC International.[57] Free EMBL-EBI[58]
FSTA – Food Science and Technology Abstracts Food science, Food technology, Nutrition The world's leading database of information on food science, food technology and nutrition Subscription Produced by IFIS Publishing. FSTA can be accessed through EBSCOhost,[59] IHS Inc.,[60] Ovid,[61] Proquest Dialog,[62] STN[63] and Web of Science.[64]
GENESIS Women's history Descriptions of women's history collections from sources in the UK, as well as women's history websites. Free London Metropolitan University[65]
GeoRef Geosciences Subscription American Geosciences Institute
Global Health Public Health Specialist bibliographic, abstracting and indexing database dedicated to public health research and practice. Subscription CABI[66]
Golm Metabolome Database Mass spectrometry The Golm Metabolome Database (GMD) is a reference mass spectra library of biologically active metabolites quantified using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to mass spectrometry (MS). Free online search; offline use by subscription Golm Metabolome Database[67]
Google Scholar Multidisciplinary Free Google[68]
GoPubMed Medicine GoPubMed, the first knowledge-based search engine for the life sciences industry. Free Transinsight[69]
HubMed Medicine An alternative interface to the PubMed medical literature database Free Alf Eaton[70]
IEEE Xplore Computer Science, Engineering, Electronics Subscription IEEE[71]
Index Copernicus Multidisciplinary science Scientific journal database – the IC Journal Master List – contains currently over 2,500 journals from all over the world, including 700 journals from Poland. The journals registered in this database underwent rigorous, multidimensional parameterization, proving high quality. The Ministry of Science and Higher Education acknowledged the IC Journal Master List by placing it on the list of scored databases, for being indexed in IC JML journals get additional points in the Ministry’s evaluation process.[72] Free Index Copernicus International[73]
Information Bridge: Department of Energy Scientific and Technical Information Multidisciplinary The Information Bridge: DOE Scientific and Technical Information provides free public access to over 266,000 full-text documents and bibliographic citations of Department of Energy (DOE) research report literature. Documents are primarily from 1991 forward and were produced by DOE, the DOE contractor community, and/or DOE grantees. Legacy documents are added as they become available in electronic format. Free United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information[74]
Informit Multidisciplinary Australasian aggregator of bibliographic databases and journals N/A RMIT Publishing[75]
Indiastat Socio Economic socio-economic statistical information about India, its states, regions and sector. Indiastat is a cluster of 56 associate websites wherein 19 websites are sector-specific, 6 are regional websites and 31 websites are state-specific. Subscription Datanet India
IngentaConnect Multidisciplinary Free searching; Subscription full-text Ingenta[76]
Indian Citation Index Multidisciplinary Indian Citation Index (ICI) is a home grown abstracts and citation database, with multidisciplinary objective knowledge contents from about 1000 top Indian scholarly journals. It provides powerful search engine to fulfill search and evaluation purposes for researchers, policy makers, decision makers etc. Subscription ICI[77]
IARP Multidisciplinary Open-access knowledge management system incorporating grants, publications, conferences in natural and social & behavioral sciences. The site provides tools to build graphic reports. Free Volunteer Collaboration[78]
Inspec Physics, Engineering, Computer Science The leading bibliographic database providing abstracts and indexing to the world's scientific and technical papers in physics, electrical engineering, electronics, communications, control engineering, computing, information technology, manufacturing, production, and mechanical engineering. Subscription IET[79]
INSPIRE-HEP Physics, (High Energy) Free CERN, DESY, Fermilab, SLAC and IHEP [80]
International Directory of Philosophy Philosophy Contains information on university philosophy departments and programs, philosophical societies, research centers, journals, and philosophy publishers in the U.S., Canada, and approximately 130 other countries. Free search; full access by subscription Philosophy Documentation Center[81]
Isidore Humanities, social science Isidore is a platform of search allowing the access to digital data of Humanities and Social Sciences. It relies on the principles of Web of data and provides access to data in free access. Free Huma-Num[82]
JournalSeek Multidisciplinary Open access journals in different language Links to journal's home page and publishers JournalSeek[83]
JSTOR: Journal Storage Multidisciplinary JSTOR Collections: Current Journals; Archived Journals (first issue through 3–5 years ago); Books; and Primary Source Collections
FREE Resources: 3 articles every 2 weeks (Register and Read Program, archived journals). Also, early journals (prior to 1923 in US, 1870 elsewhere) free, no registry necessary.
Free and Subscription JSTOR[84]
Jurn Multidisciplinary Jurn is a free-to-use online search tool for finding and downloading free full-text scholarly works. In 2014 Jurn expanded beyond open access journals in the arts and humanities, to also index open journals in ecology, science, biomedical, business and economics. Jurn is actively curated and maintained. Free Jurn[85]
Lesson Planet Education (K-12) Over 400,000 teacher-reviewed classroom resources including lesson plans, worksheets, educational videos, and education articles. Free Abstract; Subscription full-text Lesson Planet[86]
LexisNexis Law (general) Electronic database for legal and public-records related information Subscription Reed Elsevier[87]
Lingbuzz Linguistics A free archive of linguistics articles, with a focus on syntax, semantics, phonology and morphology. Free Center for Advanced Study in Theoretical Linguistics, University of Tromsø[88]
MathSciNet Mathematics Available in print as Mathematical Reviews Subscription American Mathematical Society[89]
MedlinePlus Medicine Free Produced by the United States National Library of Medicine, the United States National Institutes of Health, and the United States Department of Health and Human Services[90]
Mendeley Multidisciplinary The Mendeley research catalog is a crowdsourced database of research documents. Researchers have uploaded nearly 100M documents into the catalog with additional contributions coming directly from subject repositories like Pubmed Central and or web crawls. Free Mendeley[91]
Merck Index Chemistry, Biology, Pharmacology Also available in print. Subscription Formerly produced by Merck & Co.,[92] now available from the Royal Society of Chemistry[93]
Meteorological and Geoastrophysical Abstracts Meteorology, Astrophysics, Geology Subscription Produced by the American Meteorological Society. Available from Dialog[94] and CSA.[95]
Microsoft Academic Search Multidisciplinary Provides many innovative ways to explore scientific papers, conferences, journals, and authors[96] Free Microsoft
NBER: National Bureau of Economic Research Economics Free National Bureau of Economic Research[97]
National Criminal Justice Reference Service[98] Criminology, Sociology Abstracts of scholarly journal articles, agency and NGO reports, and conference proceedings Free United States Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs[99]
National Diet Library Collection Multidisciplinary Japanese. Catalog for the National Library of Japan. N/A National Diet Library[100]
OAIster Multidisciplinary Free OCLC[101]
OpenEdition Humanities, social science OpenEdition offers the academic community four international-scale publication and information platforms in the humanities and social sciences Free Cléo (UMS 3287) CNRS EHESS University of Avignon[102]
OpenSIGLE Grey literature Indexes European grey literature. Free Institut de l'information scientifique et technique[103]
ORCID Multidisciplinary Provides a digital identifier for researchers that links research workflows such as manuscript and grant submission, lists and validates publications. Free ORCID Trust
Philosophy Documentation Center eCollection Applied ethics, Philosophy, Religious studies Journals, series, conference proceedings, and other works from several countries online. Free abstract & preview; Subscription full-text Philosophy Documentation Center[104]
Philosophy Research Index Philosophy Index of books, journals, disserations, and other documents Subscription Philosophy Documentation Center[104]
PhilPapers Philosophy Free PhilPapers[105]
POIESIS: Philosophy Online Serials Philosophy, applied ethics, religious studies Journals and series, online access for institutions with print Free abstract & preview; Subscription full-text Philosophy Documentation Center[104]
POPLINE Population, Family Planning, Reproductive Health POPLINE® contains the world’s most comprehensive collection of population, family planning and related reproductive health and development literature. An international resource, POPLINE helps program managers, policy makers, and service providers in low- and middle-income countries and in development-supportive agencies and organizations gain access to journal articles and other scientific, technical, and programmatic publications. Free Knowledge for Health, Center for Communication Programs, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health[106]
Project MUSE Humanities, social science Project MUSE is a provider of digital humanities and social science content for the scholarly community. MUSE provides full-text versions of scholarly journals and books. Subscription Project MUSE, Johns Hopkins University Press[107]
PsycINFO Psychology The largest resource devoted to peer-reviewed literature in behavioral science and mental health. It contains over 3.7 million records with bibliographic information and extensive indexing, more than 60 million cited references, and has comprehensive coverage dating back to the mid-19th century, with sporadic coverage going back as far as the 16th century. Subscription Produced by the APA.[108] Available from several database vendors.[109]
Psychology's Feminist Voices Psychology An online, multimedia digital archive containing the profiles of 250 feminist psychologists who have shaped and continue to transform the discipline of psychology. Profiles are organized in two sections, "Women Past" and "Feminist Presence." All profiles on the Feminist Presence section contain original interview transcripts and video clips with the psychologist discussing their feminist development and academic career. Free Based at York University, Toronto, Canada.[110]
PubChem Chemistry Free National Center for Biotechnology Information and the U.S. National Library of Medicine[111]
Pubget Multidisciplinary Subscription Pubget
PubMed Biomedical A database primarily of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics Free National Institutes of Health and the U.S. National Library of Medicine[112]
PubPsych Psychology PubPsych is a free information retrieval system for psychological resources. It offers a comprehensive and balanced selection of resources from a growing number of international databases with a European focus, covering the needs of academic and professional psychologists. Free Leibniz Institute for Psychology Information
Questia: Online Research Library Multidisciplinary (Historical) Subscription Questia[113]
Readers' Guide to Periodical Literature Journals and Magazines Coverage: 1983–present. Subscription H. W. Wilson Company[114]
Reader's Guide Retrospective: 1890–1982 Journals and Magazines Subscription H. W. Wilson Company[115]
RePEc: Research Papers in Economics Economics Free Volunteer Collaboration[116]
Retina medical search Biomedical Biomedical resources with special focus for medical professionals.

searches among physician level standard documents eliminating patient level materials.

Free Retina medical search[117]
Rock's Backpages Music Primary documents from the history of rock and roll Subscription. Limited free access with registration. Backpages Limited[118]
Russian Science Citation Index Scientific journals A bibliographic database of scientific publications in Russian. Free Scientific Electronic Library[119]
SafetyLit Multidisciplinary Citations and abstracts of journal articles and reports from researchers working in the more than 35 distinct professional disciplines (architecture - zoology) relevant to preventing unintentional injuries, violence, and self-harm. Free SafetyLit Foundation[120] in cooperation with the Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University[121] and the World Health Organization's Department of Violence and Injury Prevention[122]
SciELO Journals SciELO is a bibliographic database and a model for cooperative electronic publishing in developing countries originally from Brazil. It contains 985 scientific journals from different countries in free and universal access, full-text format. Free FAPESP, CNPq and BIREME Multidisciplinary A gateway to government science information and research results. provides a search of over 45 scientific databases and 200 million pages of science information with just one query, and is a gateway to over 2000 scientific Websites. Free Alliance, 18 scientific and technical organizations from 14 federal agencies that contribute to United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information serves as the operating agent for[123]
Science Accelerator Multidisciplinary A gateway to results of DOE research and development and major R&D accomplishments of interest to DOE. Free United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information.[124]
Science Citation Index Science (General) Part of Web of Science Subscription Thomson Reuters[125]
ScienceOpen Multidisciplinary Search engine for natural and physical sciences, social sciences, and humanities. Incorporates arXiv, PubMed, and SciELO. Integrated with ORCID for overlay and peer review services. All articles display Altmetric scores. Free ScienceOpen[126]
Scientillion Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science, Medicine Search engine for physics and quantitative science. Combining article databases like Pubmed, ArXiv. Free Scientillion [127] and AussieEducator


Scopus Multidisciplinary Scopus is the world's largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed research literature. It contains over 20,500 titles from more than 5,000 international publishers. While it is a subscription product, authors can review and update their profiles via or by first searching for their profile at the free Scopus author lookup page. Subscription Elsevier[129]
SearchTeam Multidisciplinary Students search together collaboratively for scholarly articles and resources Free Zakta[130]
Semantic Scholar Computer science It is designed to quickly highlight the most important papers and identify the connections between them. It includes currently only computer science publications. Free Allen Institute for Artificial Intelligence[131]
Social Science Citation Index Social science Part of Web of Science Subscription Thomson Reuters[132]
Socol@r: Socolar Multidisciplinary Scholarly open access resources in different language Free abstracts; Links to full-text Socolar[133]
SPRESI Database Science, Chemistry chemical structure and reaction database, product name: SPRESIweb, SPRESImobile Subscription Available from InfoChem [32]
SSRN: Social Science Research Network Social science Contains an abstracts database and an electronic paper collection, arranged by discipline. Free Social Science Electronic Publishing, Inc.[134]
INSPIRE-HEP Physics, (High Energy) Free CERN, DESY, Fermilab, SLAC and IHEP [80]
SpringerLink Multidisciplinary Free abstract & preview; Subscription full-text Springer[135]
Ulrich's Periodicals Directory Periodicals Subscription ProQuest[136]
VET-Bib Social Science, Education European vocational education and training (VET) literature Free European Centre for the Development of Vocational Training[137]
Web of Science Multidisciplinary Includes other products, such as Social Science Citation Index, Science Citation Index, Biological Abstracts & The Zoological Record Subscription Thomson Reuters[138]
WestLaw Law (General) Subscription Thomson Reuters
WorldCat Multidisciplinary Unified catalog of member libraries' catalogs Free & Subscription OCLC[139]
WorldWideScience Multidisciplinary WorldWideScience is a global science gateway composed of national and international scientific databases and portals. WorldWideScience accelerates scientific discovery and progress by providing one-stop searching of databases from around the world. Multilingual WorldWideScience provides real-time searching and translation of globally dispersed multilingual scientific literature. Free The WorldWideScience Alliance, a multilateral partnership, consists of participating member countries and provides the governance structure for WorldWideScience. United States Department of Energy, Office of Scientific and Technical Information serves as the operating agent for WorldWideScience.[140]
Zasshi Kiji Sakuin: Japanese Periodicals Index Journals Japanese. N/A National Diet Library's Online Catalog,[141] MagazinePlus,[142] CiNii[143]
Zentralblatt MATH Mathematics First three records free without subscription. Subscription Springer Science+Business Media[144]
The Zoological Record Zoology Unofficial register of scientific names & papers in Zoology. Coverage 1864–present. Subscription Thomson Reuters[145]

See also


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